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310-015 Solaris 9 Sun Certified System Administrator section II

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310-015 exam Dumps Source : Solaris 9 Sun Certified System Administrator section II

Test Code : 310-015
Test title : Solaris 9 Sun Certified System Administrator section II
Vendor title : SUN
braindumps : 290 existent Questions

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SUN Solaris 9 Sun Certified

efficiency applied sciences' products licensed via solar Microsystems Solaris(tm) competent software | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

company's PCE335-HSI WAN Communications Adapter has carried out Solaris(tm) in a position Certification from solar Microsystems

ROCHESTER, vast apple – efficiency applied sciences (NASDAQ: PTIX), a leading company of imaginitive network communications options, today announced that the enterprise’s PCE335-HSI WAN Communications Adapter has finished Solaris™ able certification from sun Microsystems. The Solaris able program offers clients of sun utility access to items developed for the solar network computing atmosphere that fill met specific standards for dealer aid, ease-of-installing, use, management, and network interoperability.

The PCE335-HSI has been certified to drudgery on SPARC enterprise(R) structures such as the solar SPARC enterprise(R) M4000 and T2000 servers, and fill been confirmed with sun Solstice(TM) X.25 utility and PPP protocols with the latest supplant to Solaris 10 operating gadget (OS). The adapter can too live effortlessly configured to live used in both low profile and entire height servers. This module is the newest in an inventory of efficiency applied sciences’ Solaris competent items that comprises the PCE385, PCI384, and non-HSI version of the PCE335.

"via partnering with us in the solar Solaris competent software, performance applied sciences offers their purchasers with products which are optimized to fulfill sun requirements and standards for product excellence," talked about Cynthia Hardenbrook, director, ISV Engineering at solar Microsystems. "This makes it possible for their global revenue drive in commercial, telecommunications, and federal markets to fill a equipped-to-use reply to answer their customer’s software necessities."

The PCE335-HSI gives developers of data and communique networks a completely compliant and programmable subsystem it really is supported via performance applied sciences and proven to live usurp with the Solaris operating system.

"Solaris competent certification presents notable opportunities for efficiency applied sciences’ consumers and solar Microsystems companions alike," referred to Steven Wigent, product supervisor at performance applied sciences. "Our participation in the Solaris ready application gives solar resellers and customers delivered assurance within the reliability and attribute of their items installed in Solaris methods."

performance technologies could live showcasing its IPnexus® methods for MicroTCA™ and CompactPCI®, its suite of NexusWare® software (service Grade Linux® OS), and other embedded solutions on the 2009 Embedded techniques conference Silicon Valley, in San Jose, CA from March 31-April 2, 2009 (sales space 1630).

online materials

Embedded engineers wanting more information on efficiency technologies’ Solaris able products and options can reference here online components:

-- PCE335-HSI product web page: go.pt.com/pce335-hsi

-- PCE385 product web page : go.pt.com/pce385

-- PCI384 product web page : go.pt.com/pci384

-- PCI™ and PCI categorical® items: go.pt.com/pci

-- NexusWare WAN protocol application: go.pt.com/nexusware-wan

About performance applied sciences (www.pt.com)

efficiency applied sciences (NASDAQ: PTIX) is a worldwide organization of superior network communications and control solutions to End clients, software developers, and customary gear manufacturers that serve mission essential telecommunications in addition to aerospace and defense markets. The enterprise provides remotely manageable, IP-centric community elements certainly engineered for prime availability, scalability, and long being cycle deployments. Its products are built upon its personal U.S. manufactured hardware combined with the enterprise’s NexusWare® provider Grade Linux® operating gear and software building atmosphere plus a large suite of communications protocols and high availability middleware. performance applied sciences’ product portfolio contains the SEGway™ suite of Signaling (SS7/SIP) transfer facets, Signaling Gateways and Bridges, and its IPnexus® household of COTS-based mostly software-ready techniques, WAN gateways, and multi-protocol communications servers.

efficiency technologies maximizes the charge proposition of its products by using leveraging its box confirmed programs, utility, and hardware applied sciences developed over a twenty-eight yr checklist of confirmed innovation. A tightly integrated blend of these applied sciences effects in measurable advantages to its customers through compelling return-on-investment and substantially accelerated time-to-market metrics. The company is headquartered in Rochester, ny and keeps facilities of engineering excellence in San Diego and San Luis Obispo, CA, and Kanata, ON, Canada. It has income and advertising and marketing offices in the U.S. in Raleigh, Chicago, Dallas, and San Jose and singular workplaces in London, England and Shanghai, China.

forward searching Statements

The deepest Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 provides a "safe harbor" for inescapable ahead-looking statements. This press liberate incorporates forward-looking statements which replicate the enterprise's current views with prize to future routine and economic efficiency, within the significance of region 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and region 21E of the Securities exchange Act of 1934 and is domain to the secure harbor provisions of these Sections. The business’s future working results are domain to a lot of hazards and uncertainties and will vary materially from those mentioned in the forward-searching statements and might live affected by a lot of tendencies and factors which are past the enterprise’s manage. These dangers and uncertainties include, among different factors, company and economic circumstances, rapid technological alterations accompanied through frequent recent product introductions, aggressive pressures, dependence on key valued clientele, lack of aptitude to gauge order flows from valued clientele, fluctuations in quarterly and annual consequences, the reliance on a restrained variety of third celebration suppliers, obstacles of the company’s manufacturing aptitude and preparations, the coverage of the company’s proprietary know-how, the dependence on key personnel, adjustments in valuable accounting estimates, scholarship impairments concerning goodwill and investments, overseas regulations, and skills fabric weaknesses in internal control over monetary reporting. moreover, gross through susceptible or doubtful monetary periods, valued clientele’ visibility deteriorates causing delays in the placement of their orders. These components regularly outcomes in a considerable component of the business’s revenue being derived from orders positioned inside 1 / 4 and shipped within the final month of the equal quarter. The enterprise undertakes no responsibility to publicly supplant any forward-searching statement or risk ingredient, even if on account of recent guidance, future activities, or otherwise. ahead-looking statements should still live read in conjunction with the audited Consolidated economic Statements, the Notes thereto, chance factors, and management's dialogue and analysis of monetary situation and outcomes of Operations of the enterprise as of December 31, 2008, as contained in the enterprise’s Annual report on figure 10-okay, and different files filed with the Securities and alternate commission.

### NexusWare and IPnexus are registered trademarks of efficiency technologies, Inc.

sun, sun Microsystems, the solar emblem, Solaris, and Solstice are logos or registered logos of sun Microsystems, Inc. or its subsidiaries in the u.s. and other countries. gross SPARC logos are used beneath license and are emblems or registered marks of SPARC foreign, Inc. within the U.S. and other international locations. items mien SPARC trademarks are primarily based upon an architecture developed through sun Microsystems, Inc.

The names of other agencies, products, or functions could live the emblems, registered emblems, or carrier marks of their respective homeowners in the u.s. and/or different international locations.


What can the Solaris eight programs Administator certification do? | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

I just executed the Solaris certified techniques Administrator certification with Solaris 8. despite the fact, I don't view many roles soliciting for that certification. Does this certification carry any weight?

That certification incorporates no weight in any respect, apart from in sun retail outlets. unfortunately, sun's shrinking fortunes and market share additionally interprets birthright into a devaluation of its certification credentials, specifically for gadget and community administrators. but as you climb the sun certification ladder (to network administrator, and maybe additionally to protection Administrator) you are going to find that the value continues to live tangible and that these carry out from time to time show up in job postings. If the thought of "in for a penny, in for a pound" appeals to you, in gross probability this is your token to enhance your certification investment and involvement, and to searching for greater senior credentials that may additionally basically create a disagreement to your job prospects and career evolution alternatives.

--Ed--


solar certified Solaris Administrator: Job info & requirements | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

licensed Solaris directors are really satisfactory programs directors that preserve computing device techniques and networks in response to Solaris know-how. vast corporations, non-profit organizations and governmental businesses, amongst others, are regular employers of licensed Solaris administrators. day-to-day duties encompass offering operational support, conducting preventative renovation, performing server optimization and making scheduled server backups.

schooling Bachelor's diploma in network or methods administration usually required Job potential communication, issue fixing, analysis, drudgery experienceMedian salary (2016)* $eighty two,548 for sun Solaris gadget administrators Job growth (2014-2024)** eight% for community and computing device techniques directors

source: *Payscale, **U.S. Bureau of Labor records

Required training

licensed Solaris directors usually fill a bachelor's diploma in community or programs administration. Core coursework usually covers topics in networking infrastructure, protocols and security. students additionally find out how to drudgery with UNIX server and windows working programs. Prior event as a community technician or succor desk employee may live mainly beneficial. Certification classes and substances are available through the Oracle service provider or permitted practising facilities; candidates acquire their credentials after passing an examination.

talents Required

techniques administrators in usual may still fill sturdy analytical, verbal exchange and issue-solving skills. a radical realizing of the underlying applied sciences and principles of Solaris operating systems and technology is fundamental, as neatly because the capability to tackle multiplie initiatives and obligations.

Employment and earnings Outlook

The U.S. Bureau of Labor facts (BLS) stated that employment of community and laptop systems administrators, including licensed Solaris directors, will develop by means of an medium charge of eight% nationwide between 2014 to 2024. in keeping with the BLS, the median annual earnings for community and laptop techniques directors turned into $77,810 in might too 2015. according to records from PayScale.com, the median salary for a solar Solaris programs administrator turned into $82,548 in January 2016.


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Solaris 9 Sun Certified System Administrator section II

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Implementing Security, section II: Hardening Your UNIX/Linux Servers | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

Continuing with section 2 of this two-article series, Joseph Dries helps you continue to expand upon your list of basic security processes by looking at UNIX/Linux hardening, protecting your servers from network based TCP/IP attacks, and utilizing centralized logging servers.

This article was excerpted from The Concise usher to Enterprise Internetworking and Security.

"A commercial, and in some respects a social, doubt has been started within the last year or two, whether or not it is birthright to dispute so openly the security or insecurity of locks. Many well-meaning persons suppose that the discussion respecting the means for baffling the supposed safety of locks offers a premium for dishonesty, by showing others how to live dishonest. This is a fallacy. Rogues are very keen in their profession, and already know much more than they can drill them respecting their several kinds of roguery. Rogues knew a satisfactory deal about lockpicking long before locksmiths discussed it among themselves, as they fill lately done. If a lock—let it fill been made in whatever country, or by whatever maker—is not so inviolable as it has hitherto been deemed to be, surely it is in the interest of honest persons to know this fact because the deceitful are tolerably inescapable to live the first to apply the scholarship practically; and the spread of scholarship is necessary to give objective play to those who might suffer by ignorance. It cannot live too earnestly urged, that an acquaintance with existent facts will, in the end, live better for gross parties." —Charles Tomlinson's "Rudimentary Treatise on the Construction of Locks," published around 1850

It has been said that the wonderful thing about standards is there are so many to pick from. The identical selection is available in the UNIX arena. There are two basic flavors, BSD-derived and AT&T System V-derived. BSD-derived UNIX systems embrace OpenBSD, FreeBSD, NetBSD, BSDi, MacOS X, and SunOS 4. System V-derived UNIX systems embrace HP-UX and Solaris (SunOS 5). Other UNIX systems, such as AIX, provide commands that will act BSD-ish or System V-ish, depending on how they were invoked. Linux is not derived from any UNIX, but depending on the distribution, borrows from both BSD and System V semantics. Actually, Linux itself is just the operating system kernel and supporting drivers. Most Linux distributions utilize the GNU system (http://www.gnu.org), thus they are called GNU/Linux distributions. There are hundreds of available GNU/Linux distributions, but even the "top 5" are different in their default commands, startup scripts, filesystem layout, included utilities, and packaging systems.

What does this signify to you? Unlike Windows NT, including Windows 2000, it is a far more complex process to characterize how to acclimate a UNIX/Linux server. This next section provides some common procedures that can live applied across UNIX versions and GNU/Linux distributions. Following that are some pointers to animate documents on the Internet, which track available data and releases, and depart into a more minute account of how to acclimate a server for a particular task.

Common Steps for Hardening UNIX/Linux Servers

The process of building a UNIX or GNU/Linux server for utilize as a firewall or DMZ server begins with installation. Eliminating points of attack, such as filling the filesystem, or removing unnecessary libraries and services, is equivalent to removing possible entry points for intruders.

Some common guidelines for configuring UNIX servers with a more secure default stance are available from CERT's Web site at ftp://info.cert.org/pub/tech_tips/UNIX_configuration_guidelines.

Partition for Protection

Besides having divorce partitions for the obvious, such as SWAP and /tmp, you should protect against out-of-disk-space denial-of-service attacks. Intruders might try to create immoderate generation of logging data or fill your file system with large files through FTP or mail spool. The best passage to protect against this is to segment the filesystem hierarchy into divorce physical partitions.

The root partition / can live wee because it generally contains just the kernel—the necessary files, libraries, and configuration for booting in /bin, /sbin, /etc, and /lib. Access to the attached devices is provided through the /dev and /devices directories. Many GNU/Linux distributions store kernels and attribute data in the /boot directory, whereas kernel libraries are stored under /lib.

The /usr partition is normally where user-accessible applications are stored. Normally, /usr does not accommodate data or configuration files that change; therefore, an added security measure can live mounted as read-only.

The /var partition stores system logs and data services such as mail, Web, databases, printing, running services, package management, and so on. On a mail server, you might want to create /var/spool/mail, or /var/mail in Solaris, a divorce partition, or—even better—a divorce disk array. If you only create one divorce partition from /, /var is the one you should separate.

The /usr/local directory structure, and in Solaris the /opt directory, often contains locally installed optional software, configuration files, and data. /usr/local is normally not affected by operating system upgrades. Depending on how you utilize those directories, they too can live mounted as read-only.

These are suggestions and guidelines only, and are different from recommended settings for a system that contains user accounts, usually in /home.

Disable Extraneous inetd Services

inetd is the UNIX "Internet Super Server." It is a daemon process that is invoked at boot time and reads in a flat file configuration database normally found at /etc/inetd.conf. inetd listens for incoming connections on the defined IP ports. When a connection is initiated on a defined port, it invokes the configured program to service the request. After the connection is finished, the process invoked to service that request terminates. This was originally designed to lighten the load and resources required for systems.

There are a number of services enabled through inetd, and almost gross of them should live disabled for building firewalls and DMZ servers. Besides normally disabling FTP, TFTP, Telnet, and the Berkeley r* commands, disable the following:

  • in.named—BIND title services daemon. Except for your DNS servers, you should not live running DNS on your firewall or DMZ servers.

  • in.fingerd—Finger daemon that can live used to show user information and lists of users who are logged in. There is no judgement to advertise that information to would-be intruders.

  • daytime—Connections to this service array the date and time on the system in a string format. Getting the date and time of a system is useful for an intruder trying to implement replay attacks.

  • time—Connections to this service revert the time as a 32-bit value representing the number of seconds since midnight 1-Jan-1900. carry out not provide intruders with your exact system time.

  • echo—This is a diagnostic service that echoes incoming data back to the connecting machine.

  • discard—This is a diagnostic service that does not reflect (thus discarding) the incoming data stream back to the connecting machine.

  • chargen—This is a diagnostic service that automatically generates a stream of characters sent to the connecting machine.

  • systat—Connections to this service provide a list of gross processes and their status.

  • netstat—Connections to this service provide a list of current network connections and their status.

  • Install and Configure tcp_wrappers

    Install and configure Wietse Venema's tcp_wrappers on both your firewall and DMZ servers. tcp_wrappers allows you to define access control to various services, depending on a limited set of criteria, such as username, IP address, or DNS domain.

    You might live asking why it's necessary to configure and install additional products when your firewall will live doing the identical thing. And that's a convincing question. The reply is to avoid single points of failure, and to provide security in layers. If one layer is pierced and bypassed, other layers will live standing guard behind the breach.

    tcp_wrappers are lightweight and extremely useful on internal servers; not just on firewalls and DMZ servers. keep in mind that most information security breaches, intentional or accidental, befall internally. It's only the external defacements, massive distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, virus-du-jour, and stolen credit card databases that grab the press. That, and misplaced difficult drives with highly sensitive nuclear information.

    tcp_wrappers fill two main files that allow access to the individually defined services. The following two files are checked for rules governing access to individual or wildcard services:

    /etc/hosts.allow /etc/hosts.deny

    Like most firewalls, access is granted or denied on the first matching rule. The rules are checked in order, first in hosts.allow and then in hosts.deny.

    Care should live taken when using the KNOWN or UNKNOWN wildcards. gross will always match whatever criteria you are testing. Read the hosts_access manual page included with tcp_wrappers for further details on syntax and rules setup.

    tcp_wrappers is installed and configured by default on most GNU/Linux distributions and BSD releases. For those UNIX systems that carry out not fill tcp_wrappers installed by default, they can live found at ftp://ftp.porcupine.org/pub/security/index.html. Retrieve the source, compile, and install the binaries on the servers.

    Lock Down Your DNS Server

    The Berkeley Internet title Daemon, or BIND, is the reference implementation of the title service providing DNS for the Internet. The Internet Software Consortium (ISC) is answerable for implementing and maintaining BIND. There are three basic versions of BIND: BIND 4, BIND 8, and (recently) BIND 9.

    BIND 4 has been around forever, and has its share of exploits. Only very aged versions of UNIX systems and GNU/Linux distributions came with BIND 4. Still, you'll live surprised how many installations still fill the older BIND 4 running. You should upgrade to a newer version of BIND. The hapless thing is that the file format defining the zones served by the server has changed. There are conversion scripts, but there is positive to live some hand editing.

    BIND 8 is the current stable release, and offers many more features and better control and granularity in access control. The settings described later are discussed with BIND 8 in mind.

    BIND 9 was released late in 2000. It offers many recent features, such as IPv6 support, DNSSEC, full Dynamic DNS, incremental zone transfers, multiple views (internal, external, and so on) from a single server, and scalability improvements. If any of those features are valuable to your configuration, you should investigate using BIND 9; otherwise, it's best left to the adventurous.

    Although almost gross UNIX systems and GNU/Linux distributions achieve with BIND as the title server, it is valuable you create positive you are at a recommended release. Before deploying a DNS server, internally or on the DMZ, create positive it is at least version 8.2.2-P5. Any version prior to that has serious exploits. This warning should not live ignored. The Internet Software Consortium themselves fill issued a statement that if you are running any version of BIND prior to 8.2.2-P5, you should assume your server has already been compromised. Check your UNIX system or GNU/Linux distribution. If the version of BIND is not at least 8.2.2-P5, check with your vendor for upgrades. If an upgrade is not available, you can compile a version of BIND yourself on a workstation, and install the binaries on your server. The source code can live found at http://www.isc.org/products/BIND/.

    First, restrict zone transfers to specific secondary servers in your primary zones. The acl command allows you to define an access control list composed of blocks of addresses to live used with a named identifier. Using ACLs provides a self-documenting manner of administrating the named.conf configuration file. In the following example, they define two ACLs comprising their externally visible DNS servers and the secondary servers at their ISP:

    acl your-company-dns { 172.16.30.12; 172.16.30.24; }; acl your-ISP-dns { 199.177.202.10; 204.95.224.200; };

    The following allow-transfer option directive placed in your named.conf file will default gross defined zones to only allow transfers for the defined hosts:

    options { allow-transfer { your-company-dns; your-ISP-dns; }; };

    You can override the allow-transfer statement in the options directive by placing the allow-transfer statement in the zone definition:

    zone "yourdomain.com" { kind master; file "db.yourdomain-com"; allow-transfer { 172.16.30.12; 192.168.71.200; }; }

    The default allow-transfer option will obviate zone transfers to hosts not specified in the ACLs. However, if you want to restrict gross zone transfers on your secondary servers and any secondary zones on your primary servers, utilize predefined match list none. This can live accomplished with the following allow-transfer directive in your zone definitions:

    zone "yourdomain.com" { kind slave; file "db.yourdomain-com.s"; masters { 192.168.71.1; }; allow-transfer { none; }; };

    Finally, because you will live allowing recursive queries through your servers, it's best to enable access control lists for your internal networks. Using a nested, named acl with the allow-query option in the zone definition, you can then restrict recursive queries to internal hosts only as seen in the following example:

    acl internal-net { 192.168.71.0/24; }; acl dmz-net { 172.16.30.0/24; }; acl trusted-hosts { localhost; internal-net; dmz-net; }; zone "yourdomain.com" { kind master; file "db.yourdomain-com" allow-query { trusted-hosts; }; };

    Que's Concise usher to DNS and BIND by Nicolai Langfeldt is a wonderful resource to further grok BIND configuration and maintenance.

    Tighten Sendmail Default Options

    Send mail comes with just about every UNIX/Linux installation as the default mail transfer agent (MTA). As a result of being so widely installed, it has been estimated that sendmail handles a majority of the email on the Internet. Because it runs as suid root, sendmail exploits influence millions of machines.

    sendmail version 8.11.0 is available at the time of publication, and supports recent features such as STARTTLS and SMTP AUTH encryption. Upgrade to the newest version available, if possible, but tickle create positive that you are running a version no later than version 8.9.3 because of security exploits.

    To enable the Realtime Blackhole List feature, utilize the following in your sendmail.mc file:

    FEATURE(rbl)dnl

    Additionally, you might want to disable the SMTP VRFY and EXPN commands in sendmail. These commands are often used by intruders to collect information about your system:

    define(´confPRIVACY_FLAGS', ´novrfy,noexpn')dnl

    There are several additional flags you can set to create sendmail fill a more secure stance:

  • authwarnings—Add X-Authentication-Warning header in messages on inescapable conditions that might bespeak mail system spoof attempts.

  • needmailhelo—Require that the sending site uses the SMTP HELO command first when connecting to route email.

  • needexpnhelo—Require that the sending site uses the SMTP HELO command before allowing any EXPN usage.

  • needvrfyhelo—Require that the sending site uses the SMTP HELO command before allowing any VRFY usage.

  • noreceipts—Disable Delivery Status Notification (DSNs) of delivery and read receipts.

  • goaway—Set gross flags except restrictmailq and restrictqrun.

  • restrictmailq—Prevent users from using the mailq command to view the contents of the mail queue.

  • restrictqrun—Stop users from processing the queue.

  • Better than sendmail: Making Postfix Your MTA

    According to its Web page, Postfix's goals are "to live fast, effortless to administer, and secure, while at the identical time being sendmail compatible enough to not upset existing users."

    Postfix was primarily written by Wietse Venema of tcp_wrappers fame. Postfix was designed to live modular, thus Postfix is not a single executable dote sendmail; rather, Postfix comprises a collection of specialized programs that execute specific tasks. gross the programs except for the master control process (oddly called master because it runs without root privilege) rush as nonprivileged users, limiting the damage an attacker can inflict on your system. Because of the speed, ease of configuration (and thus less chance of misconfiguration), and security, it is recommended that you investigate replacing sendmail with Postfix. For those of you who carry out not dream in sendmail.cf syntax, Postfix will create email administration both easier and more secure.

    Postfix is now distributed with most GNU/Linux and BSD releases, although it is not often installed by default. Usually, it is a simple matter of installing it via your package management system, or (in the BSD case) via the ports collection.

    If you are using an operating system that does not divide Postfix, hopelessness not. You can download and compile the sources easily on a evolution workstation and then install the binaries on your mail server. The sources, FAQs, and documentation can live found at http://www.postfix.org/

    Linux-Specific Tasks

    There are many GNU/Linux distributions out there. Each vendor has its own installation process, which usually changes between recent versions of the vendor's distribution. The "forerunners" of GNU/Linux distributions are Red Hat, SuSE, TurboLinux, Mandrake, Caldera, Slackware, and Debian. That does not signify specifically that you should utilize any one of them because the high number of distributions allows vendors to tailor their GNU/Linux distributions to specific tasks such as embedded systems, routers, and firewalls. raise the time to carefully investigate the available distributions, and determine which best fits your needs.

    With that said, two of these common distributions stand out, but for different reasons. Red Hat, because it has had the most title recognition, and is usually the first to accumulate any sort of corporate back in the passage of commercial software or commercial technical service. Many vendors, such as Oracle, IBM, and Check Point, fill released products for Red Hat-specific distributions. This does not signify that those software releases will not rush on other GNU/Linux distributions, but if there is a problem, the vendor might not back your installation of its product on a non-Red Hat distribution.

    Debian is the second distribution that deserves mention. First, not because it is entirely free, but because it is maintained by a nonprofit organization made up entirely of volunteers. These volunteers are highly motivated by attribute and pride in their efforts to create Debian the most stable and completely 100% free distribution available. Debian has proven to live extremely stable and effortless to manage and upgrade remotely. The upgrade process is by far the easiest of any of the GNU/Linux distributions. Debian installations can live upgraded without the necessity for reboots, replacing every installed package and running process excepting the kernel. Additionally, the Debian packaging system and its front ends allow extremely fine-grained control over which packages, utilities, libraries, and files exist on your system. Debian too is currently available on six different architectures, with more than 3,900 included software packages to select from when installing.

    For both Debian and Red Hat installations, you should pick custom installations, and select the individual packages you want on your system. There should live no necessity to install evolution packages, any of the recent KDE or GNOME desktops, and certainly not X Window. Unfortunately, neither distribution yet has a minimal secure server or firewall predefined install-set.

    During the installation process, you should pick to enable shadow password file support; pick to utilize MD5 hashes for the passwords rather than the balanced crypt function. If you miss these options during the install, you can change them after installation. In Red Hat, utilize the setup utility. In Debian, you can utilize the shadowconfig utility to enable or disable shadow passwords. To enable MD5 hashes, you fill to edit the usurp files under /etc/pam.d to embrace md5 on the password lines.

    You should too enable ipchains support, even if this is an application server on the DMZ. ipchains provides additional layers of security, and allows you to protect the server from traffic should the firewall fail for some reason. A sample ipchains configuration is discussed later in the article.

    You should additionally read and monitor the security and errata/updates lists from your distribution vendor. With Debian, it is extremely effortless to automatically install security updates using the apt-get utility. For Red Hat installations starting with the 6.0 release, there is the up2date utility to retrieve updated packages for your release.

    For those people who pick to install Red Hat Linux, there is a security-related project called Bastille Linux, whose train is not just to acclimate your Linux installation, but to educate the administrators on how to acclimate the system. Bastille Linux supports Red Hat and Mandrake Linux distributions with project goals to become distribution, and UNIX flavor, agnostic. The Bastille Linux product is a set of scripts that asks a series of questions and then allows you to apply those modifications to your system. The questions characterize what needs to live done, why it should live done, and why you might not want to carry out it. It is very educational, especially for those administrators just getting close with Linux. Bastille Linux can live found at http://www.bastille-linux.org/.

    Another excellent source of information for administrators is the Linux Administrator's Security Guide. It covers an extremely wide array of topics related to Linux and security. You can find the Linux Administrator's Security usher online at http://www.securityportal.com/lasg/.

    Solaris-Specific Tasks

    Solaris has four default install-sets: Core, End-User, Developer, and Entire Distribution. Installing any install-set higher than the Core installation will enable more services than are required for DMZ servers or firewalls. In reality, you can often remove a significant percentage of the default Core install-set, depending on your server's application requirements.

    For Solaris-based servers, there are several excellent documents from Sun in its Blueprints Online archive at http://www.sun.com/software/solutions/blueprints/online.html. The following three papers are excellent starting points for building secure Solaris servers:

  • "Solaris Operating Environment Minimization for Security: A Simple, Reproducible and Secure Application Installation Methodology" by Alex Noordergraaf and Keith Watson. Although this paper specifically covers the iPlanet Web server requirements, similar requirements are necessary for using Apache or other Web servers.

  • "Solaris Operating Environment Security" by Alex Noordergraaf and Keith Watson. An overview of common security options on a Solaris server. This paper includes some specifics for the SPARC architecture; however, most of the material is applicable to Intel architectures as well.

  • "Solaris Operating Environment Network Settings for Security" by Alex Noordergraaf and Keith Watson is another excellent paper on kernel tuning and application parameters that influence network security.

  • As a matter of fact, Sun's Blueprints Online is a wealth of whitepapers outlining Best Practices regarding Solaris Operating Environments, whether it is a DMZ Web server, firewall, or internal highly available database cluster.

    Lance Spitzner too has an excellent Solaris hardening document that details the hardening process for building a Check Point FireWall-1 firewall on several recent versions of Solaris (through version 8) for the Intel and SPARC platforms. The animate document resides at http://www.enteract.com/~lspitz/armoring.html.

    Finally, there is an equivalent to the Bastille-Linux hardening scripts for Solaris called TITAN. The TITAN project and documentation can live found at http://www.fish.com/titan/.

    OpenBSD-Specific Tasks

    This section concentrates on OpenBSD 2.7, which is one of the three more distinguished BSD variants; the others being NetBSD and FreeBSD. Each variant has focused on a different problem: NetBSD is the most portable, FreeBSD has the best performance, and OpenBSD is the most secure.

    One of the grandiose strengths of OpenBSD is the highly secure default stance of a default install of OpenBSD. The OpenBSD Web site claims "three years without a remote cavity in the default install, only one localhost cavity in two years in the default install." Almost gross services are disabled until the administrator has enough experience to properly configure them.

    Two additional changes necessary for an OpenBSD box to become a firewall are to disable sendmail and enable IP filter support. Both changes are made to the identical file, /etc/rc.conf. To disable sendmail, change

    sendmail_flags="-q30m"

    to

    sendmail_flags=NO

    To enable IP filter support, you must change

    ipfilter=NO

    to

    ipfilter=YES

    Additionally, if you will live doing Network Address Translation (NAT), providing transparent proxying, or providing back for FTP, you must enable the ipnat option by setting ipnat=YES. Syntax for IP filters will live covered briefly later in the chapter.


    President Trump, There’s One Island That Could figure A Pacific Wall Against Chinese Influence | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Where America’s Day Begins

    Tumon–While the leisure of the country debates President Trump’s Twitter use, health pervade reform, tax reform, edge security, the war on terrorism, and the 2018 midterms, it’s effortless for some stories to tumble by the wayside.

    The 2016 election was dominated by many issues, but trade was a key factor that helped push Donald Trump over the top. The main villain was China. Yet, trade isn’t the only arena where we’re going to carry out battle with this Asian economic powerhouse.

    In the Pacific, China is spreading dollars, subsidizing building projects across Tonga and the Federated States of Micronesia. The latest island project for China was centered on Yap. In these ventures, China provides the dollars and workers for resorts, schools, and other key infrastructure projects. In return, it accelerates their “Going Global” strategy and increases the achieve of their intelligence services. Local reports, dote one from Tim Murphy of recent Zealand’s’ Newsroom, reported that China’s Pacific push was due to its rivalry with neighboring Taiwan, which subsided when a pro-unification government was elected in 2008.

    So, with China exerting soft power gross over the Pacific, who can push back? Well, they can of course. America—the back-to-back world war champions of the world. The problem is finding where their bases of influence are located on the map.

    The key brick that could figure President Trump’s Pacific Wall against China rests in Guam; a U.S. territory that’s 9,000 miles away from Washington, D.C. Most Americans would live difficult pressed to know that they too fill some key military bases in the region. Moreover, it could live another point at which Trump and China’s Xi Jinping could meet at the negotiating table over trade, intellectual property rights, and North Korea.

    If there’s one thing that’s explicitly clear in Guam, it’s that there’s too untapped economic potential that could succor bolster its standing with the political class in D.C. and succor strengthen their vital strategic position in the region amidst a lurking Chinese tiger.

    Townhall took the grueling 26-hour journey to meet with the island’s governor, its industry leaders, and its locals, some of whom fill been there since the 1960s. What’s clear is that while Guam may appear to live in the middle of nowhere, it’s birthright at the heart of the Asian theater.

                                                          [The spot where Magellan landed in Guam]

    ‘When Main Street USA Gets A Cold…We accumulate Pneumonia’

    Guam is hot; I signify really hot. Ethan Epstein of The Weekly gauge was section of the trip as well. By the time they left the hotel early in the morning, dote before 9 o’clock, it was already 90 degrees. The humidity was unbelievable, but they had to meet Gov. Eddie Baza Calvo, a Republican.

    It wasn’t dote visiting a governor stateside. There’s virtually no security. No presentation of photo identification, no status police, and no barriers. You literally just walk birthright up to the governor’s office. In the lobby/waiting area, the walls were adorned with maybe a dozen black-and-white pictures of the island from before World War II, when much of Guam was leveled during the Japanese occupation and the subsequent American liberation. The handsome pictures were taken by, of gross people, a adolescent L. Ron Hubbard, the founder of Scientology, when his father, a Navy officer, was stationed here in the 1920s.

    Entering the office, Calvo said if there is one section of American sovereign soil that is farthest from Washington, D.C.—you are now in it. That comes with its advantages and disadvantages. He then gave us the 35,000-foot overview of the island, which at times, touched upon the murky days of Japanese occupation. His father was beaten for not removing his shoes before entering a classroom. The Japanese beheaded his uncle, a priest.

    There are two pistons that drive Guamanian economy: the military and tourism. Andersen Air constrain ground and Naval ground Guam are located at the two opposite ends of the island.

    Calvo has been governor for almost seven years, but has lived through the Asian booms that fill benefitted the island. The first angle was Japan’s rise in the 1960s, but now everything is centered on China. Koreans, Taiwanese, and Filipinos are the other major nationalities that visit and carry out industry the island. For China, they fill to accumulate a mainland visa to enter Guam, though the U.S. territory of the Northern Marianas has a visa waiver program for Chinese tourists, which 200,000 utilize annually.

    While Guam has seen a 30 percent multiply in Chinese tourists—numbering around 30-40,000 a year—it gets more visitors from Taiwan. If Guam could a visa waiver for the Chinese it would likely signify more visits and more money, but that’ll live a Department of Homeland Security decision. The relatively recent visa policy for China means one is granted not a one-year, but a 10-year, multi-entry visa into the U.S. That’s helped Guam, contributing to a 100,000-person multiply in tourism per year. After all, Guam is closer than, say, recent York City or Hawaii for some people.

                                                                     [Entrance to Gov. Calvo's Office]

    Concerning military expenditures, the construction of a ground for the Marine Corps for its pending relocation from Okinawa has begun, but it’s still in its early stages. Andersen Air constrain ground houses Raptors, B1 bombers, B-52s, and Global Hawks; the ground was used for bombing runs during the Vietnam War. It’s been robust. Since Calvo has been governor, unemployment has dropped from 13 percent to six percent.

    The strategic flash of Guam was too heavily stressed. The governor is a self-described “history buff.” He believes in full incorporation into the fabric of the United States, loyal citizens in terms of representation and political participation. Yet, he understands the history of the island. During the McKinley administration and the era of Manifest Destiny, the island, as well as the other U.S. territories, including the Virgin Islands and Hawaii (the latter of which became a state) were seen as a passage to protest the flanks of Florida and the west coast from European or Asian imperial ambitions.

    Yet, as they scoot toward the third decade of the 21st century, the United States doesn’t know how to handle the territories since that defensive strategic position may live outmoded.

    Guam falls under the Office of Insular Affairs within the Interior Department, an agency that has a smaller budget than the government of Guam. The island is the closest sovereign soil to the Far East, where the economies of these nations are both partnered and competitive with the U.S.  There are 2 billion people within a three-to-five hour flight of Guam, Calvo said. Oh, and it's too nearby to the largest standing armies in the world.

    American Samoa is the only American soil south of the equator, near Australasia and recent Zealand. And those people are worried about foreign encroachment as well, Calvo said. Meanwhile, the governor says Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands are on the doorstep of Latin America while Guam is at the foot of the robust and at times—aggressive Asian market.

                                                                          [Gov. Eddie Calvo]

    He said that maybe it’s time to view Guam and the leisure of the territories not as liabilities, but as assets, along with “how to maximize” their potential, especially in Asia. 

    Calvo was quite direct when he mentioned that the greatest impediments to growth and monetary stability to this island fill been federal action or inaction, except its impact is much more amplified.

    “When Main Street USA gets a artic because of an action or missed action, or inaction by Washington, D.C., the territories, because we’re not section of the representative government process, he said. “We accumulate pneumonia or tuberculosis because these activities that occur in Washington, D.C. are so out of paw with what are the realities of Guam.”

    Calvo, a supporter of Ted Cruz prior to backing President Trump, said the identical elements that brought the political earthquake of 2016—the feeling of a disconnect between D.C. and Main Street and the issues of Middle America—are felt here as well.

    The Environmental Protection Agency has too messed with the island, with then-EPA administrator Gina McCarthy instituting antiseptic Water and Air edicts that totaled $1.4 billion, which amounts to about a quarter of the entire GDP for the island. Those environmental goals, which were a mixed bag of consent decrees, regulatory edicts, and court actions, were scheduled for completion by 2023-2025.

    “Do you want to build us in the Stone Age?” Calvo says he told McCarty at one point.

    Then there’s the issue of federal reimbursement to the territories through their sociable welfare programs. Washington made a stipulation to Guam that they would reimburse territories and states that absorbed immigrants from nearby independent Pacific islands that are geopolitically aligned with America. These immigrants utilize up $140 million in Guamanian services, $1 billion cumulatively, but the U.S. only reimburses the island $14.5 million a year.

    Concerning sociable programs, there’s housing, Medicaid (many achieve here to give birth as the baby gets access to this pervade and, more importantly, U.S. citizenship), and medically indigent pervade (MIP), which is a local program. Calvo said that anyone who’s been here six months or longer as a resident gets health pervade access. Eighty percent of enrollees are immigrants—they’re overwhelming the system with the lack of reimbursement from Washington.

    With no job prospects, many immigrants are getting a tutorial from the island’s criminal justicesystem. Thirty percent create up the prison population; usually for drug or alcohol offenses. It costs $110 per day to house these inmates, who were supposed to live deported by Uncle Sam.

    At one point, Calvo issued a unilateral order to his customs officers—the territory falls outside federal customs jurisdiction—to deport non-citizen immigrants after they fill served 70 percent of their sentence, which would occur through a commutation of sentences. The island would then present them a one-way ticket back home. Calvo’s actions briefly build him in affray with the DHS, but now working with Guam’s customs agents. 

    In the past, guest workers on a H-2b visa had a job waiting for them here, as there simply aren’t enough locals or workers from the mainland to fill gross the jobs. The Obama administration changed gross of that.

    The island wasn’t matter to the H-2b visa cap, which meant that there was always an accessible source of labor. In the latter half of 2016, the Obama White House changed this policy with almost 100 percent of visa applicants rejected. This has resulted in a censorious shortage of workers, particularly in construction but too in nurses. 

    Circling back to the economic woes facing the island, the governor discussed his experience in industry bottling Pepsi.

    On the mainland, transportation costs are around 2 percent of the total costs concerning raw materials and shipping finished goods. In Guam, it’s near 30 percent. Calvo said it’s not the frailty of the grocers; they’re working on about the identical margins.

    Transportation too includes energy costs, which brings us to the Jones Act. The Jones Act was discussed pervasively with those I met, as it makes the island an extremely expensive region to live and carry out business. In short, it’s a vestige of the politics of empire and Calvo hopes President Trump and the Republican Congress can eliminate or reduce it.

    Related to the Jones Act is aviation cabotage. Calvo minute how 1.6 million tourists depart through Guam’s airport, with 200 flights through Guam each day. The territory is a nexus point—equidistant to Australia and Japan—but a lot of airlines and ships can’t desist here due to cabotage, which prevents a foreign-flagged airline from flying between two airports in the United States. If Guam was exempted, it could serve as a nice pit desist for travelers in the Far East and the South Pacific, to grunt nothing of another source of tourist income.

    Yet, even with the endless economic grievances—and there are many—every Guamanian I met too create one thing clear: they’re patriotic Americans.

    One of the hardest things Calvo has done as governor, he said, was to greet the bodies of the first two Guam National Guardsmen killed in the war against terrorism. (Since then, over 40 fill died fighting in Iraq and Afghanistan.) What’s too striking is that these two dead Americans served in the armed forces, but, along with the leisure of the island’s population, couldn’t vote for president.

    While they just celebrated the Fourth of July, America's birthday, Guam too celebrates Liberation Day on July 21, the day in 1944 when U.S. Marines freed Guam from the grips of Japanese occupation. Unlike Americans on the mainland, they know what happens when liberty is stripped. 

    While The Guardian reported that the aforementioned military projects for the transfer of Marines are angering locals, who equate it to colonization, the governor said that 70-80 percent back the military buildup, though Calvo withdrew his back over the labor issue with H-2b visas. He too said that back for statehood would live greater. 

    “We paid their dues in being a section of America,” he said. “Unshackle these handcuffs that allow us to achieve their full potential economically.”

    Epstein celebrated this “craving” for statehood in his piece for The Weekly Standard. That’s a debate for another time, but the island’s strategic flash cannot live overlooked.

    Calvo says that the territories shouldn’t live viewed solely through a military lens, but that could live where he gets the most traction with D.C. elites to create the point that there are Americans on the island and it could live the region where Chinese influence is curtailed.

    To maintain that strategic position, he could argue, and I’m positive he has, for the loosening and reevaluation of aged policies, dote the Jones Act. The problem is that there is no senator or representative demanding these changes. The island has a delegate on the Hill, but doesn’t fill the power to impact policy, nor carry out they fill a full vote on the House floor.

                                                                      [Guam's Pacific War Museum]

    Three sensible Men And A Lurking Chinese Tiger

    Concerning national security, locals John T. Brown and Lee Webber grunt it means something different here.

    Brown is an attorney, while Webber is the former publisher of the local Pacific Daily News. Both men are members of the Guam Chamber of Commerce and fill a profound grasp of the socioeconomic and political ties on the island. Webber explained how this is the only piece of U.S. soil that has been occupied by a singular power since 1812; the Japanese occupied it from 1941-44.

    Yet, to drive home the island’s strategic importance, you fill to accumulate over what many called Washington’s “benign neglect.” Brown went into an anecdote to define this, noting that when he visited the DHS—the front desk gave them the papers to fill out for vetting purposes that were meant for foreigners even though Guamanians are American citizens through the 1950 Guam Organic Act.

    “The DHS should know where the homeland is,” chuckled Brown.

    Webber added that every island in the Pacific has China stepping in, funding schools and other projects—while supplying the workforce to complete gross of these ventures. Does this signify more Americans troops, ships, and jets to curb this expansion? Yes and no. A stronger military presence would help, but there was common agreement that a more prevalent FBI, CIA, and U.S. attorney presence would deter Chinese encroachment.

    It’s a antecedent for concern because America had to pay for this island in blood. During the three-year occupation, the Japanese, knowing the Guamanians were pro-American, subjected them to rapes, beatings, and executions. Around 10 percent of the entire population was killed, along with nearly 2,000 Marines when it was finally recaptured in 1944. The point is it would live detestable if history repeats itself.

    Brown too added that it’s a satisfactory thing that the Department of Defense is here, but they’re not a satisfactory source of monetary back for other projects. Instead of using it for military assets, he said create Guam one that is earmarked for common expenditure in the Pacific.

    An American rebuilding and refurbishing project would yield more economic dividends than just a military buildup. birthright now, there’s a massive undertaking to scoot nearby to 2,500 Marines from Okinawa to Guam by 2021.

    Joe Arnett, a certified public accountant, said that he would dote Americans from the mainland to find Guam on a map, recognize that Americans live here, and further recognize the strategic flash the island serves to America’s interests. 

    Brown added that if D.C. folks want to create America grandiose again, it cannot live accomplished by just seeing the Atlantic, or having an Atlantic-based view on singular policy. He said we’re facing a Micronesia problem; the Chinese are buying the neighborhood from under us. There’s too virtuous imperative, he says. This island was paid for in blood; gross villages were wiped out. There’s an responsibility here. Webber directed us to a column he wrote, which can be found here. 

    It’s Not A Question Of Growth; It’s A Question Of Labor

    At 6 a.m. the sun was shining over Tumon, the Waikiki-like divest where most of the hotels are located. It was going to live a grandiose day and one where industry leaders David John and Jonathan Kriegel would give us a more in-depth overview of the economics of the island.

    John is the president of the ASC trust Corporation, while Kriegel is the president and CEO of DoCoMo Pacific, a subsidiary of a Japanese telecommunications company. John reiterated some facts I had already heard in various meetings about the island—that Guam is a $5.5 billion economy, grounded in tourism (55 percent) and government spending (45 percent).

    Concerning tourism, the island was, up until recently, totally beholden to Japanese tourists. The Calvo administration diversified the tourism industry to where Japan represents 50 percent of tourists, but Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan, and some mainland Chinese create up the rest. Guam was able to tread water when Japanese tourism levels dropped, but the overall numbers are up 54 percent since 2009.

    Kriegel added that there are plans to invest in recent lodging properties. Also, owners of the Hilton and Hyatt hotels want to expand. A reported 30-story hotel tower is going to happen, but there is serious question who’s going to build it due to the worker shortage caused by the Obama administration.

    John said that it’s gross in anticipation of an multiply in tourism, as the Calvo administration wants to greet 2 million tourists a year by 2020. While that will require more hotel rooms, the issue is finding workers, he said. Three other hotel projects are too in the pipeline. 

    I was told the labor shortage is so detestable that it could live a fight to just build a house. The two men agreed that a family pool could live in evolution hell for months. 

    Computer sciences are one of the most promising and sustaining fields of employment, Kriegel and John said. DoCoMo Pacific wants to capitalize on that, creating a tier three data hub on the island, Kriegel said.

    Kriegel added that the final bidding process for the recent data hub led to prices going up, as the recent facilities needed to create this project befall would cost more to build due to the worker shortages. (When visas for guest workers went from nearly 100 percent issuance to 1 percent in second half of 2016, Guam lost around 2,000 workers in a private sector labor constrain of 60,000.)

    Well, what about American workers? Can’t they carry out gross of this construction? Yes, they can, but Guam takes at least a day to accumulate there and airfare is anywhere from $1,800 to over $2,000—and that’s just for a seat in economy-class. Uprooting families for a 9-month job isn’t economical, nor is flying back and forth dropping $2k in ticket costs.

    We’re the “tip End of the tail of the dog out here,” said John. And the worker shortage shows that. It too shows how policies, dote the H-2b visa changes, might succor stateside issues, dote helping accumulate a hold of their edge and immigration issues, but Hurt the Americans trying to create a animate elsewhere.

    Returning to DoCoMo Pacific’s telecommunications and IT projects, there’s another region that places Guam in a unique position strategically: submarine cables.

    The southern route in the Pacific runs near Guam. The island is a well-liked region for these cables to land, Kriegel explained. He added that this could live the third leg of Guam’s economic stool, as these projects raise years to complete, maybe decades. To establish a foundation for this information hub, you necessity IT workers. The closest region to recruit these workers is the Philippines, but the visa issues fill made this difficult.

    The discussions of guest worker shortages too drew us into the Jones Act, which cuts off trade with the emerging markets in Asia, who could deliver fresh yield and other goods. The U.S. Department of Agriculture is too an snag on this front. John added that so-called fresh food from the U.S. mainland after a month on a container ship isn’t fresh. 

    Guam’s Deplorables: The Island’s Strategic Shipyard And How The Workforce Might live Natural Trump Supporters

    Over the course of the five-day trip to the island, the one and only shipyard was the topic of discussion. It was too the main selling point for Guam’s strategic importance.

    The shipyard, formerly a Navy repair facility, had a dry dock capability, something that’s crucial to maintenance of their naval vessels.

    Right now, the Navy primarily uses Singapore and the Philippines (Subic Bay) for dry-docking its ships instead of Guam’s shipyard, where 300 to 500 U.S. workers were employed in good-paying jobs.

    Calvo said that the Philippines are a satisfactory ally and industry partner, but it’s not American soil and changes in political leadership always places its long-term utilize in question.

    In 2005, the USS San Francisco hit a seamount doing max hurry (30 knots) around 360 miles southeast of Guam. The hull was severely damaged. They were able to blow their ballast tanks and surface and create it to Guam for repairs. Hawaii was too far away, as was the Philippines. The result could fill been a three-to-four billion-dollar loss for the Navy since without repairs the vessel would fill to live scuttled at sea.

    While it occurred off the coast of Japan, the recent concussion between the destroyer USS Fitzgerald and ACX Crystal, a container ship, could befall anywhere, though some of the circumstances surrounding the crash are suspect; it seems the Crystal turned around and charted a course directly into the destroyer. Still, ships in a similar and horrific maritime concussion in the waters in and around Guam could fill a shot of saving their vessels and their crews.

    I ate dinner with Mathews Pothen and his son, Ajay Pothen. Pothen senior is the owner of the Guam Shipyard, which owns the dry dock. They told me the military’s presence doesn’t signify the Department of Defense or, for that matter, anyone else in Washington thinks the island is valuable beyond its strategic location for the Air constrain and Navy.

    He said that the military buildup in Guam started under the Bush administration, but in the ensuing years the Pentagon has made decisions based on dollars and cents, rather than the national interest.

    If you interrogate the military why there’s no dry dock in Guam birthright now, they’ll mention what I’ve reported already: the costs, which are admittedly higher here in ports elsewhere in Southeast Asia.

    For Pothen, it’s the tentacle creature called bureaucracy that’s keeping his dry dock from being operational and revigorating Guam’s economy.

    Ajay says the bean counters at the Pentagon are wrong, noting that a dry dock would actually reclaim the government $750 million over the next five decades. To create things more maddening, federal law under Title 10 prohibits Navy vessels from being “repaired, overhauled, or maintained in a shipyard outside of the U.S. or Guam,” unless a sudden emergency occurs.

    To circumvent this, the Navy has designated ships in the Pacific as forward-deployed vessels to avoid the statute, which not only protects national security, but too promotes the national interest by using American companies and American workers.

    Interestingly enough, the Pentagon’s disregard of the national interest ties into the notion of American workers being screwed over for cheaper labor—a major ingredient in the 2016 presidential election. 

    In the case of Guam’s shipyard, the American workers employed by the Pothens fill been replaced by workers in the Philippines and Singapore being paid no more than $10 a day. Moreover, 25 percent of workers at Singapore’s ports are communist Chinese nationals.

    As Trump said about free trade, it only works when everyone plays by the rules. The folks who live here know one thing: In Asia, these rules are not being followed.

    Pothen senior talked about how Japan and South Korea protect their industries. In Korea, the government recently spent $9 billion to subsidize their shipping industry to ensure their workers keep building ships, where he said one dock alone employs 35,000 people. 

    On an island dote Guam even one dry dock is critical, as Pothen’s Guam Shipyard was section of an apprenticeship program aimed at educating local high school graduates in the skilled trades, which as they gross know are generally undervalued and underappreciated.

    In some odd way, these displaced workers are the Pacific’s “deplorables,” something that Epstein observed as they traversed the island. 

    Their livelihoods are being threatened by cheap singular labor, the political elites don’t appear to understand the flash of their work, and they’re ignored due to their geographic location. Does this sound familiar? As Webber said, Guam is the rust belt in the rice belt. It’s a convincing point. 

    Another thing that flies in the countenance of logic is the fact that five U.S. submarines are homeported in Guam, but there isn’t the capability to repair these multi-billion-dollar vessels. In the meantime, stable and high-wage employment hangs in the balance.

    Guam is an American tiger with stripes. It’s a fusion of American and Asian cultures.

    Shipyard workers here carry out fill a lot in common, at least in terms of their sociopolitical situation, with some of the voters who flocked to Trump. And Guam is an island that deserves more than just acknowledgement of its flash from military brass.

    More importantly, those who know of Guam’s strategic location for the Pentagon necessity to carry out more than just know that it exists, or that they fill two bases on it. For Congress, this could live a massive economic and diplomatic hub that could serve as a rampart against Chinese incursion throughout the Pacific. 

    As The tradition Foundation said on the issues facing the U.S. with China lurching further into the region [emphasis mine]:

    For the U.S., the presence of the PRC in the South Pacific does not pose immediate military threats; rather, it promises longer-term influence for Beijing, which is likely to erode regional back for the U.S. This longer-term erosion does fill potential military implications. Not only carry out key sea lanes of communications (SLOCs) transit the waters encompassed by these island nations, but they too present potential sites for various bases, as was the case in World War II.

    Anchorages and airfields in these islands would present alternative sites for Guam—which is already densely covered with various American military bases and facilities—making it a lucrative target for Chinese missiles and other standoff weapons. Dispersal to additional sites would complicate Chinese targeting, by both proliferating the number of sites that might fill to live attacked and broadening the number of sovereign states that it would live attacking.

    By contrast, if Beijing established a political foothold in these islands, it could induce these states not to extend access to the U.S., as well as order for Chinese access. These necessity not live military bases; the aptitude to build space surveillance facilities and communications nodes, for example, would create these islands potential reconnaissance and surveillance sites for eavesdropping on Guam and the U.S. missile test facilities at Kwajalein in the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Another issue that is turning this section of the Pacific into a hotspot is China’s construction of synthetic islands, which are being used as military bases in the South China Sea. If hostilities were to ever smash out, the Navy would necessity effortless access to a safe port to repair its vessels. Hawaii is too far. Only Guam can carry out it.

    Concerning labor, there may live some satisfactory advice on that front as the DHS announced that more H-2b drudgery visas would live granted in the coming months. Whether Guam will capitalize from that remains to live seen, however. 

    It’s a hub of untapped economic potential. A slice of America at the doorstep of fledgling Asian markets, with scores of their citizens willing to hover and spend their money on the island.

    When Washington, D.C., figures out where Guam is on the map, they can hope that more attention is paid to the island’s 170,000-plus residents. And how they will live the frontlines in stopping China.

    Webber likened the island to “an uncut diamond,” and one that’s waiting for the U.S. to cash it in for increased geopolitical capital. It’s a crossroads into Asia that’s worth protecting and worth their attention.

    I’m too cheerful to too report that the island didn’t tip over.

    Edited by: Cortney O'Brien, Lauretta Brown, and Dennis Lennox

                                                                     [Sunset in Tumon]

    What’s new, different and chafed´ in military and aviation biofuels | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    An F/A-18 Super Hornet from Air Test and Evaluation Squadron 23

    An F/A-18 Super Hornet from Air Test and Evaluation Squadron 23

    It’s been a year of deployment and globalization. Here are the most valuable items to know.

    Back in 1927, 100,000 people flooded Le Bourget Airport in Paris to greet Charles Lindbergh as he completed the first solo, non-stop, transatlantic crossing by plane. Now, it’s done by dozens of pilots every day, who fill no one to meet them except the driver for their offsite, low-cost motel. Sigh, it’s the nature of news.

    In the world of aviation biofuels, the bands and the bunting are rolling out less frequently. But mostly, because the sector has moved out of a noise-filled early R&D angle and is heading towards deployment. Someday, aviation biofuels will live as routine as topping off a fuel farm, and the world will fill changed so completely that no will consider about it any more than they consider about the miracle of the wheel.

    For a few years, readers became accustomed to a flurry of R&D partnerships, market studies, financing announcements, technical milestone reveations and sexy certification efforts where airlines appear to hover gross over the region for a handful of flights demonstrating that planes won’t tumble out of the sky with aviation biofuels.

    Now, the radio silence descends as the process of minute engineering of plants begins, construction gets underway, followed by the inevitable yet interminable commissioning age where a plant may spend up to 3 years reaching nameplate capacity and steady-state operations for a novel processing technology using novel feedstocks.

    We’re some distance from aviation biofuels as “business as usual” but they carry out view quite a bit more “in business” activity.

    With that in mind, and with The Digest releasing the complete agenda for the 6th annual Military & Aviation Biofuels Summit, section of ABLC week , it’s a satisfactory time to review the sector’s progress over the past year. Here are the most significant developments in military and aviation biofuels for 2014-15.

    Deployment

    In December, Boeing and South African Airlines announced that South African farmers will soon harvest their first crop of energy-rich tobacco plants, an valuable step towards using the plants to create sustainable aviation biofuel.

    Boeing and SAA, along with partners SkyNRG and Sunchem SA, too officially launched Project Solaris, their collaborative application to develop an aviation biofuel supply chain with a nicotine-free tobacco plant called Solaris. In Limpopo province, company representatives and industry stakeholders visited commercial and community farms where 123 acres (50 hectares) of Solaris fill been planted. Oil from the plant’s seeds may live converted into bio-jet fuel as early as next year, with a test flight by SAA as soon as practicable.

    In November, SAS along with the Lufthansa Group, and KLM, signed an agreement with Statoil Aviation for a regular supply of bio-fuel at Oslo Airport. SAS was first off the ground in Norway and from Stockholm Arlanda in Sweden with a bio-fuel amalgamate around a week ago and this agreement shows the airline takes its corporate sociable responsibility seriously in reducing its green house gas emissions.

    Via an agreement signed with Avinor and the above named airlines, Statoil Aviation is to supply 2.5 million liters of bio-fuel to the refueling facility at Oslo Airport. With a 50% bio-fuel mix, this will fuel around 3,000 flights between Oslo and Bergen and create OSL the first major airport in the world to present a regular supply of bio-fuel as section of daily operations from March 2015.

    Also in November, SAS Airlines and Norwegian Air flew their first flights on biofuels  with a 48% blend with 52% fossil aviation fuel. The companies’ remonstrate is to promote exact so fuel will live produced from Norwegian forests, rather than the used cooking oil feedstock used in Tuesday’s launch. Norwegian flew from Trondheim to Oslo while SAS flew from Bergen to Oslo.

    In September, Southwest Airlines signed an agreement with Red Rock Biofuels to purchase low carbon renewable jet fuel, made using forest residues that will succor reduce the risk of destructive wildfires in the Western United States. The airline’s agreement with RRB covers the purchase of approximately three million gallons per year. The blended product will live used at Southwest’s Bay region operations with first delivery expected in 2016.

    In August, Garuda said that it expects to live using an aviation biofuel blend by 2016 comprised of biofuel and avtur (aviation turbine fuel). The aircraft are already equipped to utilize biofuel and the carrier aims to rush a affliction flight soon. However, the state-owned carrier’s commitment to supporting the utilize of antiseptic energy will live highly relative on the availability of the aboriginal palm oil (CPO)-based biofuel that is currently being tested at state-owned oil and gas company PT Pertamina’s laboratory.

    In July, UOP announced that its green fuels process technology wasselected by Petrixo Oil & Gas to yield renewable jet fuel and renewable diesel at a recent refinery to live built in Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. Petrixo will utilize UOP Renewable Jet Fuel process technology to process approximately 500,000 metric tons per year of renewable feedstocks into renewable jet fuel and renewable diesel, too known as Honeywell Green Jet Fuel and Honeywell Green Diesel. The process technology is capable of processing a variety of renewable feedstocks.

    In June, Gol Airlines confirmed that they would power 200 flights on a 4% biofuel blend during the World Cup. The company had completed its first affliction flight between Sao Paolo and Brasilia in 2013, using Amyris jet fuel.

    In April, British Airways and Solena Fuels chose Thurrock, Essex for its MSW-to-aviation biofuels project that will yield 120,000 metric tons of fuel annually from 2017. BA has commited to buy 50,000 tons of the fuel that will live made from 575,000 tons of post-recycled waste.

    R&D

    In January, Boeing and Embraer opened a joint sustainable aviation biofuel research hub in a collaborative application to further establish the aviation biofuel industry in Brazil.

    At the Boeing-Embraer Joint Research hub in the São José dos Campos Technology Park, the companies will coordinate and co-fund research with Brazilian universities and other institutions. The research will focus on technologies that address gaps in creating a sustainable aviation biofuel industry in Brazil, such as feedstock production, techno-economic analysis, economic viability studies and processing technologies.

    In December, Airbus signed an MOU with Emerging Fuels for US sustainable aviation fuels production. EFT has developed an Advanced Fixed Bed F-T reactor and catalyst system that can convert synthesis gas from, it claims, virtually any carbonaceous feedstock into transportation fuels such as renewable diesel and sustainable jet fuel. The company recently signed a cooperation agreement with global energy infrastructure engineering, procurement and construction company Black & Veatch (B&V) that grants B&V exclusivity in representing EFT technologies in select markets and applications.

    Also in December, Vertimass announced it has received a vouchsafe of up to $2 million from the U.S. Department of Energy. The vouchsafe was awarded to aid the organization in its mission to commercialize “green” catalyst technology that converts ethanol into gasoline, diesel and jet fuel blend stocks, while retaining compatibility with the current transportation fuel infrastructure. With an exclusive world-wide license with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), an innovative developer of patented catalyst technology, Vertimass seeks to expand the ethanol gas market, while creating an outlet for the utilize of ethanol as a precursor to the diesel and jet fuel markets. The blend-stocks produced with this catalyst technology are anticipated to tumble under the Renewable Fuel gauge at the identical flush as the ethanol used as feedstock.

    In November, Total confirmed that it was experimenting with methods to yield sugar from cellulosic materials to eventually yield aviation fuels. The company’s raw material supply senior manager told the International Sugar Organization’s conference that as the oil and gas industry is accustomed to decades of development, there’s no problem in waiting for the evolution of their recent solution.

    In October, Boeing and Commercial Aircraft Corp. of China opened a demonstration facility that will eddy consume cooking oil, commonly referred to as “gutter oil” in China, into sustainable aviation biofuel. The two companies estimate that 500 million gallons (1.8 billion liters) of biofuel could live made annually in China from used cooking oil. Boeing and COMAC are sponsoring the facility, which is called the China-U.S. Aviation Biofuel Pilot Project. It will utilize a technology developed by Hangzhou Energy & Engineering Technology Co., Ltd. (HEET) to antiseptic contaminants from consume oils and convert it into jet fuel at a rate of 160 gallons (650 liters) per day. The project’s goal is to assess the technical feasibility and cost of producing higher volumes of biofuel.

    Also in October, Japan’s Initiatives for Next Generation Aviation Fuels launched with the train to yield and supply aviation biofuels in time for the Tokyo Olympics in 2020. Partners in the initiative embrace the University of Tokyo, Boeing Co., Japan Airlines Co., Nippon Cargo Airlines Co., gross Nippon Airways Co., Narita International Airport Corp. and Japan Petroleum Exploration Co. along with government agencies and observers.

    In June, advice arrived from Byogy Renewables that it had invested in a strategic partnership with AusAgave Australia, aimed at developing multiple feedstocks to develop low cost sugars for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. Structured initially as a strategic partnership, Don Chambers, CEO of AusAgave, will link the Byogy team to drive overall global feedstock operations — and, if gross goes well, they may find that a merger of the companies may emerge down the line. Kudos for the partnership arrived from as far away as Brazil, where Byogy established a subsidiary in 2011 and recently partnered with Avianca Brasil Airlines to back global approvals of higher blends of Byogy’s premium fuel. So, not surprising to hear that Avianca Flight Operations Director Norberto Raniero stated: “Our team now includes more elements to yield a competitive, alternative aviation biofuel.” http://www.biofuelsdigest.com/bdigest/2014/06/15/tequila-sunrise-byogy-ausagave-sign-pact-to-advance-agave-as-a-sustainable-aviation-biofuels-feedstock/

    In April, as a section of the European Union funded EuroBioRef1 project, together with several partners, Process Design hub developed a recent class of bio aviation turbine fuel (ATF) components consisting of massive branched alcohols. The project demonstrated the possibility to yield these alcohols in two ways from lignocellulosic biomass: Black liquor from a kraft pulp mill or biomass is gasified and the resulting syngas, after cleaning, is fed to a mixed higher alcohols synthesis unit. Two processes, one operating in the gas angle and one operating in the liquid phase, are then applied to multiply the carbon number of the alcohols.

    Also in April, Gevo announced that it had inked an agreement with Lufthansa to evaluate Gevo’s renewable jet fuel with the goal of approving Gevo’s alcohol-to-jet fuel (ATJ) for commercial aviation use. Lufthansa’s testing is being supported through drudgery with the European Commission.

    In March, Blue Sun Energy, ARA, and Chevron Lummus Global achieved a key evolution milestone with their 100 barrel/day (4,200 gallon/per day) demonstration-scale Biofuels ISOCONVERSION facility in St. Joseph, Mo. Less than a year after genesis engineering to scale the technology, the team has completed plant commissioning and has begun 24/7 system operation. “We are a step closer to their goal of commercial scale production of 100% drop-in diesel and jet fuel from industrial and consume oils at prices competitive with their petroleum counterparts,” said Chuck Red, Vice President of Fuels evolution at ARA.

    Also in March, Neste Oil joined forces with DONG Energy to develop an integrated process to yield renewable diesel and aviation fuel based on agricultural residues. DONG Energy’s Inbicon technology will live used in the first section of the process to pre-treat biomass and yield cellulosic sugars that can live converted into microbial oil with Neste Oil’s technology. Microbial oil can live used as a feedstock for premium-quality renewable fuels such as renewable diesel and renewable aviation fuel.

    In January 2014, Boeing, Etihad Airways, Takreer, Total, and the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology announced a collaboration for sustainable aviation biofuels in the UAE.

    The collaboration, BIOjet Abu Dhabi: Flight Path to Sustainability, will develop a comprehensive framework for a UAE biofuel supply chain, which is already in motion. Etihad Airways recently completed a 45-minute demonstration flight in a Boeing 777 powered partially by biofuel converted from plants by Total, and refined into jet fuel by Takreer, together representing UAE-produced sustainable aviation biofuel.

    Markets & market impact

    In December, Sustainable Aviation, a coalition of the UK’s airlines, airports, manufacturers and air navigation service provider NATS, launched its latest Road-Map, which considers the opportunities for sustainable aviation fuels. The Road-Map identifies the potential for a 24 per cent reduction in aviation carbon dioxide emissions by 2050 and the generation of GBP265 million in economic value plus the creation of 4400 jobs in the UK over the next 15 years.

    In October, NASA researchers took to the skies for the second year in a row with a DC-8 and other aircraft to study the effects on emissions and contrail formation of burning alternative fuels in jet engines. This follow-up set of Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions flight tests, known as ACCESS II, repeated a similar series of tests flown during 2013, while too adding a few recent wrinkles to the investigations to capture more and better data. A quick inspect at the ACCESS II data confirmed with high conviction the results from ACCESS I, which showed at least a 50 percent reduction in soot emissions from the DC-8 when it burns the blended fuel as opposed to the jet fuel alone.

    In March, Ecofys advised the Dutch government on how they can stimulate the uptake of bio jet fuels in the Netherlands. According to the assessment, the combination of progressive Dutch public and private stakeholders, the valuable position of the Netherlands in fossil jet fuel trade, sturdy logistics and infrastructure and the foresight of a growing international market reaching full commercialization after 2020 altogether present unique strategic opportunities for the Dutch economy and stakeholders to maintain and strengthen its international position in this evolving business.

    Military biofuels

    For their overview of the sector, view their September report “Inside the US Navy’s new, cost-competitive military biofuels program”, which includes comments to the Digest from Navy Secretary Ray Mabus, Navy DIrector for Operational Energy Chris Tindal, and several CEOs of companies making military aviaiton fuel.

    Also, view their report on the Italian Fleet’s first certification run, “Flotta Verde! The Italian Navy’s Green Fleet underway, the account in Pictures.”

    In December, the US Navy’s Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) announced its first successful alcohol-to-jet (ATJ) supersonic flight, fueled by Gevo’s renewable isobutanol. his is the first aviation test program to comprehensively test and evaluate the performance of a 50/50 ATJ blend in supersonic (above Mach 1) afterburner operations – a censorious test to successfully clear the F/A-18 for ATJ operations through its entire flight envelope. This military specification would allow for commercial supply of ATJ fuel to the Navy and Marines Corps. Gevo’s ATJ is produced at its demo biorefinery in Silsbee, TX, using isobutanol produced at its Luverne, MN, fermentation facility.

    In September, the Department of Defense awarded $210 million under the Defense Production Act to Emerald Biofuels, Fulcrum BioEnergy and Red Rock Bio towards the construction of biorefineries that yield cost-competitive, drop-in military biofuels. Under the grants, the companies will build biorefineries to yield military spec fuel that is expected to cost the US military, on a weighted average, less than $3.50 per gallon — or cost competitive with petroleum-based fuels, with availability expected as soon as 2016, and fill a 50 percent of greater reduction of emissions compared to conventional fuels. The biorefineries, once complete, will fill a combined capacity for producing 100 million gallons of military-spec jet fuel and marine diesel

    In August, the US Navy and the Chilean Navy extended their four-year collaboration for mutual research on advanced alternative fuels. The latest agreement enables both nations to boost energy security and deliver an increased conviction of energy supply and cost; the US Navy aims to fill 50% of overall organizational utilize powered by alternative energy resources by 2020, while Chile plans to fill 45% of its newly deployed capacity for 2014-2025 derived from non-conventional, renewable energy sources.

    In June, the Department of the Navy announced that at least 37 million gallons of drop-in biofuels are being sought as section of its F-76 marine diesel and JP-5 shipboard jet fuel supply in the upcoming Inland/East/Gulf Coast bulk fuels solicitation released by the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Energy on June 9. Bids were due by July 9, and deliveries of fuel will start April 1, 2015. The Inland/East/Gulf Coast is the single largest bulk fuels acquisition program, and is valued in excess of $3.5 billion.

    In May, the Royal Australian Navy announced plans to rush up to 50 vessels in its fleet on 50/50 biofuels by 2020 to remain compatible with the US Navy for joint training exercises, despite the government recently pulling back on excise tax rebates for road transport biofuels. In 2016, the RAN will route a biofuel-powered helicopter and frigate to participate in the US’s “Great Green Fleet” demonstration.



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