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BH0-007 ISEB Intermediate Certificate in Software Testing

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BH0-007 exam Dumps Source : ISEB Intermediate Certificate in Software Testing

Test Code : BH0-007
Test cognomen : ISEB Intermediate Certificate in Software Testing
Vendor cognomen : ISEB
braindumps : 25 actual Questions

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ISEB ISEB Intermediate Certificate in

ISEB Practitioner industry and solution structure | actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

This seller-specific Certification is obtainable by means of:British computing device Society (BCS)Swindon, Se UKPhone: forty four (0)1793 417417

skill stage: advanced                          fame: active

reasonable: now not attainable               

summary:For enterprise and solution Architects who practice their intermediate stage scholarship to a case examine and might complicated on the organisation and tactics required to exploit an architecture correctly. This certification is apropos for people that are engaged in any aspect of enterprise and solution architecture.

preliminary necessities:You ought to pass the ISEB Practitioner in industry and solution structure exam. The exam has a one hour closing date and carries forty assorted-choice questions according to a case analyze. A passing ranking of 26/forty is required.Six years of IS/IT drudgery event, together with some architecture definition is advised. it is additionally suggested you dangle the ISEB Intermediate degree certificate, or gain studied the ISEB Intermediate degree Syllabus and Reference mannequin, and gain both TOGAF 8 or TOGAF 9 flat 2 certificate. practicing is attainable however now not required.

carrying on with necessities:None certain

See sum British computer Society Certifications

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e-checking out Brings ISEB courses In India | actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

From March 2005 e-testing, one of the most UK’s main independent utility trying out consultancy organisations will now carry the ISEB groundwork and Practitioner utility trying out Certification classes in India.

“there's a growing to exist hobby in British permitted training programmes in India. And what they requisite to present is a highly alluring, universally identified ISEB utility trying out qualification - now a twin certification with the ISTQB accreditation,” says David Rai, earnings and advertising director, e-checking out.

Rai knows organizations’ growing to exist awareness of the inherent hazards connected to relocating drudgery offshore and the deserve to handle provider problems is neatly documented. He believes that an offshore ISEB licensed testing group offers clients the reassurance that drudgery can exist produced to the required standard.

“ISEB certification capacity corporations stand a higher possibility of positioning their productsand services within the global industry and the British typical is really held in towering respect within the European market,” introduced Rai.

e-trying out is the first UK certified training issuer, accepted via the British desktop industry (BCS), to carry the three-day ISEB groundwork and ten-day Practitioner utility testing Certification lessons in India.

And after three years of running the main software testing basis course in the UK and Europe, e-trying out’s track list thus far suggests a 95% gallop fee.

The three-day direction may exist delivered in quite a lot of places across India and carried out by pass of ISEB certified trainers. locations include: Mumbai, original Delhi, Pune, Chennai and Bangalore.

TietoEnator Certifies Testers | actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

January 14, 2002 08:28 ET | supply: TietoEnator

ESPOO, Finland, Jan. 14, 2002 (PRIMEZONE) -- TietoEnator is one of two Swedish companies authorized to certify testers in line with the ISEB basis certificate for software testing. The ISEB gawk at various training may exist offered in Sweden and Norway from January.

TietoEnator has its personal examine academics and presents the course to customers and personnel. it is a three-day direction, and on the conclusion of day three the contributors can determine to prefer an examination and come by the ISEB-certification.

- they gain observed an increasing require for licensed testers, and considering the fact that there is not any Swedish medium for test, they gain chosen to deliver the ISEB groundwork certificates, says Thomas Klarbrant, Managing Director of TietoEnator examine solutions.

ISEB (tips techniques Examination Board) is a division within BCS (British laptop Society). ISEB presents certifications inside several distinctive IT areas. The purpose of ISEB is to raise the necessities within the IT company and to assist competence construction.

For extra suggestions, gladden contact: Kennet Osbjer, TietoEnator test solutions, Sweden, +46 706 24 65 33 Marit Saelemyr, TietoEnator Consulting AS, Norway, +47 553 64468

With over 10,000 personnel and annual net income of EUR 1.1 billion, TietoEnator is a number one service provider of inordinate price-delivered IT capabilities in Europe. TietoEnator makes a speciality of consulting, building and hosting its valued clientele' industry operations within the digital economic climate. The neighborhood's functions are in response to a combination of abysmal industry-certain talents and latest counsel expertise.

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TietoEnator, Espoo TietoEnator verify solutions, Sweden: Kennet Osbjer +46 706 24 sixty five 33 TietoEnator Consulting AS, Norwa: Marit Saelemyr +47 553 64468


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ISEB Intermediate Certificate in Software Testing

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SSL certificate revocation and how it is broken in practice | actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

The Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is the software system that allows to sign, validate certificate, withhold a list of revoked certificates, ration CA public key. The goal of PKI is to enable secure communication among parties who gain never met before.

The most common exercise case of the PKI are myriad of the websites secured with TLS/HTTPS and using SSL certificates to establish reliance for particular domain name(s) and authenticate the server side. Once the certificate is signed by the CA (certificate authority), it remains cogent for a specific duration. When it’s about to expire, usually you renew it or buy a original one. But sometimes you requisite to revoke a certificate beforehand, usually due to a private key compromise.

Certificate revocation is a process of invalidating an issued SSL certificate. Ideally, browsers and other clients should exist able to detect that the certificate is revoked in timely manner, exhibit the security warning, that certificate is no longer trusted, and avert user from further consuming such a website.

Let’s explore various approaches to address certificate revocation.

Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL)

Original design was for CAs to manage and publish lists of revoked certificates, so browser/clients can download them and compare against to check for certificate status. This worked much in the past when there were few websites and certificates, but given today’s scale of the Internet, it’s practically infeasible for CA to manage and for client to download these huge lists, whenever they requisite to check for revocation status.

CRL architecture introduces the dependency between client and CA infrastructure, making it prostrate to the CA server’s availability issues and downtimes.

Nowadays original CRLs are effectively ignored by just near clients.

Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP)

OCSP is an improvement to CRL and is a protocol for checking if a SSL certificate has been revoked. Instead of client downloading the complete spacious list of revoked certificates, it can just submit a request to a CA server, that returns a signed response with certificate current status. OCSP is much lightweight, as only one record is retrieved at a time, and it can provide more accurate information, as opposite to CRLs lists, which are downloaded and cached on a client for some time.

Still, it suffers from many issues:

  • Additional dependency and query between client and CA servers during TLS handshake, that adds up latency.
  • Poor, unreliable CA infrastructure. prostrate to availability problems. The CA servers are targets for DoS attacks. tedious OCSP response adds up latency too.
  • Privacy compromise. Browser leaks what website is being accessed and who accesses it to CA servers.
  • Soft-fail behavior

    Given dependency to impecunious and not-reliable CA infrastructure, browsers/clients usually watch to exercise soft-fail (ignore) behavior, when they don’t receive OCSP response in a timely manner or encounter some errors, assuming that certificate is cogent and allowing to access the website. Some browsers just exhibit warning, that user can bypass. Chrome, for example, does not exercise OCSP at all, and exercise its own proprietary mechanism, called CRLSet. The reason for such soft-fail conduct is because unavailable CA servers should not block access to sum websites, using their certificates.

    Soft-fail conduct gives us fallacious sense of security — it’s OK when you come by revocation warning, but when you don’t — you’re in doubt if cert is cogent indeed or if there is an OSCP infrastructure related issue. For example, attacker can block OCSP traffic and occasions revocation checks to pass.

    Here is firefox reaction with SEC_ERROR_REVOKED_CERTIFICATE error when it gets revoked status from OCSP responder.

    Firefox and revoked certificate

    Chrome does not exercise OSCP at all, saying cert is OK with a green “secure” badge, but if you dig a bit deeper, it tells certificate is revoked 😕

    Chrome and revoked certificate

    Right now there is no dependable pass to switch to hard-fail behavior. Essentially, revocation is broken. There are yoke of attempts to address this issue, fancy proprietary mechanism (Chrome CLRSet, Firefox OneCRL) or OSCP must-staple extensions, but there is soundless no 100% working solution.

    OCSP Stapling

    OSCP Stapling moves the querying of the OCSP server from the client to the https server. The https server periodically polls OCSP server for revocation status of its own certificate(s), and sends OCSP response along with certificate (staples) to the client during TLS handshake in aServerCertificateStatus message.

    OCSP responses are short-lived (around a week). They are signed by CA, so client can reliance them.

    OCSP stapling approach solves several issues, inherent to regular OCSP approach:

  • Removes dependency between client and CA servers. No additional query, faster TLS handshake.
  • Protect website visitors privacy. Since browsers don’t talk to CA servers any more, they don’t leak browsing activity.
  • More resistant to CA server availability issues, since web server caches OCSP responses which are cogent for several days.
  • Less load on CA servers, since number of https servers is less than number of clients/visitors.
  • Still, the biggest problem with OCSP stapling is that stapled response is an option and not mandatory. Clients don’t know whether to expect/require stapled OCSP responses from a website or not. If an attacker has a stolen revoked certificate it can exist used without stapling. Browsers will fallback to regular OCSP, which can again exist blocked, and browser will accept the certificate. They soundless gain soft-fail conduct with a fallacious sense of security.

    Nginx configuration

    To setup stapling on Nginx:

    ssl_stapling on;ssl_stapling_verify on;

    Configure DNS servers so Nginx can resolve OCSP server IP address:

    resolver valid=300s ipv6=off;resolver_timeout 5s;

    Also, some folks point that you requisite to supply root and intermediate certificates chain via ssl_trusted_certificate , but I’ve tried and it works fine without it — I just gain a ssl_certificate directive pointing to a chain of website certificate plus intermediate one (without root CA cert).

    ssl_certificate /var/ssl/; Nginx issues

    The acrid truth is that Nginx is not that pleasant at handling and serving OCSP stapling. 😞

    First request handled by an nginx worker process never has a stapled OCSP response. Nginx initiates a indolent OCSP query afterwards, and subsequent requests will most likely comprise OCSP response. Note, that OCSP stapling cache is per worker process, acceptation you can come by several initial requests without OCSP stapling, as soon as they processed by different worker processes with a frosty OCSP cache.

    There are workarounds fancy warming up OCSP cache beforehand, but that’s too much crap.

    You can check OSCP stapling on your own with a following command:

    openssl s_client -host -port 443 -status < /dev/null

    Valid OCSP stapled response should gawk like:

    OCSP response:======================================OCSP Response Data:OCSP Response Status: successful (0x0)Response Type: Basic OCSP ResponseCert Status: goodThis Update: Jan 4 12:00:00 2018 GMTNext Update: Jan 11 12:00:00 2018 GMT

    There is yet another issue . When OCSP responder reports revoked certificate status, Nginx does not staple it at all, and they inform it’s by design. Rather confusing to me 😕, because it completely breaks “must-staple” solution, described below.

    So you see, that current server-side implementation is far from being robust, and making otherwise pleasant conception quite useless in practice.

    Chrome CRLset and Firefox OneCRL

    A CRLSet is Google’s own list of revoked certificates that it compiles and embeds inside Chrome. Lists are auto-updated by regularly crawling the CRLs from the major CAs around the world. Google does not exercise OCSP servers or CRL lists, instead Chrome simply checks its own CRLSet for certificate status when visiting a secure website.

    It’s fancy regular CRL approach, except that browser does not requisite contact CA’s servers and download a list, instead it already has the list embedded privilege into the browser, which is updated in timely manner.

    Surely, such CRLsets cannot encompass every workable revoked certificate on the Internet. Instead of targeting end-server leaf certificates and DV certificates, they focus on towering value intermediate CA certificates. This helps to quickly block intermediate CA certificates in case of emergency, when the private key is compromised to avert an attacker to impersonate any site they fancy by signing their own child certificates.

    Also, such lists might comprise towering value EV certificates.

    Firefox has analogue solution, which is called OneCRL. In addition, Firefox exercise regular OCSP approach.

    Must-staple extension

    As said before, OCSP stapling is pleasant because it offloads OCSP requests from browser to the server, but it’s optional — browser gain no conception if stapled response is expected or not, and therefore they exercise soft-fail behavior, which is a seat belt, that pretends to protect you, but breaks in case of emergency. So, meet “must-staple” extension.

    Must-staple is simply a flag in the certificate, that puts a mandatory requirement on OSCP stapling presence and instructs the browser that the certificate must exist served with a cogent OCSP response or the browser should hard fail on the connection.

    This flag is set when CA generates certificate for you. If you’re using LetsEncrypt CA, clients fancy certbot or back issuing certificate with “Must-Staple” extension:

    Example with (ocsp-must-staple flag):

    $ --issue --ecc --keylength ec-256 -d -d --standalone --staging --ocsp-must-staple

    Example with certbot (must-staple flag):

    certbot certonly --non-interactive --cert-name -d, -m --agree-tos --preferred-challenges http-01 --rsa-key-size 2048 --standalone --staging --must-staple

    To check if certificate has “Must-Staple” flag, gawk for extension ID:

    $ openssl x509 -in /var/ssl/ -text -noout X509v3 subject Alternative, DNS:www.foobbz.site1. 0....

    Alternatively, exercise Qualys SSL server test:

    Must staple back reported by Qualys SSL server test

    Now, given the certificate with “Must-Staple” extension, if I rotate off stapling altogether in the Nginx, browser should block me with error failing to find OCSP stapled response during TLS handshake.

    ssl_stapling off;

    Firefox reports a cryptic error MOZILLA_PKIX_ERROR_REQUIRED_TLS_FEATURE_MISSING as expected. But Chrome tells cert is good — recall, Chrome does not succeed OCSP standard, even when it comes to stapling and must-staple stuff 😞

    Firefox and must-staple certificate without OCSP response

    Must-staple conception is much and allows to switch to hard-fail behavior. Also, solution scales well and does not insert client-side performance hit. And it makes impossible for attacker to exercise stolen revoked certificate.

    Despite being a substantial improvement over regular OCSP, it’s not a silver bullet and not a 100% working solution. Primarily, it suffers from server-side implementation issues and want of widespread client support. If server fails to reliably staple the OCSP response, or exercise corrupted/erroneous response, or client is not gay with stapled response, whatever goes wrong — you’d lock out the website completely due to browser hard-fail behavior. This is a huge risk, and web servers fancy Nginx and Apache are not mature at OSCP stapling yet.

    Note, there is a experimental Except-Staple HTTP response header, which helps you to monitor how dependable you as a site owner can staple pleasant OCSP responses, and how clients are fine with those responses, before switching to hard-fail must-staple behavior.


    Given everything said above, there is no ready-to-go 100% working and dependable solution to gain browsers detect revoked certificates in a timely manner and decline connecting to such websites.

    OCSP must-staple is much idea, but not practical due to server-side implementation issues, and puts a risk of blocking a website completely. Chrome’s CRLSet solution is good, but addresses only high-value intermediate CA certificates.

    When it comes to end-server certificates, you might determine to give up with revocation stuff fancy OCSP stapling, must-staple altogether. Just succeed security best practices. Reduce the validity period of the certificate and renew it more frequently, to reduce the time-frame for an attacker to exercise stolen certificate. And yes, it sounds trivially, but withhold your private keys safe. Do not allow CAs to generate private key for you, protect it with a password, etc.


    Revocation is broken —

    The current state of certificate revocation (CRLs, OCSP and OCSP Stapling) —

    HTTPS Certificate Revocation is broken, and it’s time for some original tools | Ars Technica —

    OCSP Must-Staple —

    The Problem with OCSP Stapling and Must Staple and why Certificate Revocation is soundless broken — Hanno’s blog —

    ImperialViolet — Revocation checking and Chrome’s CRL —

    Google Chrome will no longer check for revoked SSL certificates online | Computerworld —

    Damn it, nginx! More bugs, this time with SSL OCSP stapling. —

    Exploring HyperLedger: tang in Being a Framework Early Adopter | actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Key Takeaways
  • Some time ago the OpenGift team explored deploying a HyperLedger-based blockchain within a production environment. This article presents a sage of their attempts to integrate it, the problems they encountered, and the tricks that helped us resolve them. 
  • We believe that HyperLedger Fabric is potentially a better option for blockchain-based industry applications than a private Ethereum network.
  • With HyperLedger you can build a system where clients Do not requisite to reliance other clients, and partners Do not requisite to reliance other partners (but clients Do requisite to reliance partners).
  • The network is simple to expand and can exist without a parent organization.
  • HyperLedger is not free of technical drawbacks, and so exist prepared to write a lot of supporting scripts for maintaining HyperLedger in production.
  • Some time ago their team explored deploying a HyperLedger-based blockchain within a production environment. This article presents a sage of their attempts to integrate it, the problems they encountered, and tricks that helped us resolve them. Several famous updates gain been introduced into the HyperLedger framework, and so some of the challenges were overcome, while others soundless wait for a solution. 

    In the first portion of the article they interpret why they decided to exercise a blockchain to resolve a  business problem and why they chose the HyperLedger framework over Ethereum. The second portion of the article is dedicated to HyperLedger-based blockchain architecture and technical aspects of the framework implementation. 

    Why exercise blockchain?

    We initially believed that blockchain was unnecessary for their business. After all, most businesses resolve their reliance issues by referring to centralized facilities or arbitrage centers. As a result, it took us a long time to determine whether in their case a blockchain solution was needed or not. 

    Our platform is a kindhearted of web resource where companies can reduce their evolution time and maintenance costs by working directly with open source teams. They identified that for some customers it might exist difficult to establish working relationships with open source maintainers and key collaborators. The gauge practice of resorting to services of in-house developers or freelancers for fine-tuning open source code seemed sub-optimal, because of increased project time and price.  

    With their platform they aimed to resolve this inefficiency by providing an ‘entry point’ and simple interface for customers to request and co-finance developing original features in OSS. For this system to exist sustainable they needed to insert a utensil that would incentivise developers to fulfill customers’ requests. After some deliberation, they promote up with an conception of ‘digital ownership’.

    The conception was quite simple: a person who registers a project on their platform receives digital ‘shares’, which they may transfer to his fellow contributors at their own discretion. As the cognomen suggests, their shares enable holders to receive a share of a project income proportional to the share of ownership. On the top of that constraint, they added a rule that any ‘outsider’ developer could create  a requested piece of functionality, and if this solution is accepted by clients, receive a portion of the project’s shares. 

    We wanted developers to deal their project shares as a valuable long-term asset, which inherently implies that developers believe it won’t disappear. They basically had two options: they could either postpone introduction of this functionality until they gain the community’s trust, or they could build a trustless system. The latter path would require building a platform in such a pass that would leave the assets untouched even if the parent organization exited the business.   

    We also planned to integrate the platform with numerous ally organizations, which would outsource evolution tasks to their platform and automatically receive a fee when they are completed.  In an model scenario, they would just provide an access point for organizations into their network through some simple registration process, such as API integration. Their goal was to gain the process as simple as workable to avoid sum the legal complications and paperwork. After some doubts, they decided that blockchain would befriend us to realize this vision.

    Ethereum vs HyperLedger

    Ethereum was their first choice, even though they didn’t gain significant tang with the platform. They hadn’t studied the documentation in detail; they just got privilege to spiking the integration. At first glance, it seemed fancy an simple choice. Several factors led us to give it a try:

  • It’s rather mature;
  • It’s stable;
  • it’s simple to integrate;
  • it’s simple to develop;
  • It has a large community;
  • It’s been rapidly developing;
  • It’s been used in numerous projects;
  • It gives an chance of private deploying in their private network.
  • One the other hand, there were a few factors that eventually convinced us that Ethereum was not the privilege preference for us: 

  • Non-determinacy of the consensus algorithm.
  • Proof-of-work (POW) is unpredictable. 
  • Non-existence of roles.
  • Uncontrollable access to the network.  
  • Transaction fee and towering CPU workload even in a sleep mode (minor).
  • Some of these issues gain potential mitigations in evolution in the Ethereum world. For example, the GHOST protocol modification may well help, but even in this case if owners of the major pools suddenly determine that their offshoot is longer than yours, while your tanker with tuna is in on its pass to the destination point… well, the cancellation of the payment transaction may flabbergast you, if the transaction is being conducted over a public (or shared-use) Ethereum network.

    In an extreme case, they may even gain a ally whose node capacity allows them to outhash the all network, so there would exist no point in using blockchain. 

    It was also very famous to us to understand whether a network member is a client or a partner. They gain to know this for sure. The Ethereum network does not back this feature, so they would requisite to build this on top. They certainly could integrate their VPN into the blockchain. But if they provide access to partners, there, naturally, should exist a pass to open up such access. At the identical time, they would fancy to exercise control over who has access to their network and what they can come by from it.

    A key takeaway is that it’s famous to recall that within a business-use case corporate node capacities may significantly preponderate over private ones. This is why they opted for a private blockchain, using Hyperledger framework. 

    HyperLedger also allowed us to avoid the minor inconveniences that they observed regarding the costs of transactions and CPU usage that they observed with Ethereum.

    At this time the HyperLedger Fabric was one of the most advanced and mature frameworks in the family. It also has a few features that gain it to stand out. The permissioned architecture ensures that if someone accessed your blockchain, you know whether they gain a certificate issued by a Certificate Authority (CA). They also liked its deterministic PBFT algorithm, with which you can exist 100% certain that a transaction is completed once your received such notification. Test launching on docker-containers is also very simple.

    We tried to motif out whether they requisite Byzantine Fault-Tolerance. Do they really reliance their partners, and Do they really reliance us? Can they afford to expose ourselves to Byzantine Generals’ Problem, knowing that at any second any node could start sending incorrect data to the network? They eventually decided that they should gain such protection, and it was fairly simple with HyperLedger. 

    Still in doubt, they conducted some tests to compare HyperLedger Fabric and Ethereum in a private network.  We coded a trifling condense that generates a long array and then sorts it. You can survey the results on the graph below. They gain added two lines for 1 million and 10 million elements to the image just to exhibit that Hyperledger is here too. In fact, the inequity is such spacious that lines are actually invisible. 

    Y axis: Milliseconds.  

    Y axis: Megabytes 

    Now let’s consider the time required for reaching a consensus. They took a simple blank transaction and achieve it in a cluster of 8 machines. The machines had to reach an agreement and recur confirmation: they waited for six confirmations in the Ethereum private network and a confirmation from each node in the HyperLedger network.  The precipitate was soundless better in the HyperLedger cluster. 

    Y axis:  seconds

    We should note that they conducted the tests on version 0.6 of the HyperLedger Fabric framework; as of today the latest version is 1.2.0, which has a divide node answerable for maintaining  transaction order. Back then, the network became frozen if you increased the number of nodes to 16 and the precipitate to 500 transactions per second. At such pace the network was not able to reach a consensus before receiving a original transaction request. 

    HyperLedger architecture 

    Before they gallop forward, let’s consider the basic architecture of the Hyperledger blockchain. 

    Peer - the main node, which stores information about sum transactions (in version 1.0 it is divided into Endorser, a peer that confirms transactions, and Committer, a peer that records transactions to the register.)  

    App - the client initiating a transaction can exist replaced with its own application on Hyperledger SDK

    CA - provides users with certificates that allow them to gain transactions and read data from the registry

    Orderer - arranges transactions in block and transfer blocks to nodes for recording in the ledger

    HyperLedger can divide nodes by roles. In particular, there is a peer that stores the register. In the 1.2 version there are several subtypes of peers, but generally peers are answerable for storing registers and validating incoming transactions. They store sum smart-contracts and chain-codes, and accredit incoming transactions and rescue them to the register. 

    The application they built is on the frontend. It can send information about transactions to the blockchain, and it can login to blockchain with a member certificate. It is also answerable for consensus. 

    The CA issues certificates. By default, HyperLedger can distinguish nodes by organizational attribute; each organization has its own root certificate. With a membership certificate you can allot rights on completing smart-contracts, rights on changing network configuration, and rights on adding original peers – basically whatever you may want. In the newest versions of the framework, you can also add any attributes you fancy to certificates, so you can exist even more springy in providing different sets of rights to system participants. 

    An ordering service, or the “orderer”, is a set of nodes answerable for a transaction order in a block. The orderer collects transactions into a block and sends this block to peers, so they can relegate it to a register. It does not store smart contracts, though stores ledger data  in a binary file, which is used to bootstrap original peer. Losing this file means losing sum blockchain data. The orderer also performs some validation: it checks hashes and signatures.

    For example, their system consists of the following elements: 

  • A web application, 
  • A peer, 
  • An OpenGift organization, 
  • A root CA of the organization 
  • An intermediate CA, which was designed with an conception of scaling up the system; 
  • A cluster of orderers on Apache Kafka to which sum ally peers refer 
  • At the present moment, their blockchain is deployed on four actual peers, and they gain four orderers in Kafka. They ultimately requisite five, as it is recommended to exercise an odd number of nodes for the ordering service in this mode. They gain approximately 100 client applications, 1 Root CA and 1 Intermediate CA. In the first several months of their drudgery they gain conducted over 1000 transactions, but their system allows us to process the identical quantity in 1 second. 

    Partners gain their own peers so that they can store a register and validate transactions, and customers can refer to any peer they fancy to interact with the blockchain.  

    Client applications log in to the blockchain by providing a certificate, which can exist issued by a Certification Authority intermediate server trusted by blockchain, for example, “organization one”. CA Intermediate servers are authorized by a CA Root server, which is kept aside of blockchain network.   Then the client application can interact with peers within the framework of available policies, in compliance with restrictions and permissions. Once any peer confirms a transaction submitted by the application, and if it uses any consensus algorithm, it sends the transaction to the orderer. The orderer commits these transactions to peers. After that, the application can wait for any number of confirmations from the peers to gain certain that the transaction was recorded in the ledger. 

    What is it fancy to implement HyperLedger Fabric in production?

    Perhaps the first thing you notice is an absence of any simple admin panel. It's very difficult to maintain it sum in production mode without Kubernetes or Swarm, so they had to write a lot of supporting scripts. Hopefully,  with the Cello project this will change for the better. 

    We faced several technical challenges while trying to implement this architecture. First, the orderer service can operate in two modes: solo mode and Apache Kafka mode. If you exercise solo mode, you can’t switch to the scalable mode without re-creating the entire network. 

    Second, If you exercise the orderer services on Kafka, you cannot scale it to other organizations. If other organizations already gain their own orderer services, you will requisite to reach an agreement on who will exist in suffuse of arranging transactions in blocks. This means that only one organization can exist answerable for the order of transactions in a block, which leads to some vulnerability. However, in general, if transactions are valid, their order in a block is not of a particular importance. If someone changes the order of transactions and they become invalid, they will simply exist marked as invalid in the block, and your request will recur “fail”.

    CAs (certification authorities) are easily scalable. Each organization has a root CA, and it can issue any number of certificates to intermediate CAs. This is much because the CAs are answerable for adding users to the network. However, the certificate revocation mode is not well configured. First, in order to request several parties to sign a revocation certificate, you requisite to write an additional chain code. Second, even when you add information about a revoked certificate in a blockchain, the certificate ex-holder can soundless connect to peers. You gain to generate the certificates manually and add them to folders of peers and orders. Controlling that character of process may exist challenging in a decentralized structure.

    You also requisite to withhold in intelligence that until the orderer has created a original block, sum queries to the register will recur the previous state of the network, i.e. the register has transactional (versioned) semantics. This means that if you gain a industry process that consists of multiple read queries and a write query privilege after them that takes into account the result of the read queries, you had better gain them asynchronous. Because in this case, your expectation of reading the registry will not exist consistent with its actual state. In general, you requisite to wait for the orderer to profile a block and send it to the ledger; only after that can you send read queries, assuming that the state has already been changed. 

    Since the blocks are not created according to POW protocol, you can set any block creating frequency for the ordering service. In solo mode, you will not exist able to create more than one block per second, and in Apache Kafka mode, you can configure this parameter quite flexibly. withhold in intelligence though, if you decrease waiting time for creating original block, your network will extend in size quite quickly. Disk space will also exist consumed very quickly, and so you always requisite to find a poise between a precipitate of transactions confirmation and your capacity. 

    The consensus mechanism is realized at the transaction level, so you can specify requirements that transactions will requisite to comply with to exist cogent in smart contract. For instance, when you insert a original smart condense in the chain code, you set a procedure of its confirmation, how many participants gain to sign the transaction for it to remain valid. 

    Smart contracts can exist written in several languages, Golang and Java being the main ones. A typical smart condense has the simplest structure. Only two simple methods are required to exist used in smart contract: one  of the methods is called when a original chain code is set up or upgraded (init) , and the other one when it is called(invoke). Different policies are configured to initialize a original smart condense and to summon it. One group of users can exist answerable for updating of a smart contract; another group can exist answerable for its implementation. Here they consider the simplest role call, which takes a role and parameters of this role as an input controversy and depending on the cognomen of the role calls the needed method. 

    func (t *SimpleChaincode) add(stub shim.ChaincodeStubInterface, args []string) pb.Response { var cs clientState; clienState.Name = args[0] clientState.Balance = 0 strState, er := json.Marshal(clientState) err = stub.PutState(pName, []byte(strState)) if err ~= nil { recur shim.Error("Failed to add Client state") } recur shim.Success([]byte(“OK”)) }

    Data storage in HyperLedger may exist considered as a key-value map, referred to as KV-storage.  Working with KV-storage is quite low-level.  With PutState() method you can write in KV-storage, and with GetState() you read from it. But the most Interesting thing is that you can drudgery in a smart condense with the attributes of certificates. In this sample you can survey how the hash of the public key of an authorized user is used as an identifier for his wallet. In the 395th line they come by a hash and exercise it as a key for KV-storage.

    func (t *SimpleChaincode) add(stub shim.ChaincodeStubInterface, args []string) pb.Response { pk, err := cid.GetX509CertificatePublicKey(stub) var cs clientState; clienState.Name = args[0] clientState.Balance = 0 strState, er := json.Marshal(clientState) err = stub.PutState(pName, []byte(strState)) if err ~= nil { recur shim.Error("Failed to add Client state") } recur shim.Success([]byte(pk)) } func (t *SimpleChaincode) query(stub shim.ChaincodeStubInterface, args []string) pb.Response { pk, err := cid.GetX509CertificatePublicKey(stub) strState, err :- stub.GetState(pk) if strState == nil { recur shim.Error("Client not found") } var cs clientState err = json.Unmarshal(Avalbytes, &cs) recur shim.Success([]byte(cs.Balance)) }

    Although, they are soundless using the 0.6 version of the framework, the newer versions accommodate some major improvements, which they gain to mention:

  • In the older versions, you needed to recreate sum blockchain to comprise a original organization in a genesis block. Now it’s quite simple and you also can change policies of working with blockchain for each organization. 
  • Starting with 1.2. version the system can gain its peers compute the requested information dynamically and present it to the SDK in a consumable manner. 
  • External applications can receive and process information about events from a chain. This feature may exist helpful in a number of cases, for sample - for notifying a controlling organization about suspicious activity.  
  • HyperLedger tang in a nutshell

    From the technical perspective, the system is soundless developing (steadily but firmly.)  There are some technical issues, but hopefully that the community will find solutions for them. soundless and all, they believe HyperLedger is one of the best options for companies looking to implement blockchain in real-world business. 

    On the industry side, thanks to the framework they successfully realized the intended digital ownership functionality, which helps us to incentivize evolution teams to drudgery on open source projects. The network is simple to expand and can exist without a parent organization. If they disappear, the community agrees upon setting a original ordering service, updates the channel and continue working.

    Based on a feedback we’ve received, this capability facilitates adoption of the platform, since their users don’t requisite to reliance us and depend on their aptitude to Do business. They are actively looking for partners to hand over the nodes and goal to undertake first technical integrations for their blockchain in early 2019. 

    About the Authors

    Yegor Maslov is the CEO of OpenGift Inc., platform for open source software monetization, Head of The Hive project, system empowering code reusability in organizations. Yegor has over 15 years of software evolution tang in web and mobile fields combined with an extensive background in technical entrepreneurship.

    Konstantin Erokhin is a DevOps engineer with over 10 years of professional experience. He worked in such companies as Kaspersky, Sberbank Technologies, Moscow Stock Exchange.

    Information security certification guide: Intermediate flat | actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Experience can exist the best instructor, but security professionals may find that instruction coupled with more advanced...

    certifications can befriend further their careers. While introductory certifications may befriend novices come by a foot in the door, an intermediate information security certification or two may befriend them prefer the next step.

    This report comprehensively reviews the current state of intermediate security certifications, highlighting which are best for achieving goals specific to an information security career path. It's a companion to three other articles, which cover the vendor-specific information security certification landscape, vendor-neutral certification career paths and cloud security certifications in detail.

    Several changes gain been made for this updated cybersecurity certifications guide. The following table shows the number of certifications in the 2015 edition, as well as this 2017 edition. The overall numbers for vendor-neutral information security certifications increased by about 14%. Several certifications gain been discontinued, and 19 credentials gain been added. Some certifications gain been moved to original categories to more accurately classify them.

    Some of the notable original entries in this information security certification steer comprise the CompTIA Cybersecurity Analyst certification and two original EC-Council certs: the EC-Council Certified Network Defender and the EC-Council Certified Encryption Specialist.

    Part three of this information security certification steer offers advanced options for more experienced professionals. portion four includes certifications for forensics and anti-hacking, and portion five covers more specialized certifications.

    Editor's note: The credentials are listed in alphabetical order within each section.

    General Cybersecurity certifications -- Intermediate

    (ISC)2 Certified Authorization Professional (CAP) The (ISC)2 Certified Authorization Professional certification identifies individuals possessing "skills and abilities required for personnel involved in the process of authorizing and maintaining information systems," according to (ISC)2. "Specifically, this credential applies to those answerable for formalizing processes used to assess risk and establish security requirements and documentation. Their decisions will ensure that information systems possess security commensurate with the flat of exposure to potential risk, as well as damage to assets or individuals."

    In particular, this credential confirms that the holder has the knowledge, skill and tang necessary to authorize and maintain systems within the Risk Management Framework described in the NIST SP 800-37 Rev 1 specification. Candidates must gain two years of full-time tang in one or more of the seven domains of the CAP Common carcass of Knowledge. It's also recommended that candidates possess one to two years of generic technical, database, systems evolution and network experience, along with two years of generic systems experience.

    Candidates must also prove technical or auditing tang within the government, U.S. Department of Defense or specific industry sectors.

    (ISC)2 offers the Associate of (ISC)2 credential for candidates who pass the CAP, Certified Cyber Forensic Professional, Certified Cloud Security Professional, Certified Information Systems Security Professional, Certified Secure Software Lifecycle Professional, HealthCare Information Security and Privacy Practitioners, or Systems Security Certified Practitioner exam, but Do not yet meet the tang requirement.

    Source: (ISC)² Certified Authorization Professional

    Mile2 Certified Incident Handling Engineer (CIHE) The Mile2 CIHE certification recognizes security professionals who drudgery to avert attacks on their organization's IT infrastructure, and those who participate in incident response to successful cyberattacks. Certification candidates are expected to exist close with common hacking approaches and techniques, safeguards, incident handling procedures, and techniques for quickly recovering from attacks.

    Mile2 recommends that candidates gain at least 12 months of networking experience, as well as scholarship of TCP/IP, Microsoft packages and Linux before taking the associated course and exam.

    Source: Mile2 Certified Incident Handling Engineer

    EC-Council Certified Network Defender (CND) Holders of the EC-Council CND certification gain abysmal scholarship of network security controls and protocols, and know how to manage materiel and appliances -- firewalls, intrusion detection, etc. -- that protect networks from attack. Other skills comprise network traffic analysis, vulnerability scanning and assessment, network security policy maintenance, and creation of incident response plans.

    The skills required for this credential align with the National Initiative of Cybersecurity Education framework, and they map to Department of Defense job roles for system/network administrators. Candidates must prefer a course and pass the certification exam.

    Source: EC-Council Certified Network Defender

    CompTIA Cybersecurity Analyst (CSA+) The CompTIA CSA+ certification is a vendor-neutral credential designed to certify professionals who gain three to four years of security and behavioral analytics experience. A CSA+ commonly works with data collected by network protocol analyzers, network intrusion detection systems, and security information and event management software.

    For candidates climbing the CompTIA certification ladder, the CSA+ is the next rung above Security+ and just below the advanced-level CompTIA Advanced Security Practitioner.

    Source: CompTIA Cybersecurity Analyst

    (ISC)² Certified Secure Software Lifecycle Professional (CSSLP) The (ISC)² CSSLP certification recognizes individuals who specialize in software security across the lifecycle, from conceptualization and design, through coding, testing and deployment.

    Candidates must gain at least four years of direct tang in the software evolution lifecycle in one or more of the eight domains covered in the CSSLP Common carcass of Knowledge, conform to adhere to a code of ethics, retort questions regarding their criminal history and background, and pass one exam.

    Candidates who want the requisite tang may become an Associate of (ISC)2 by passing the CSSLP exam. Those obtaining the Associate credential gain five years to gain the required tang in order to upgrade the certification.

    Source: (ISC)² Certified Secure Software Lifecycle Professional

    Mile2 Certified Wireless Security Engineer (CWSE) The Mile2 CWSE certification is geared toward network administrators, systems engineers, IT managers and security consultants who are answerable for the security of one or more wireless local area networks (WLANs). Certification candidates must exist close with WLAN security concepts, legacy security, common attacks, WLAN auditing and more.

    Prerequisites for the CWSE certification are the Mile2 Certified Security Sentinel and Certified Information Systems Security Officer certifications, or at least 12 months of networking experience. Candidates must pass one exam to achieve certification.

    Source: Mile2 Certified Wireless Security Engineer

    CertiTrek Group Certified Wireless Security Professional (CWSP) Made available by the CertiTrek Certified Wireless Network Professional (CWNP) Wi-Fi certification and training unit, the CWSP credential recognizes individuals who can design, implement and manage wireless LAN security.

    To obtain this credential, candidates must pass one exam.

    Source: CWNP Certified Wireless Security Professional

    EC-Council Certified Encryption Specialist (ECES) The EC-Council ECES recognizes IT professionals who can select and apply symmetric and asymmetric cryptography, common algorithms and hashing algorithms. A professional with the ECES credential can also set up a virtual private network, select and implement digital certificates, encrypt a drive, and exercise a variety of steganography tools.

    To obtain ECES certification, a candidate needs to complete a three-day course and pass one exam.

    Source: EC-Council Certified Encryption Specialist

    SANS Institute Global Information Assurance Certification Program (GIAC) SANS is well-known for timely, focused and useful security information and training courses. SANS offers regular in-person training, as well as online classes, and uses such classes to draw attendees to their frequent, well-situated, week-long conferences.

    SANS created the GIAC program to administer certifications related to SANS training. The GIAC program seeks to identify individuals who can demonstrate both scholarship of and the aptitude to manage and protect famous information systems and networks.

    Overall, the GIAC program aims at serious, full-time security professionals answerable for designing, implementing and maintaining a state-of-the-art security infrastructure, which may comprise incident handling and emergency response team management. Available intermediate-level GIAC credentials comprise the following:

  • GIAC Security Essentials Certification
  • GIAC Information Security Professional
  • GIAC Certified Incident Handler
  • Global Industrial Cyber Security Professional
  • Source: SANS Global Information Assurance Certification

    Security University Qualified/Certification & Accreditation certification (Q/CA) Security University's Q/CA is for system certifiers and validators who requisite cybersecurity skills. The class identifies individuals who can assess security skills to certify and validate systems and manage the security threats within an organization, particularly in the government and enterprise sectors.

    The class has several labs on security controls and ends with a certification and accreditation validation practical. The Q/CA class meets the objectives of the National Security Agency's Committee on National Security Systems 4016A for a Fully Qualified Navy Validator.

    Source: Security University Qualified Certification & Accreditation certification

    Security University Qualified/Wireless Security Professional (Q/WSP) Security University's Q/WSP identifies and validates individuals who can architect and install wireless networks and manage and mitigate risk. Candidates must pass one exam. 

    Source: Security University Qualified/Wireless Security Professional

    About the author: Ed Tittel is a 30-plus year IT veteran who's worked as a developer, networking consultant, technical trainer, writer and expert witness. Perhaps best known for creating the Exam Cram series, he has contributed to more than 100 books on many computing topics, including titles on information security, Windows OSes and HTML.

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    References :

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