Why stressed over 250-253 exam? Simply Read VCE and Pass | braindumps | Great Dumps

Pass your 250-253 exams 4 sure with verified and authentic examcollection - Pass4sure Questions Answers and Pass4sure Exam Simulator We offer each every exam required to pass 250-253 exams - braindumps - Great Dumps

Pass4sure 250-253 dumps | Killexams.com 250-253 true questions | http://www.sraigalleries.com/

250-253 Administration of Veritas Cluster Server(R) 6.0 for Unix

Study lead Prepared by Killexams.com Symantec Dumps Experts


Killexams.com 250-253 Dumps and true Questions

100% true Questions - Exam Pass Guarantee with elevated Marks - Just Memorize the Answers



250-253 exam Dumps Source : Administration of Veritas Cluster Server(R) 6.0 for Unix

Test Code : 250-253
Test appellation : Administration of Veritas Cluster Server(R) 6.0 for Unix
Vendor appellation : Symantec
braindumps : 235 true Questions

I feel very confident by preparing 250-253 actual test questions.
killexams.com is straightforward and solid and you can skip the exam if you undergo their question bank. No words to explicit as i own handed the 250-253 exam in first strive. a few other question banks moreover are availble in the marketplace, but I experience killexams.com is nice among them. I am very confident and am going to exercise it for my different test additionally. thanks a lot ..killexams.


Save your time and money, read these 250-253 braindumps and enmesh the exam.
I am jubilant to order that I own successfully passed the 250-253 Exam. In this context I need to admit that your Question Bank did inspirit (if now not fully) to tied over the exam because the questions asked in the exam had been now not absolutely blanketed with the aid of your questions bank. HOwever I need to congratulate your attempt to do us technically sound together with your braindumpss. Thanks to killexams.com for clearing my 250-253 exam in first elegance.


I experience very confident with the aid of getting ready 250-253 true test questions.
When I had taken the determination for going to the exam then I were given a terrific assist for my training from the killexams.com which gave me the realness and dependable exercise 250-253 prep instructions for the identical. Here, I moreover got the possibility to rep myself checked before fervor confident of appearing well in the manner of the making ready for 250-253 and that was a nice component which made me flawless prepared for the exam which I scored well. Thanks to such matters from the killexams.


Found an accurate source for true 250-253 Questions.
By enrolling me for killexams.com is an break to rep myself cleared in 250-253 exam. Its a chance to rep myself through the difficult questions of 250-253 exam. If I could not own the chance to link this site I would own not been able to pellucid 250-253 exam. It was a glancing break for me that I got success in it so easily and made myself so cozy joining this site. After failing in this exam I was shattered and then I create this site that made my pass very easy.


Easy pass to pass 250-253 exam with these braindumps and Exam Simulator.
I passed a week ago my 250-253 confirmation check. killexams.com braindumps and Exam Simulator are Great particular to buy, it antiseptic my issues effortlessly in an extremely time, I was stun to perceive how top class theyre at their administrations. i would want an inordinate amount of obliged concerning the extraordinary protest which you in reality own that aided in the association and the usage of the check. This is often out and away the top-rated thorough and well bit of composing. Much obliged


All actual enmesh a Look at questions of 250-253 exam! Are you kidding?
candidates disburse months seeking to rep themselves organized for his or her 250-253 test however for me it changed into complete just a days work. you would phenomenon how a person could be able to finish this nature of awesome venture in only a day let me let you know, complete I needed to enact turned into symptom up my


Little keep for 250-253 examination, first rate success.
This is my first time that I took this carrier. I sense very assured in 250-253 but. I deliver together my 250-253 the exercise of questions and solutions with exam simulator softare through killexams.com crew.


250-253 question bank that works!
Getting geared up for 250-253 books may be a complex technique and nine out of ten probabilities are that youll fail if you enact it with not a thing suitable steerage. Thats where fantastic 250-253 e bespeak comes in! It gives you with inexperienced and groovy statistics that not simplest enhances your schooling however moreover gives you a antiseptic reduce chance of passing your 250-253 download and getting into any university with not a thing despair. I prepared thru this super software and i scored 40 two marks out of 50. I am able to guarantee you that itll by no means will let you down!


Is there someone who exceeded 250-253 exam?
I passed this exam with killexams.com and feature these days received my 250-253 certificate. I did complete my certifications with killexams.com, so I cant keep what its want to enmesh an exam with/without it. But, the fact that I hold coming again for his or her bundles indicates that Im happy with this exam solution. I clearly dote being able to workout on my pc, in theconsolation of my domestic, especially when the sizable majority of the questions acting at the exam are precisely the identical what you observed for your trying out engine at domestic. Manner to killexams.com, I got up to the professionalstage. I am now not positive whether or not or now not sick be shifting up any time fast, as I loom to be happy wherein i am. Thanks Killexams.


just attempt these today's dumps and success is yours.
killexams.com is the extraordinary IT exam education I ever got here for the duration of: I passed this 250-253 exam effortlessly. Now not most effectual are the questions actual, however theyre set up the pass 250-253 does it, so its very smooth to recall the retort while the questions Come up in the course of the exam. Now not complete of them are one hundred% equal, however many are. The relaxation is without a doubt very similar, so in case you test the killexams.com material rightly, youll own no problem sorting it out. Its very chilly and profitable to IT specialists dote myself.


Symantec Administration of Veritas Cluster

Symantec's Veritas Cluster Server 5.0 for VMware ESX offers inordinate Availability and calamity healing for actual and virtual Server Environments | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

supply: Symantec

November 07, 2006 08:00 ET

Veritas Cluster Server for VMware ESX Simplifies Cluster Administration and Automates Failover for VMware virtual Servers throughout Heterogeneous Networks

CUPERTINO, CA -- (MARKET WIRE) -- November 7, 2006 -- Symantec Corp. (NASDAQ: SYMC) nowadays unveiled Veritas™ Cluster Server (VCS) 5.0 for VMware ESX, bringing inordinate availability and catastrophe recuperation to heterogeneous information centers running virtual server utility. VCS for VMware ESX automates remote failover for calamity restoration and offers management of clustered virtual and physical servers. flawless to evade downtime in case of application, digital machine, community link, or server failures, VCS for VMware ESX centralizes cluster management in a solitary ESX server or throughout a campus or WAN. VCS is a key constituent of Veritas Server foundation, a set of products which makes it possible for commercial enterprise valued clientele to find in constituent what is running on the servers of their facts core, actively control and administer these servers, and ensure that mission crucial functions working on those servers are at complete times obtainable. Symantec might be demonstrating VCS for VMware ESX at the VMworld 2006 convention being held in los angeles this week.

"VMware administrators are seeking for tools that no longer most effectual automate catastrophe recovery but assist them crop the vulnerabilities associated with operating distinctive digital servers on the same actual server," talked about Poulomi Damany, director of product management for Symantec's data core management neighborhood. "Veritas Cluster Server for VMware ESX solves these complications by pass of combining catastrophe recuperation and elevated availability, and consolidating control of each virtual and actual servers and their dependencies."

VCS for VMware ESX enhances Symantec's clustering solutions for home windows, Linux and UNIX structures. Symantec is the market leader in cross-platform server clustering, in accordance with the 2006 edition of the IDC international Clustering and Availability software document(1). With added assist for VMware ESX, the market's most typical virtual server platform, VCS for VMware ESX provides a solitary retort to consolidate management of VMware virtual servers in heterogeneous statistics focus environments.

comprehensive elevated Availability and catastrophe healing

VCS for VMware ESX gives inordinate availability and calamity restoration for physical and virtual servers. by simplifying and automating far off failover for VMware virtual server environments, VCS for VMware ESX provides introduced insurance contrivance against virtual laptop or application screw ups, together with:

-- application and resource monitoring, in addition to server monitoring, which provides a higher plane of availability; -- computerized recuperation from application, network storage, virtual useful resource, digital server, and actual server disasters; -- Centralized management of virtual and physical resources and servers from a solitary console; -- finished trying out for calamity recuperation integrating each utility failover and data replication to enable corporations to examine catastrophe recovery with out disrupting construction environments. "as it managers try to rein in server sprawl and enrich resource utilization throughout the business, they're confronted with the problem of deploying dissimilar facts availability and management solutions to wield and protect an ever-turning out to be population of virtual servers," famed Brian Babineau, Analyst, enterprise approach community. "With VCS for VMware ESX, Symantec has simplified the project for VMware customers by pass of providing a solitary platform that can linger away from downtime of mission vital applications running in virtual and actual server environments throughout any distance and any platform."

New advocate for VMware ESX

VCS for VMware ESX moreover enables purchasers to maximize the advanced points of VMware through recognizing and seamlessly interoperating with VMware's VMotion and dispensed resource Scheduler (DRS). If a virtual desktop is moved from one server to a different for planned preservation using VMotion, the circulation could be recognized by VCS and VCS will enmesh the imperative motion to update the cluster fame as a consequence. it's moreover suitable with distributed resource Scheduler (DRS), VMware's workload optimization characteristic.

computerized catastrophe recovery testing

exciting to VCS is hearth Drill, a characteristic of VCS that gives an added layer of insurance contrivance for digital servers. With fire Drill, groups can check their calamity restoration contrivance and configuration devoid of impacting the construction environment. In virtual environments the situation server places exchange generally, hearth Drill helps display screen and track mobile servers, their configuration and dependency hyperlinks.

price and Availability

Veritas Cluster Server for VMware ESX is scheduled to be released in the first quarter of 2007. Pricing for VCS for VMware ESX begins at $1,995 per server.

About Symantec

Symantec is the realm chief in offering options to advocate individuals and organizations guarantee the security, availability, and integrity of their suggestions. Headquartered in Cupertino, Calif., Symantec has operations in forty countries. extra information is purchasable at www.symantec.com.

(1) IDC, worldwide Clustering and Availability utility 2005 dealer Shares, Doc #203676, October, 2006

be watchful TO EDITORS: if you'd dote more information on Symantec employer and its products, delight visit the Symantec information play at http://www.symantec.com/information. complete expenses referred to are in U.S. greenbacks and are telling handiest within the u.s..

Symantec and the Symantec emblem are trademarks or registered trademarks of Symantec organization or its associates in the U.S. and other nations. different names could be trademarks of their respective owners.


Symantec declares the availability of Veritas Storage foundation 5.0 and Veritas Cluster Server 5.0 | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Symantec Corp. introduced the established availability of its Storage groundwork 5.0 household of items, featuring public and private sector organizations with current visibility and control over complex statistics core storage environments. besides this current storage management providing, Symantec is releasing for common availability Veritas Cluster Server 5.0, a key constituent of the Veritas Server foundation family. Veritas Cluster Server 5.0 is a confirmed solution for cutting back planned and unplanned utility and database downtime. Veritas Storage foundation 5.0 and Veritas Cluster Server 5.0 are core add-ons of the Symantec data core foundation retort family unit, the handiest providing that makes it possible for executive and commercial enterprise customers to standardize on a solitary layer of infrastructure software throughout their total information center, enabling them to in the reduction of datacenter complexity, enhance carrier tiers, and pressure down operations charges.

clients who leverage the Symantec records core groundwork can recognize potent operational merits such because the capability to coach their personnel on one set of paraphernalia in its situation of dozens of disparate seller-particular equipment; stronger negotiating leverage and suppleness in selecting amongst any main storage and server supplier; and more advantageous utilization of server and storage hardware belongings. in addition, shoppers can achieve gigantic direct impregnate savings. by means of standardizing on solutions dote Veritas Storage groundwork 5.0 and Veritas Cluster Server 5.0, companies can evade deciding to buy duplicative server and storage software from several companies, and recognize giant storage hardware rate reductions by pass of relocating records from excessive-cost tier one storage to lessen cost tier two storage.

Storage basis 5.0 gives facts core-huge visibility into the entire storage atmosphere throughout complete most notable application, server, operating paraphernalia and storage platforms. additionally, Storage groundwork 5.0 offers powerful centralized control over storage administration, enabling hundreds of methods to be managed from a solitary console and automating routine tasks to eradicate human error and time-drinking manual processes. moreover, with this unencumber, Symantec offers users with the first synchronous unlock across complete primary UNIX and Linux systems.

an impressive server management providing from Symantec, Veritas Cluster Server 5.0 includes current aspects designed to in the reduction of both planned and unplanned downtime, even if as a result of hardware screw ups, facts core great failures, or server renovation, by automating local and great enviornment utility failover. Cluster Server 5.0 enables valued clientele to video display, manage, and report on assorted local and faraway clusters from a solitary web-based mostly console. To more desirable guarantee the success of a catastrophe healing strategy, Veritas Cluster Server 5.0 includes hearth Drill, a tool that automates DR trying out, decreasing the time, price, and risk of the testing system. as a result of information core servers and functions are consistently changing, continually testing a catastrophe healing strategy is notable to guarantee a successful restoration within the experience of a device or web page-extensive outage. IT directors now own the skill to achieve remarkable wield and self assurance in their programs as hearth Drill helps assure reliability and efficiency of their DR programs and strategies.

Pricing and Availability

Veritas Storage foundation 5.0, Veritas extent Replicator 5.0, Veritas Storage groundwork primary and Veritas Cluster Server 5.0 are available now via Symantec's direct revenue drive, traffic VAR channel, paraphernalia integrators, and select OEM partners. Veritas Storage foundation primary can moreover be downloaded at www.symantec.com/sfbasic. Storage groundwork management Server may moreover be downloaded at www.symantec.com/sfms. Veritas Storage foundation 5.0 and Veritas Cluster Server 5.0 are licensed per server tier or per processor. Veritas Storage basis fundamental is accessible free. The optional annual assist subscription for Veritas Storage foundation basic starts at US $ninety eight per processor.


Veritas Cluster Server for windows | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

This dealer-specific Certification is obtainable by using:SymantecCupertino, CA USAPhone: 408-517-8000Email: This e-mail wield is being blanketed from spambots. You want JavaScript enabled to view it.

ability stage: basis                          reputation: Unknown

within your means: $one hundred fifty (shortest tune)               

summary:for people who've the competencies and talents fundamental to devise, design, and set up Veritas Storage foundation inordinate Availability for windows in an commercial enterprise atmosphere.

preliminary necessities:You must flux the Administration of Veritas Storage basis inordinate Availability for home windows exam ($one hundred fifty) and settle for the Symantec Certification agreement. The exam is ninety minutes lengthy and consists of seventy two questions. A passing ranking of 72% is required. working towards is accessible however not required.

continuing requirements:None targeted

See complete Symantec Certifications

supplier's page for this certification


While it is arduous errand to pick solid certification questions/answers assets regarding review, reputation and validity since individuals rep sham because of picking incorrectly benefit. Killexams.com ensure to serve its customers best to its assets as for exam dumps update and validity. The greater fragment of other's sham report objection customers Come to us for the brain dumps and pass their exams cheerfully and effortlessly. They never covenant on their review, reputation and character because killexams review, killexams reputation and killexams customer certainty is imperative to us. Extraordinarily they deal with killexams.com review, killexams.com reputation, killexams.com sham report grievance, killexams.com trust, killexams.com validity, killexams.com report and killexams.com scam. On the off chance that you descry any untrue report posted by their rivals with the appellation killexams sham report grievance web, killexams.com sham report, killexams.com scam, killexams.com protestation or something dote this, simply recollect there are constantly terrible individuals harming reputation of superb administrations because of their advantages. There are a Great many fulfilled clients that pass their exams utilizing killexams.com brain dumps, killexams PDF questions, killexams braindumps questions, killexams exam simulator. Visit Killexams.com, their instance questions and test brain dumps, their exam simulator and you will realize that killexams.com is the best brain dumps site.

Back to Braindumps Menu


PEGACSA brain dumps | 2V0-622D test prep | MD0-251 exam questions | 1D0-520 exercise test | 1Z0-459 questions and answers | HP2-B68 questions answers | HP0-J53 pdf download | HP0-Y28 bootcamp | HP0-M12 test questions | TB0-124 study guide | VCP550PSE study guide | BPM-001 exercise questions | C2010-651 exercise Test | A2090-312 questions and answers | 000-741 exercise questions | HP2-K38 exam prep | HP0-D08 braindumps | 310-013 exercise test | H13-621 true questions | C4090-958 test prep |


Pass4sure 250-253 exercise Tests with true Questions
killexams.com pleased with notoriety of helping individuals pass the 250-253 test in their first attempts. Their prosperity rates in the previous two years own been completely great, because of their upbeat clients who are currently ready to inspirit their vocation in the rapid track. killexams.com is the main determination among IT experts, particularly the ones who are hoping to scale the progressive system levels quicker in their individual associations.

Symantec 250-253 Exam has given another bearing to the IT enterprise. It is currently required to certify as the qualification which prompts a brighter future. be that as it can, you need to deliver super exertion in Symantec Administration of Veritas Cluster Server(R) 6.0 for Unix exam, in mild of the fact that there may be no eschew out of perusing. killexams.com own made your smooth, now your exam making plans for 250-253 Administration of Veritas Cluster Server(R) 6.0 for Unix isnt fierce any further. Click http://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/250-253 killexams.com Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as beneath;
WC2017 : 60% Discount Coupon for complete exams on website
PROF17 : 10% Discount Coupon for Orders extra than $69
DEAL17 : 15% Discount Coupon for Orders extra than $ninety nine
DECSPECIAL : 10% Special Discount Coupon for complete Orders
As, the killexams.com is a stable and dependable qualification who furnishes 250-253 exam questions with 100% pass guarantee. You need to hone questions for at least one day at any impregnate to score well inside the exam. Your true experience to success in 250-253 exam, surely starts offevolved with killexams.com exam questions that is the astonishing and checked wellspring of your centered on function.

killexams.com elevated character 250-253 exam simulator is very facilitating for their customers for the exam preparation. complete notable features, topics and definitions are highlighted in brain dumps pdf. Gathering the data in one situation is a prerogative time saver and helps you prepare for the IT certification exam within a short time span. The 250-253 exam offers key points. The killexams.com pass4sure dumps helps to memorize the notable features or concepts of the 250-253 exam

At killexams.com, they provide thoroughly reviewed Symantec 250-253 training resources which are the best for Passing 250-253 test, and to rep certified by Symantec. It is a best selection to accelerate your career as a professional in the Information Technology industry. They are haughty of their reputation of helping people pass the 250-253 test in their very first attempts. Their success rates in the past two years own been absolutely impressive, thanks to their jubilant customers who are now able to boost their career in the rapid lane. killexams.com is the number one selection among IT professionals, especially the ones who are looking to climb up the hierarchy levels faster in their respective organizations. Symantec is the industry leader in information technology, and getting certified by them is a guaranteed pass to succeed with IT careers. They inspirit you enact exactly that with their elevated character Symantec 250-253 training materials. Symantec 250-253 is omnipresent complete around the world, and the traffic and software solutions provided by them are being embraced by almost complete the companies. They own helped in driving thousands of companies on the sure-shot path of success. Comprehensive scholarship of Symantec products are required to certify a very notable qualification, and the professionals certified by them are highly valued in complete organizations.

We provide true 250-253 pdf exam questions and answers braindumps in two formats. Download PDF & exercise Tests. Pass Symantec 250-253 true Exam quickly & easily. The 250-253 braindumps PDF nature is available for reading and printing. You can print more and exercise many times. Their pass rate is elevated to 98.9% and the similarity percentage between their 250-253 study lead and true exam is 90% based on their seven-year educating experience. enact you want achievements in the 250-253 exam in just one try?

Cause complete that matters here is passing the 250-253 - Administration of Veritas Cluster Server(R) 6.0 for Unix exam. As complete that you need is a elevated score of Symantec 250-253 exam. The only one thing you need to enact is downloading braindumps of 250-253 exam study guides now. They will not let you down with their money-back guarantee. The professionals moreover withhold pace with the most up-to-date exam in order to present with the the majority of updated materials. Three Months free access to be able to them through the date of buy. Every candidates may afford the 250-253 exam dumps via killexams.com at a low price. Often there is a discount for anyone all.

In the presence of the true exam content of the brain dumps at killexams.com you can easily develop your niche. For the IT professionals, it is vital to enhance their skills according to their career requirement. They do it smooth for their customers to enmesh certification exam with the inspirit of killexams.com verified and true exam material. For a brilliant future in the world of IT, their brain dumps are the best option.

A top dumps writing is a very notable feature that makes it smooth for you to enmesh Symantec certifications. But 250-253 braindumps PDF offers convenience for candidates. The IT certification is quite a difficult task if one does not find proper guidance in the figure of true resource material. Thus, they own true and updated content for the preparation of certification exam.

It is very notable to amass to the point material if one wants to deliver time. As you need lots of time to Look for updated and true study material for taking the IT certification exam. If you find that at one place, what could be better than this? Its only killexams.com that has what you need. You can deliver time and linger away from hassle if you buy Adobe IT certification from their website.

killexams.com Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as under;
WC2017 : 60% Discount Coupon for complete exams on website
PROF17 : 10% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $69
DEAL17 : 15% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $99
DECSPECIAL : 10% Special Discount Coupon for complete Orders


You should rep the most updated Symantec 250-253 Braindumps with the rectify answers, which are prepared by killexams.com professionals, allowing the candidates to grasp scholarship about their 250-253 exam course in the maximum, you will not find 250-253 products of such character anywhere in the market. Their Symantec 250-253 exercise Dumps are given to candidates at performing 100% in their exam. Their Symantec 250-253 exam dumps are latest in the market, giving you a chance to prepare for your 250-253 exam in the prerogative way.

250-253 Practice Test | 250-253 examcollection | 250-253 VCE | 250-253 study guide | 250-253 practice exam | 250-253 cram


Killexams 1Z0-973 sample test | Killexams 920-463 cram | Killexams 6402 exercise questions | Killexams 000-275 questions and answers | Killexams 310-091 questions answers | Killexams 1Z0-066 bootcamp | Killexams 1Z0-448 questions and answers | Killexams C4040-108 braindumps | Killexams 1Z1-522 braindumps | Killexams HP0-M36 exercise questions | Killexams 132-s-712-2 examcollection | Killexams MB7-639 exam questions | Killexams JN0-120 exercise Test | Killexams HP2-B90 brain dumps | Killexams HP2-Q04 true questions | Killexams 300-460 VCE | Killexams 1Z0-520 dumps questions | Killexams 1Z0-968 pdf download | Killexams ACCUPLACER study guide | Killexams 500-205 dump |


killexams.com huge List of Exam Braindumps

View Complete list of Killexams.com Brain dumps


Killexams 050-653 true questions | Killexams A00-211 test prep | Killexams M2020-732 braindumps | Killexams P6040-017 free pdf | Killexams C4040-120 exam questions | Killexams 70-545-CSharp sample test | Killexams 000-M245 exercise questions | Killexams 000-582 cheat sheets | Killexams COG-703 study guide | Killexams CA-Real-Estate free pdf download | Killexams E20-555 pdf download | Killexams HP0-S15 dumps questions | Killexams 050-688 exercise exam | Killexams 000-N23 VCE | Killexams 9L0-607 exercise Test | Killexams MB2-719 mock exam | Killexams A2090-312 exercise test | Killexams EE0-021 exam prep | Killexams NSE8 test prep | Killexams 000-189 test prep |


Administration of Veritas Cluster Server(R) 6.0 for Unix

Pass 4 confident 250-253 dumps | Killexams.com 250-253 true questions | http://www.sraigalleries.com/

Implementing Security, fragment II: Hardening Your UNIX/Linux Servers | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

Continuing with fragment 2 of this two-article series, Joseph Dries helps you continue to expand upon your list of basic security processes by looking at UNIX/Linux hardening, protecting your servers from network based TCP/IP attacks, and utilizing centralized logging servers.

This article was excerpted from The Concise lead to Enterprise Internetworking and Security.

"A commercial, and in some respects a social, doubt has been started within the final year or two, whether or not it is prerogative to argue so openly the security or insecurity of locks. Many well-meaning persons suppose that the discussion respecting the means for baffling the supposititious safety of locks offers a premium for dishonesty, by showing others how to be dishonest. This is a fallacy. Rogues are very keen in their profession, and already know much more than they can drill them respecting their several kinds of roguery. Rogues knew a superb deal about lockpicking long before locksmiths discussed it among themselves, as they own lately done. If a lock—let it own been made in whatever country, or by whatever maker—is not so inviolable as it has hitherto been deemed to be, surely it is in the interest of honest persons to know this fact because the mendacious are tolerably inevitable to be the first to apply the scholarship practically; and the spread of scholarship is necessary to give unprejudiced play to those who might suffer by ignorance. It cannot be too earnestly urged, that an acquaintance with true facts will, in the end, be better for complete parties." —Charles Tomlinson's "Rudimentary Treatise on the Construction of Locks," published around 1850

It has been said that the wonderful thing about standards is there are so many to elect from. The same selection is available in the UNIX arena. There are two basic flavors, BSD-derived and AT&T System V-derived. BSD-derived UNIX systems include OpenBSD, FreeBSD, NetBSD, BSDi, MacOS X, and SunOS 4. System V-derived UNIX systems include HP-UX and Solaris (SunOS 5). Other UNIX systems, such as AIX, provide commands that will act BSD-ish or System V-ish, depending on how they were invoked. Linux is not derived from any UNIX, but depending on the distribution, borrows from both BSD and System V semantics. Actually, Linux itself is just the operating system kernel and supporting drivers. Most Linux distributions exercise the GNU system (http://www.gnu.org), thus they are called GNU/Linux distributions. There are hundreds of available GNU/Linux distributions, but even the "top 5" are different in their default commands, startup scripts, filesystem layout, included utilities, and packaging systems.

What does this be of value to you? Unlike Windows NT, including Windows 2000, it is a far more complex process to characterize how to harden a UNIX/Linux server. This next section provides some common procedures that can be applied across UNIX versions and GNU/Linux distributions. Following that are some pointers to living documents on the Internet, which track available data and releases, and Go into a more particular account of how to harden a server for a particular task.

Common Steps for Hardening UNIX/Linux Servers

The process of edifice a UNIX or GNU/Linux server for exercise as a firewall or DMZ server begins with installation. Eliminating points of attack, such as filling the filesystem, or removing unnecessary libraries and services, is equivalent to removing possible entry points for intruders.

Some common guidelines for configuring UNIX servers with a more secure default stance are available from CERT's Web site at ftp://info.cert.org/pub/tech_tips/UNIX_configuration_guidelines.

Partition for Protection

Besides having sunder partitions for the obvious, such as SWAP and /tmp, you should protect against out-of-disk-space denial-of-service attacks. Intruders might try to create inordinate generation of logging data or fill your file system with great files through FTP or mail spool. The best pass to protect against this is to segment the filesystem hierarchy into sunder physical partitions.

The root partition / can be minute because it generally contains just the kernel—the necessary files, libraries, and configuration for booting in /bin, /sbin, /etc, and /lib. Access to the attached devices is provided through the /dev and /devices directories. Many GNU/Linux distributions store kernels and emblem data in the /boot directory, whereas kernel libraries are stored under /lib.

The /usr partition is normally where user-accessible applications are stored. Normally, /usr does not accommodate data or configuration files that change; therefore, an added security measure can be mounted as read-only.

The /var partition stores system logs and data services such as mail, Web, databases, printing, running services, package management, and so on. On a mail server, you might want to do /var/spool/mail, or /var/mail in Solaris, a sunder partition, or—even better—a sunder disk array. If you only create one sunder partition from /, /var is the one you should separate.

The /usr/local directory structure, and in Solaris the /opt directory, often contains locally installed optional software, configuration files, and data. /usr/local is normally not affected by operating system upgrades. Depending on how you exercise those directories, they too can be mounted as read-only.

These are suggestions and guidelines only, and are different from recommended settings for a system that contains user accounts, usually in /home.

Disable Extraneous inetd Services

inetd is the UNIX "Internet Super Server." It is a daemon process that is invoked at boot time and reads in a flat file configuration database normally create at /etc/inetd.conf. inetd listens for incoming connections on the defined IP ports. When a connection is initiated on a defined port, it invokes the configured program to service the request. After the connection is finished, the process invoked to service that request terminates. This was originally designed to lighten the load and resources required for systems.

There are a number of services enabled through inetd, and almost complete of them should be disabled for edifice firewalls and DMZ servers. Besides normally disabling FTP, TFTP, Telnet, and the Berkeley r* commands, disable the following:

  • in.named—BIND appellation services daemon. Except for your DNS servers, you should not be running DNS on your firewall or DMZ servers.

  • in.fingerd—Finger daemon that can be used to clarify user information and lists of users who are logged in. There is no reason to advertise that information to would-be intruders.

  • daytime—Connections to this service display the date and time on the system in a string format. Getting the date and time of a system is useful for an intruder trying to implement replay attacks.

  • time—Connections to this service revert the time as a 32-bit value representing the number of seconds since midnight 1-Jan-1900. enact not provide intruders with your exact system time.

  • echo—This is a diagnostic service that echoes incoming data back to the connecting machine.

  • discard—This is a diagnostic service that does not reverberate (thus discarding) the incoming data stream back to the connecting machine.

  • chargen—This is a diagnostic service that automatically generates a stream of characters sent to the connecting machine.

  • systat—Connections to this service provide a list of complete processes and their status.

  • netstat—Connections to this service provide a list of current network connections and their status.

  • Install and Configure tcp_wrappers

    Install and configure Wietse Venema's tcp_wrappers on both your firewall and DMZ servers. tcp_wrappers allows you to define access control to various services, depending on a limited set of criteria, such as username, IP address, or DNS domain.

    You might be asking why it's necessary to configure and install additional products when your firewall will be doing the same thing. And that's a telling question. The retort is to avoid solitary points of failure, and to provide security in layers. If one layer is pierced and bypassed, other layers will be standing guard behind the breach.

    tcp_wrappers are lightweight and extremely useful on internal servers; not just on firewalls and DMZ servers. withhold in reason that most information security breaches, intentional or accidental, befall internally. It's only the external defacements, massive distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, virus-du-jour, and stolen credit card databases that grab the press. That, and misplaced arduous drives with highly sensitive nuclear information.

    tcp_wrappers own two main files that allow access to the individually defined services. The following two files are checked for rules governing access to individual or wildcard services:

    /etc/hosts.allow /etc/hosts.deny

    Like most firewalls, access is granted or denied on the first matching rule. The rules are checked in order, first in hosts.allow and then in hosts.deny.

    Care should be taken when using the KNOWN or UNKNOWN wildcards. complete will always match whatever criteria you are testing. Read the hosts_access manual page included with tcp_wrappers for further details on syntax and rules setup.

    tcp_wrappers is installed and configured by default on most GNU/Linux distributions and BSD releases. For those UNIX systems that enact not own tcp_wrappers installed by default, they can be create at ftp://ftp.porcupine.org/pub/security/index.html. Retrieve the source, compile, and install the binaries on the servers.

    Lock Down Your DNS Server

    The Berkeley Internet appellation Daemon, or BIND, is the reference implementation of the appellation service providing DNS for the Internet. The Internet Software Consortium (ISC) is amenable for implementing and maintaining BIND. There are three basic versions of BIND: BIND 4, BIND 8, and (recently) BIND 9.

    BIND 4 has been around forever, and has its partake of exploits. Only very archaic versions of UNIX systems and GNU/Linux distributions came with BIND 4. Still, you'll be surprised how many installations soundless own the older BIND 4 running. You should upgrade to a newer version of BIND. The luckless thing is that the file format defining the zones served by the server has changed. There are conversion scripts, but there is confident to be some hand editing.

    BIND 8 is the current stable release, and offers many more features and better control and granularity in access control. The settings described later are discussed with BIND 8 in mind.

    BIND 9 was released late in 2000. It offers many current features, such as IPv6 support, DNSSEC, complete Dynamic DNS, incremental zone transfers, multiple views (internal, external, and so on) from a solitary server, and scalability improvements. If any of those features are notable to your configuration, you should investigate using BIND 9; otherwise, it's best left to the adventurous.

    Although almost complete UNIX systems and GNU/Linux distributions Come with BIND as the appellation server, it is notable you do confident you are at a recommended release. Before deploying a DNS server, internally or on the DMZ, do confident it is at least version 8.2.2-P5. Any version prior to that has solemn exploits. This warning should not be ignored. The Internet Software Consortium themselves own issued a statement that if you are running any version of BIND prior to 8.2.2-P5, you should assume your server has already been compromised. Check your UNIX system or GNU/Linux distribution. If the version of BIND is not at least 8.2.2-P5, check with your vendor for upgrades. If an upgrade is not available, you can compile a version of BIND yourself on a workstation, and install the binaries on your server. The source code can be create at http://www.isc.org/products/BIND/.

    First, restrict zone transfers to specific secondary servers in your primary zones. The acl command allows you to define an access control list composed of blocks of addresses to be used with a named identifier. Using ACLs provides a self-documenting pass of administrating the named.conf configuration file. In the following example, they define two ACLs comprising their externally visible DNS servers and the secondary servers at their ISP:

    acl your-company-dns { 172.16.30.12; 172.16.30.24; }; acl your-ISP-dns { 199.177.202.10; 204.95.224.200; };

    The following allow-transfer option directive placed in your named.conf file will default complete defined zones to only allow transfers for the defined hosts:

    options { allow-transfer { your-company-dns; your-ISP-dns; }; };

    You can override the allow-transfer statement in the options directive by placing the allow-transfer statement in the zone definition:

    zone "yourdomain.com" { nature master; file "db.yourdomain-com"; allow-transfer { 172.16.30.12; 192.168.71.200; }; }

    The default allow-transfer option will forestall zone transfers to hosts not specified in the ACLs. However, if you want to restrict complete zone transfers on your secondary servers and any secondary zones on your primary servers, exercise predefined match list none. This can be accomplished with the following allow-transfer directive in your zone definitions:

    zone "yourdomain.com" { nature slave; file "db.yourdomain-com.s"; masters { 192.168.71.1; }; allow-transfer { none; }; };

    Finally, because you will be allowing recursive queries through your servers, it's best to enable access control lists for your internal networks. Using a nested, named acl with the allow-query option in the zone definition, you can then restrict recursive queries to internal hosts only as seen in the following example:

    acl internal-net { 192.168.71.0/24; }; acl dmz-net { 172.16.30.0/24; }; acl trusted-hosts { localhost; internal-net; dmz-net; }; zone "yourdomain.com" { nature master; file "db.yourdomain-com" allow-query { trusted-hosts; }; };

    Que's Concise lead to DNS and BIND by Nicolai Langfeldt is a wonderful resource to further grok BIND configuration and maintenance.

    Tighten Sendmail Default Options

    Send mail comes with just about every UNIX/Linux installation as the default mail transfer agent (MTA). As a result of being so widely installed, it has been estimated that sendmail handles a majority of the email on the Internet. Because it runs as suid root, sendmail exploits affect millions of machines.

    sendmail version 8.11.0 is available at the time of publication, and supports current features such as STARTTLS and SMTP AUTH encryption. Upgrade to the newest version available, if possible, but delight do confident that you are running a version no later than version 8.9.3 because of security exploits.

    To enable the Realtime Blackhole List feature, exercise the following in your sendmail.mc file:

    FEATURE(rbl)dnl

    Additionally, you might want to disable the SMTP VRFY and EXPN commands in sendmail. These commands are often used by intruders to amass information about your system:

    define(´confPRIVACY_FLAGS', ´novrfy,noexpn')dnl

    There are several additional flags you can set to do sendmail own a more secure stance:

  • authwarnings—Add X-Authentication-Warning header in messages on inevitable conditions that might testify mail system spoof attempts.

  • needmailhelo—Require that the sending site uses the SMTP HELO command first when connecting to ship email.

  • needexpnhelo—Require that the sending site uses the SMTP HELO command before allowing any EXPN usage.

  • needvrfyhelo—Require that the sending site uses the SMTP HELO command before allowing any VRFY usage.

  • noreceipts—Disable Delivery Status Notification (DSNs) of delivery and read receipts.

  • goaway—Set complete flags except restrictmailq and restrictqrun.

  • restrictmailq—Prevent users from using the mailq command to view the contents of the mail queue.

  • restrictqrun—Stop users from processing the queue.

  • Better than sendmail: Making Postfix Your MTA

    According to its Web page, Postfix's goals are "to be fast, smooth to administer, and secure, while at the same time being sendmail compatible enough to not upset existing users."

    Postfix was primarily written by Wietse Venema of tcp_wrappers fame. Postfix was designed to be modular, thus Postfix is not a solitary executable dote sendmail; rather, Postfix comprises a collection of specialized programs that fulfill specific tasks. complete the programs except for the master control process (oddly called master because it runs without root privilege) Hurry as nonprivileged users, limiting the damage an attacker can inflict on your system. Because of the speed, ease of configuration (and thus less chance of misconfiguration), and security, it is recommended that you investigate replacing sendmail with Postfix. For those of you who enact not dream in sendmail.cf syntax, Postfix will do email administration both easier and more secure.

    Postfix is now distributed with most GNU/Linux and BSD releases, although it is not often installed by default. Usually, it is a simple matter of installing it via your package management system, or (in the BSD case) via the ports collection.

    If you are using an operating system that does not deal Postfix, hopelessness not. You can download and compile the sources easily on a progress workstation and then install the binaries on your mail server. The sources, FAQs, and documentation can be create at http://www.postfix.org/

    Linux-Specific Tasks

    There are many GNU/Linux distributions out there. Each vendor has its own installation process, which usually changes between current versions of the vendor's distribution. The "forerunners" of GNU/Linux distributions are Red Hat, SuSE, TurboLinux, Mandrake, Caldera, Slackware, and Debian. That does not be of value specifically that you should exercise any one of them because the elevated number of distributions allows vendors to tailor their GNU/Linux distributions to specific tasks such as embedded systems, routers, and firewalls. enmesh the time to carefully investigate the available distributions, and determine which best fits your needs.

    With that said, two of these general distributions stand out, but for different reasons. Red Hat, because it has had the most appellation recognition, and is usually the first to rep any sort of corporate advocate in the pass of commercial software or commercial technical service. Many vendors, such as Oracle, IBM, and Check Point, own released products for Red Hat-specific distributions. This does not be of value that those software releases will not Hurry on other GNU/Linux distributions, but if there is a problem, the vendor might not advocate your installation of its product on a non-Red Hat distribution.

    Debian is the second distribution that deserves mention. First, not because it is entirely free, but because it is maintained by a nonprofit organization made up entirely of volunteers. These volunteers are highly motivated by character and pride in their efforts to do Debian the most stable and completely 100% free distribution available. Debian has proven to be extremely stable and smooth to manage and upgrade remotely. The upgrade process is by far the easiest of any of the GNU/Linux distributions. Debian installations can be upgraded without the need for reboots, replacing every installed package and running process excepting the kernel. Additionally, the Debian packaging system and its front ends allow extremely fine-grained control over which packages, utilities, libraries, and files exist on your system. Debian moreover is currently available on six different architectures, with more than 3,900 included software packages to select from when installing.

    For both Debian and Red Hat installations, you should elect custom installations, and select the individual packages you want on your system. There should be no need to install progress packages, any of the current KDE or GNOME desktops, and certainly not X Window. Unfortunately, neither distribution yet has a minimal secure server or firewall predefined install-set.

    During the installation process, you should elect to enable shadow password file support; elect to exercise MD5 hashes for the passwords rather than the common crypt function. If you miss these options during the install, you can change them after installation. In Red Hat, exercise the setup utility. In Debian, you can exercise the shadowconfig utility to enable or disable shadow passwords. To enable MD5 hashes, you own to edit the commandeer files under /etc/pam.d to include md5 on the password lines.

    You should moreover enable ipchains support, even if this is an application server on the DMZ. ipchains provides additional layers of security, and allows you to protect the server from traffic should the firewall fail for some reason. A sample ipchains configuration is discussed later in the article.

    You should additionally read and monitor the security and errata/updates lists from your distribution vendor. With Debian, it is extremely smooth to automatically install security updates using the apt-get utility. For Red Hat installations starting with the 6.0 release, there is the up2date utility to retrieve updated packages for your release.

    For those people who elect to install Red Hat Linux, there is a security-related project called Bastille Linux, whose train is not just to harden your Linux installation, but to educate the administrators on how to harden the system. Bastille Linux supports Red Hat and Mandrake Linux distributions with project goals to become distribution, and UNIX flavor, agnostic. The Bastille Linux product is a set of scripts that asks a series of questions and then allows you to apply those modifications to your system. The questions characterize what needs to be done, why it should be done, and why you might not want to enact it. It is very educational, especially for those administrators just getting close with Linux. Bastille Linux can be create at http://www.bastille-linux.org/.

    Another excellent source of information for administrators is the Linux Administrator's Security Guide. It covers an extremely wide array of topics related to Linux and security. You can find the Linux Administrator's Security lead online at http://www.securityportal.com/lasg/.

    Solaris-Specific Tasks

    Solaris has four default install-sets: Core, End-User, Developer, and Entire Distribution. Installing any install-set higher than the Core installation will enable more services than are required for DMZ servers or firewalls. In reality, you can often remove a significant percentage of the default Core install-set, depending on your server's application requirements.

    For Solaris-based servers, there are several excellent documents from Sun in its Blueprints Online archive at http://www.sun.com/software/solutions/blueprints/online.html. The following three papers are excellent starting points for edifice secure Solaris servers:

  • "Solaris Operating Environment Minimization for Security: A Simple, Reproducible and Secure Application Installation Methodology" by Alex Noordergraaf and Keith Watson. Although this paper specifically covers the iPlanet Web server requirements, similar requirements are necessary for using Apache or other Web servers.

  • "Solaris Operating Environment Security" by Alex Noordergraaf and Keith Watson. An overview of general security options on a Solaris server. This paper includes some specifics for the SPARC architecture; however, most of the material is applicable to Intel architectures as well.

  • "Solaris Operating Environment Network Settings for Security" by Alex Noordergraaf and Keith Watson is another excellent paper on kernel tuning and application parameters that affect network security.

  • As a matter of fact, Sun's Blueprints Online is a wealth of whitepapers outlining Best Practices regarding Solaris Operating Environments, whether it is a DMZ Web server, firewall, or internal highly available database cluster.

    Lance Spitzner moreover has an excellent Solaris hardening document that details the hardening process for edifice a Check Point FireWall-1 firewall on several recent versions of Solaris (through version 8) for the Intel and SPARC platforms. The living document resides at http://www.enteract.com/~lspitz/armoring.html.

    Finally, there is an equivalent to the Bastille-Linux hardening scripts for Solaris called TITAN. The TITAN project and documentation can be create at http://www.fish.com/titan/.

    OpenBSD-Specific Tasks

    This section concentrates on OpenBSD 2.7, which is one of the three more notorious BSD variants; the others being NetBSD and FreeBSD. Each variant has focused on a different problem: NetBSD is the most portable, FreeBSD has the best performance, and OpenBSD is the most secure.

    One of the Great strengths of OpenBSD is the highly secure default stance of a default install of OpenBSD. The OpenBSD Web site claims "three years without a remote cavity in the default install, only one localhost cavity in two years in the default install." Almost complete services are disabled until the administrator has enough experience to properly configure them.

    Two additional changes necessary for an OpenBSD box to become a firewall are to disable sendmail and enable IP filter support. Both changes are made to the same file, /etc/rc.conf. To disable sendmail, change

    sendmail_flags="-q30m"

    to

    sendmail_flags=NO

    To enable IP filter support, you must change

    ipfilter=NO

    to

    ipfilter=YES

    Additionally, if you will be doing Network Address Translation (NAT), providing transparent proxying, or providing advocate for FTP, you must enable the ipnat option by setting ipnat=YES. Syntax for IP filters will be covered briefly later in the chapter.


    1998 in review | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    LWN 1998 Linux timeline

    This is version 1.0 of the 1998 Linux timeline. Thanks to input from many of you, many omissions from the previous version own been fixed. For those who own seen the earlier version, check out the changes page to descry what got added. The permanent site for this page is and will remain:

    http://lwn.net/1999/features/1998timeline/

    We're soundless looking for input for the final version of this page, which will be fragment of the January 7, 1999 issue of LWN. delight drop us a note with your suggestions for additions to this page.

    This page was produced by Jonathan Corbet at Eklektix, Inc. Contributions own since Come in from Zachary Beane, Christopher Bohn, heed Bolzern, Malcolm Caldwell, Victor Chang, Alan Cox, David Damerell, Joe DeVita, Gael Duval, Sammy Ford, Emmanuel Galanos, Jason Haas, Hans ? (hzo), Tres Hofmeister, "Kerberus," Alexander Kjeldaas, Matthias Kranz, Barry Kwok, Erik Levy, William Mackeown, Rick Moen, Olivier M�ller, Hartmut Niemann, Rodolphe Ortalo, flush Payne, Kelly Price, G. Branden Robinson, Greg Roelofs, Daniel Roesen, Seth David Schoen, Dan Shafer, Lewis Tanzos, Jarto Tarpio, Henri de la Vall�e Poussin, Moshe Vainer, Steve Wainstead, David A. Wheeler, Micah Yoder, and James Youngman. Many thanks to complete of these folks!

    You may jump straight to the month of your choice: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, or December.

    The Linux Weekly intelligence begins publication. The very first issue, dated January 22, was a just a tiny hint of what LWN was to become. Since then we've gotten better at it, and the Linux world has gotten much more complicated. It has been an fascinating adventure.

    [Netscape]Netscape announces that they will release the source to their browser under a free software license. This almost certainly remains one of the most notable events of the year; it opened a lot of eyes to what Linux and free software could provide.

    [RHAD] Red Hat Advanced progress Labs is founded. It has since become one of the higher-profile places where people are paid to develop free software, and an notable component of the GNOME project. RHAD is able to attract developers dote "Rasterman" and Federico Mena Quintero.

    The Stampede Linux distribution is announced. Actually, this happened in December, but the intelligence took a while to spread... Stampede positions itself as a high-performance "real Linux hacker's" distribution.

    Word gets out that parts of the blockbuster film "Titanic" were rendered on Alpha machines running Linux. This was another notable step in the "legitimization" of Linux - everybody had heard of The Titanic, and some of its success seemed to rub off on everything associated with it.

    [Qube] The Cobalt Qube is announced and immediately becomes a favorite in the trade press due to its elevated performance, low price, and cute figure factor. Cobalt's Linux engineering is done by not a thing other than David Miller, source of much that is superb in the Linux kernel.

    [prize] The Linux user community wins InfoWorld's technical advocate award; Red Hat 5.0 moreover won their Operating System award. But it was the tech advocate award that truly opened some eyes; everybody had been saw that Linux had no support. This was the nascence of the nearby of the "no support" argument.

    [opensource] Red Hat announces that their installation advocate staff is running behind. They are a victim of their own success, and inquire for long-suffering while they rep their act together.

    Linux according to Jesse Berst "I umpire it's Great if you are willing to promote Linux to your boss. As long as you are watchful of the risk you are taking. The risk of getting fired." (Feb. 16). "Is a Linux takeover likely? Give me a break. Of course not." (June 23). "I personally umpire Windows NT will be the mainstream operating system within a few years." [...] "My belief: Linux will never Go mainstream" (Sep. 9). "I've always said that Linux could become a solemn challenger to Microsoft's Windows NT." Sep. 28).

    Eric Raymond and friends Come up with the "open source" term. They apply for trademark status, and deliver up the opensource.org web site. Thus begins the formal endeavor to shove Linux for corporate use.

    Linus Torvalds and Richard Stallman win the EFF Pioneer award. The award recognizes their contributions to electronic freedom. Strangely, complete mention of this seems to own vanished from the Electronic Frontier Foundation web site.

    Caldera 1.2 is released. Unlike Red Hat, which had been shipping libc6 based systems for some time, Caldera sticks with the tried and prerogative libc5.

    The OpenBIOS project is launched, in the belief that no system is free if it depends on proprietary BIOS code. A web page is set up for the project.

    [GGI] Major battles rage over whether GGI belongs in the Linux Kernel. GGI, the "Generic Graphics Interface," seeks to produce a better defined, better supported interface to video cards on Linux and other systems. Interestingly, GGI had made no request for kernel inclusion at this time. No resolution was reached, but better communications with a number of kernel hackers did result from this episode.

    The Linux general Store opens; this is "the first walk-in Linux store." (Web page here).

    [Learning tree] Learning Tree, International adds a Linux administration course to their lineup. This course is offered frequently in the U.S. and Britain. "The character of Linux software has improved dramatically, making it a low-cost, reliable, supported computing platform commandeer for the traffic environment."

    Consumer advocate Ralph Nader asks the great PC vendors (Dell, Gateway, Micron...) to offer non-Microsoft systems, including systems with Linux installed. (See InfoPolicy Notes).

    Sun offers 70% discounts for people interested in "upgrading" from Linux to Solaris.

    [Debian] [Sendmail logo] Bruce Perens, once leader of the Debian project, quits entirely in the wake of disagreements on how the project should proceed.

    Sendmail, Inc. is formed by Eric Allman, in an attempt to do money selling sendmail advocate services while keeping the basic sendmail code free.

    John Kirch releases his "Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0 versus Unix" paper. This paper remains one of the best advocacy pieces out there, and should be required reading for anybody contemplating deployment of either technology.

    [Mozilla] The Mozilla source code hits the net. Netscape throws a huge party. The code is downloaded complete over the world, and people start hacking. current features, such as tenacious encryption and a Qt port, are added almost immediately.

    Linus makes Inter@ctive Week's "25 Unsung Heroes of the Net" list. He is in superb company, joining names dote Steven Bellovin, Van Jacobson, Peter G. Neumann, and others. April was maybe about the final time that Linus could be said to be an "unsung" hero.

    Linus announces Linux 2.1.92 and declares a 2.1 feature freeze. The announcment goes as far as to avow "...there are probably soundless bugs with some of the current code, but I'll freeze current features for the upcoming 2.2 kernel." This freeze turned out to be rather slushy, to avow the least.

    The Open Group announces a current licensing policy for the X window system. current versions of X will be proprietary and only available to paying customers. They immediately withhold some security bugfixes from general distribution. XFree86 decides that it can not live with the current licensing, and declares its intent to Go its own way.

    [NPR] Linux is covered by the U.S. National Public Radio news, marking one of its first appearances in the mainstream, non-technical press.

    O'Reilly holds the "first ever" Free Software Summit, featuring Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Linus Torvalds, Guido van Rossum, Eric Allman, Phil Zimmermann, Eric Raymond, and Paul Vixie.

    The Linux Weekly intelligence daily updates page debuts. Despite LWN's intent to withhold the its weekly focus, the daily page eventually exceeds the weekly newsletter in traffic. The Linux events calendar is moreover announced.

    Linus 3.0 is announced; the birth of Linus's second daughter causes Great joy, and substantial disruption in kernel progress as complete drudgery stops and many patches rep lost. Some grumbling results as it becomes pellucid just how relative the entire process is on Linus's interminable presence.

    RH  advocate  colleague logo[Avalon] Red Hat announces their commercial advocate program, based on a worldwide network of "support partners," of which Eklektix, Inc., the producer of the Linux Weekly News, is one.

    The Avalon Beowulf cluster at Los Alamos goes on line and immediately powers itself into the list of the fastest computers on the planet.

    Eric S. Raymond publishes "Homesteading the Noosphere" on the web; This paper gives his view of how economics of open source software can work.

    Kernel hacker Alan Cox goes to drudgery for Red Hat.

    Bruce Perens proposes a current Linux distribution (proposal here) based on his experience with Debian. This distribution never comes about, but much of what's there later gets folded into the Linux benchmark foundation project.

    [Project Heresy C|Net's "Project Heresy" starts a high-profile attempt to drudgery using only Linux. The result was a long series of articles and "radio" programs, complete on the Project Heresy page.

    Sun Microsystems joins Linux International.

    [Google] The "Google" search engine pops up. Not only is it one of the best search engines around, but it's based on Linux and features a Linux-specific search page.

    Sm@rt Reseller reports that Oracle and Informix own no plans to advocate Linux. "In fact, many doubt that Linux-no matter how stable or how cheap-can ever compete in the corporate marketplace alongside the well-funded Windows NT and Solaris." (article here).

    [SuSE] The SuSE 5.2 distribution is released.

    [Corel] Corel formally embraces Linux. The Netwinder products are featured, and they pledge their advocate for the Linux system.

    The Association Francophone des Utilsateurs de Linux et des Logiciels Libres (AFUL) is formed in France. AFUL promptly becomes a force in French computer circles.

    O2 sizable databases start to arrive. advocate for Linux is announced by Computer Associates for their Ingres system, and by Ardent Software for their O2 protest database.

    The Linux Core/Layers project was announced and became the first in a series of attempts at creating standards for Linux systems. The Core/Layers page soundless exists, but this project is no longer vigorous in this form.

    "But Linux is a communist operating system in a capitalist society. Its popularity is going to lead toward its fragmentation....The sizable problem with Linux is that it has no pellucid direction. It's in the prerogative situation at the prerogative time, but its 15 minutes are nearly up." (PC Week, May 22).

    The Linux Weekly intelligence moved to its own domain at lwn.net.

    A proposal goes out to create the Linux benchmark foundation (LSB) project. This proposal, signed by a great number of Linux luminaries, was discussed at Linux Expo and formed into a project, with Bruce Perens at the head. Numerous editorials were written and posted on FreshMeat; the list can be create on the LSB web page. The LSB then disappeared from view for a few months.

    And, yes, Linux Expo was held; a superb time was had by all.

    Red Hat 5.1 was released and immediately started accumulating rather more than the customary number of updates (partly as a result of the Linux Security Audit program). There was talk of "Red Hat 5.1 service pack 1" as a result. 5.1 did eventually stabilize into a solid release.

    "First, let me avow that I am uniquely unqualified to write about this week's topic. dote most of you, I've never used Linux....Linux has a snowball's chance in hell of making palpable inroads against Windows." (The infamous John Dodge hatchet job, PC Week, June 8).

    The Open Group offers the possibility of Unix 98 certification to Linux at the Uniforum meeting. The resulting press release says "Since the Linux OS is proving to be increasingly tense competition for NT in this marketspace, it's in the best interest of complete Unix vendors for Linux to rep branded so that it may compete more effectively and withhold the low nearby UNIX 98-compliant." Very tiny is heard thereafter.

    The Gartner Group says there is tiny hope for free software. "...these operating systems will not find widespread exercise in mainstream commercial applications in the next three years, nor will there be broad third-party application support."

    [Wilbur] The Gimp 1.0 is released. This long-awaited release of one of Linux's highest profile tools did not disappoint.

    Stable kernel 2.0.34 is released after a long prepatch series.

    [Beowulf] The Beowulf web site shuts down temporarily due to concerns about U.S. export restrictions. Suddenly anybody can create a supercomputer, and people are getting worried. descry this Dr. Dobbs article for some more background. Shortly thereafter the site (www.beowulf.org) is back up as if nothing had happened.

    The Datapro study comes out showing that Linux has the highest user satisfaction of any system; it moreover shows Linux to be the only system other than NT that is increasing market share.

    "Like a lot of products that are free, you rep a loyal following even though it's small. I've never had a customer mention Linux to me." (Bill Gates in PC Week, June 25).

    [Netwinder] Corel launches the Netwinder DM with this press release.

    Debian 2.0 goes into beta test after numerous delays.

    [Adaptec] Adaptec reverses its longstanding nondisclosure policy and announces advocate for Linux. The initial deal was with Red Hat; other distribution vendors own since then announced agreements with Adaptec.

    The Chinese Linux Extension project begins; this project is doing a Chinese localization of Linux. (Web page (mix English/Chinese) here).

    IBM announces that it will deal and advocate the Apache web server, after working a deal with the Apache team.

    [Rocket]

    The Silicon Valley Linux Users Group holds "The Great Linux Revolt of 1998", turning Microsoft's Windows 98 product launch celebration into a Linux publicity event at two high-profile retail outlets.

    Not content with that, The Silicon Valley Linux Users Group Launches Windows 98...on a rocket.

    The UK Linux Developers' Conference is held in Manchester (basic web page here).

    Rumors of a merger between Caldera and Red Hat circulate. It hasn't happened yet...

    The desktop wars rage as KDE and GNOME advocates hurl flames at each other. Linus gets in on the act, saw that KDE is OK with him. Those who are fervor nostalgic can head over to this Slashdot discussion just to descry how much fun it really was.

    In this context, KDE 1.0 is released. The first stable release of the K Desktop Environment proves popular, despite the complaints from those who enact not dote the licensing of the Qt library.

    NC World magazine shuts down with Nicholas Petreley's devastating criticism of Windows NT. The article, (still available on the net), concludes that Windows NT 5 (now "Windows 2000") can only be an absolute disaster.

    Stable kernel 2.0.35 is released.

    The Internet Operating System Counter goes online and finds, after querying hundreds of thousands of hosts, that Linux has the largest web server market partake of any operating system out there. The results are available on the Internet Operating System Counter page.

    LinuxPPC 4.0 is released.

    "IBM, Informix, and Sybase moreover own no intentions of releasing versions of their databases on Linux, company representatives said." (InfoWorld, July 6)

    [Oracle] Oracle announces advocate for Linux in this press release. They engage to do a crucible version available by the nearby of 1998, a deadline they beat by months. This, seemingly, was one of the acid tests for the potential of long-term success for Linux; a Great deal of attention resulted from this announcement.

    [Informix] Informix announces advocate for Linux on almost the same day with a press release of their own.

    The SVLUG/Taos "Future of Linux" panel is held featuring Linus and numerous other luminaries. (Writeup here). Among other things, this conference is where Intel first started making solemn noises about supporting Linux.

    "When I heard that Steve Ballmer was promoted to the office of president at Microsoft, I couldn't inspirit but phenomenon if he was being set up to enmesh the tumble when Windows NT 5.0 proves to be a catastrophic market failure and Linux supplants Windows NT as the future server operating system of choice."(Nicholas Petreley, InfoWorld, July 27).

    [Forbes cover] Linus appears on the cover of Forbes magazine. A lengthy account presents Linux in a highly positive manner, and brings the system to the attention of many who had never heard of it before. Linux begins to become a household word. (Yes, it was the August 10 issue, but it came out in July).

    The first release of the Mandrake distribution is announced. Mandrake is a version of the Red Hat distribution with international language advocate and KDE added.

    Stampede distribution 0.86 is released.

    Debian 2.0 is released with this announcement. It is a huge distribution, containing over 1500 packages and requiring at least two CD's to hold it.

    MkLinux distribution DR3 is released, announced thusly.

    Caldera releases Netware for Linux 1.0 (product info here).

    The EiffelBase library is released under an open source license; this library had previously been proprietary. (Info here).

    Red Hat announces (again) that their installation advocate staff is running behind (again). Their note on the topic asks for long-suffering while they rep their act together.

    The Open Source Initiative is formed by Bruce Perens, Eric Raymond, Ian Murdock, and Tim Sailer (Russ Nelson and Chip Salzenberg link the board a month later). Its purpose, among others, is to manage the "open source" trademark.

    Richard Stallman calls for the creation of free documentation for free software in this message to info-gnu.

    [GNOME] GNOME 0.25 is released; this release is codenamed Drooling Macaque.

    The Linux Compatibility Standards project is formed as a cooperative venture between Red Hat and Debian. This project (announcement) was formed out of an increasing frustration with the progress of the Linux benchmark Base, which was having grief finding consensus on its goals.

    Bruce Perens then leaves the Linux benchmark foundation project and, for a while, dropped out of the free software world entirely.

    Software in the Public Interest (SPI) chooses its current officers, recovering from the departure of most of its board. The current folks are Ian Jackson, Martin Schulze, Dale Scheetz and Nils Lohner; here's their announcement on the subject.

    [LSB] Red Hat puts out a paper on why they enact not dote the Qt license and why they will not be including KDE anytime soon. The paper is soundless available on Red Hat's web site.

    The Linux Standards Association appears out of nowhere and claims that they will produce the true benchmark for Linux systems. The LSA draws almost universal condemnation and slowly fades out of existence, but not before generating a unprejudiced amount of press saw that the Linux community is hostile to standards. One superb upshot of their presence may own been to inspirit drive the Linux Compatibility Standards and Linux benchmark foundation projects to merge back together and rep solemn about producing something.

    "Organizations should not account deployment of NT v.5.0 prior to 2001. They believe organizations are better-served in the interim by evaluating the costs and benefits of using alternative products and not waiting on NT v.5.0 to emerge from 'vaporware' status."(Gartner Group, August 11)

    Red Hat makes the progress version of their distribution available as "RawHide".

    "Personally, I umpire open-source software needs a grown-up to step in and lead it without complete this petty bickering."(Nicholas Petreley, InfoWorld, August 24).

    Michael McLagan, a founder of the LSA, challenges the validity of the Linux trademark. Linux International responded with a bit of lawyer action, causing the withdrawal of the challenge and the insertion of trademark ® symbols on the (now defunct) LSA web site.

    Kernel 2.1.115 is released; Linus calls a code freeze, for real, this time. Sort of.

    The Linux Internet Server Administration lead project starts up with a page at lisa.8304.ch.

    Linux Magazine France debuts as "the" French print magazine on Linux (information here).

    Stackguard/Immunix 5.1 is released. StackGuard is actually a version of gcc modified to protect against stack overrun attacks; Immunix is a version of the Red Hat distribution built with this compiler.

    Microsoft's Steve Ballmer admits that they are "worried" about free software and suggests that some of the NT source code may be made available to developers.

    [SuSE] SuSE 5.3 (English version) is released.

    [Caldera] Caldera splits into two sunder companies. "Caldera Systems," under Ransom Love, now handles the Linux business, while "Caldera Thin Clients" does the embedded systems. (Press release here).

    "The Linux community, a temporary, self-managed gathering of diverse individuals engaged in a common task, is a model for a current benign of traffic organization that could figure the basis for a current benign of economy."(Harvard traffic Review, September)

    SuSE stops international shipments of their 5.3 release after installation problems gyrate up for a minute percentage of users.

    [UDI] The Uniform Driver Interface (UDI) project bursts on the Linux scene with a suggestion that maybe Linux developers would dote to produce lots of drivers for the UDI interface. A free reference implementation for Linux is promised, but enthusiasm among the Linux community seems low.

    SuSE announces their "Office Suite 99" product, which is a bundling of ApplixWare, KDE, and other superb stuff. This product gets a unprejudiced amount of attention as possible competition to Microsoft on the desktop.

    [DB2] IBM announces advocate for DB2 under Linux. (Press release here).

    [Sybase] Sybase announces advocate for linux (Information here). Sybase makes their database available for free download directly from the distribution vendors. With this announcement, Linux has an essentially complete portfolio of database products.

    Dell has been selling Linux-installed systems to great customers for some time reports Inter@ctive Week. This comes as a flabbergast to "small" customers who own been trying to rep Dell to sell them Linux-installed (or at least non-Windows) machines.

    Neomagic allows the source for the driver for their video hardware to be released to the XFree86 project and freely distributed. This driver, developed by Precision Insight under the sponsorship of Red Hat, had previously been available in binary format only.

    The Open Group backs down and releases X11R6.4 under an open source license, thus ending a dour chapter in the history of free software. It is moreover rumored that TOG has little, if any progress staff working on X at this point, signification that it may not matter much which license they use.

    Microsoft lists Linux as a competitive threat in its annual SEC (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission) filing. Speculation abounds that their true purpose is to affect the upcoming antitrust trial.

    [CLUE] Canadian Linux Users hold a nationwide Installfest with Great success. Summaries, pictures, etc. can be create on the Installfest pages.

    Intel and Netscape (and two venture capital firms) advertise minority [Intel] investments in Red Hat Software. The money is to be used to build an "enterprise advocate division" within Red Hat. An unbelievable amount of press is generated by this event, which is seen as a big-business endorsement of Linux.

    Intel joins Linux International.

    Net pioneer Jonathan Postel dies, depriving the world of a much-needed leader in the middle of the domain appellation debate.

    The International Kernel Patch is introduced, providing cryptographic capabilities in a pass that does not Hurry afoul of obnoxious national crypto export laws.

    GNOME 0.30 is released; LWN published a review of this release.

    Linuxpower.org hits the web. This site has since become a superb source of Linux articles and tutorials.

    [eCos] Cygnus releases a real-time embedded operating system (eCos) under an open source license. (Press release here).

    Red Hat finds some security problems in CDE and drops it immediately as a supported product. The note they ship out makes a sizable thing of the fact that CDE is not open source software, and thus not easily fixable.

    Caldera 1.3 is released. This version includes Sybase, KDE, and StarOffice 4.0, but sticks with libc5. Caldera moreover announces Linux administration training courses.

    "Gateway Inc., which has been doing certification tests with Linux for six months, most likely will install Linux across its enterprise server line next year.... Red Hat's youthful expects six of the top 10 PC server makers to offer Linux on their machines by next March."(PC Week, October 5).

    [LinuxToday] LinuxToday hits the web providing another source of constantly updated Linux news. This is the first of a number of current Linux-related web publications that start up over the next month.

    Tensions explode on linux-kernel after Linus drops a few too many patches. Linus walks out in a huff and takes a vacation for a bit. Things revert to normal, of course, but some people rep talking. It becomes pellucid once again that the Linux kernel is getting to be too sizable for one person to withhold on top of. Some ways of reducing the load on Linus are discussed, but nothing is really resolved.

    The "bootX" utility is released, and makes life much easier for PowerPC users.

    "For the moment, however, the company from Redmond, Washington, seems almost grateful for the rising profile of Linux, seeing it as an smooth pass of demonstrating that Windows is not a monopoly, ahead of its antitrust trial, scheduled to begin on October 15th. That may be short-sighted. In the long run, Linux and other open-source programs could occasions Mr Gates much grief."(The Economist, October 3)

    Oracle8 for Linux becomes available for downloading; at 142 MB it is not something to be done lightly.

    AFUL sponsors a French nationwide installation party, the reports testify that it was highly successful.

    Microsoft presents Linux as evidence that it does not hold a monopoly in operating systems; their release moreover claims that Linux was developed by "a solitary individual."

    Larry Wall wins the first annual Free Software Foundation award. Larry, of course, is the developer of Perl and lots of other superb stuff.

    Debian decides to drop KDE from their distribution; their explanation cites worries about licensing issues.

    Novell announces that they will port NDS to Linux in cooperation with Caldera.

    [Allaire] Allaire announces that they will advocate Linux with "a future version" of their current "Cold Fusion" product. (Press release here). This, evidently, is a product that quite a few people own been waiting for.

    [Compaq] Compaq is reported to be ready to advocate VARs installing Linux on their hardware, though it does not contrivance to sell Linux-installed systems directly. [LinuxWorld]

    LinuxWorld goes online, signalling the arrival of the mainstream trade press. LinuxWorld is edited by Nicholas Petreley, a long time supporter of Linux in the trade press.

    Microsoft publishes an anti-Linux "open letter" in France in what was seen by some as a beta-test of a wider FUD strategy. The epistle (in French) (or translated to English) went after Linux on several fronts, and was widely and easily refuted. The definitive refutation was probably this response from AFUL (also available in English).

    Debian 2.1 goes into feature freeze.

    France Telecom invests in Cobalt Networks.

    The Mexican ScholarNet project is announced; this project will install Linux-based computer labs in 140,000 schools. (LWN coverage here). The project will be using GNOME heavily, and expects to contribute to GNOME development.

    "What I saw at the Linux Showcase was enthusiasm, the likes of which I haven't seen in the PC industry for a long time. Sure, some of it was from guys in ponytails and T-shirts, but it was moreover from guys in suits. Academics and scientists, but moreover businessmen."(PC Week, October 26).

    The Atlanta Linux Showcase was a sizable success. (LWN coverage here).

    Corel announces that Word flawless 8 for Linux will be downloadable for Free for "personal use." They moreover advertise a partnership with Red Hat to supply Linux for the Netwinder. [WineHQ]

    Corel moreover commits to helping the WINE progress effort, a major boost for this long-awaited project. (Note from Corel here).

    [PHT] Pacific HiTech announces that they will bring TurboLinux to the U.S. market. They own long claimed to be the most current distribution in Japan, and umpire it's time to head into other pastures. (Press release here).

    Www.alphalinux.org goes live, providing a solitary site for Alpha-related information for the first time.

    [AFUL] AFUL signs an agreement with the French Ministry of Education to advocate the deployment of free software in French schools. (Information (in French) here).

    Kernel hacker David Miller gets married (pictures here).

    Two internal Microsoft memos on Linux and open source software are leaked to Eric Raymond; he promptly marks them up and makes them [ExtremeLinux] public. The memos avow frankly the strengths of Linux and the sort of threat that it poses to Microsoft, and suggests some possible responses. The furor in the press was just as great as one might expect. (Eric's Halloween page has the memos, links to press coverage, and translations into a number of languages).

    Extreme Linux makes a splash at Supercomputing '98, as witnessed by this list of events at the conference.

    Linux has a elevated profile at COMDEX, though it was not the focus of the clarify as some pundits had expected.

    The "Eddie" software suite is released under an open source license; Eddie is a set of applications designed to inspirit build high-availability clusters.

    The proprietary I2O bus specification is opened up, so that Linux advocate can be implemented. One of the sizable nondisclosure threats to Linux is thus removed. (Press release here).

    Red Hat 5.2 is released. This is supposititious to be the last, stablest 5.x release before 6.0, which will accommodate the 2.2 kernel.

    LinuxPPC 5.0 is announced; the actual release is set for January 5, 1999. (Info here). [Ext2]

    Ext2 hits the net as another monthly Linux magazine.

    Informix and Apropos deploy Linux machines in over 100 Jay Jacobs clothing stores. (Press release here). Linux has truly arrived in the mainstream corporate world.

    Digital Creations releases Principia under an open source license; Principia is eventually rolled together with Bobo and Aqueduct to become Zope. An fascinating angle on this release is that it was recommended by Digital Creations' venture capital investor (LWN coverage here).

    The Silicon Valley Tea Party celebrates the opening of the Microsoft campus there. (Writeup here). [StarDivision]

    StarOffice 5 for Linux is released, freely downloadable for personal use. (Information here).

    Troll Tech announces that version 2.0 of the Qt library will be released under an open source license. This license does not fullfil everyone, since it leaves Troll Tech in a special position and requires that modifications be distributed as patches. As a result, though most avow that the QPL is an "open source" license, the desktop wars fail to end.

    Stable kernel 2.0.36 is released. (Linus's announcement here, release notes here).

    OpenBIOS 0.0.1 is released (announcement here).

    Slackware distribution 3.6 is released

    Red Hat and SuSE both advertise advocate programs at COMDEX. Both are aiming at the big-ticket "enterprise support" market. (SuSE's announcement here, and Red Hat's here).

    Netscape buys the "NewHoo" web directory, and promises to do its database available.

    Sunsite.unc.edu transforms into MetaLab.unc.edu to better reflect its purpose and to rep away from Sun's trademark. It remains one of the primary Linux repositories and the home of the Linux Documentation Project.

    The CLOWN project creates a 550-node cluster, aiming for a spot in the record books (Coverage here).

    A fight erupts over the ownership of the "open source" trademark. Both Eric Raymond, in the figure of the Open Source Initiative, and Software in the Public Interest pretense to own the trademark. SPI has called for a "public comment" epoch on who should control the trademark; that epoch remains open as this is written.

    [BSDI] BSDI announces the capacity to Hurry Linux binaries, giving users of Linux applications "a reliable, commercially supported operating system to Hurry them on." The implication, of course, is that such a platform had not previously been available. The really fascinating point, though, is that Linux now has enough applications to do other OS vendors envious.

    Linus and Tove are guests of reverence at Finland's Independence Day celebration. They rep to meet the President and are voted "the most fascinating couple" at the event. (Coverage here, click on "��nestys" for pictures).

    Red Hat hacker (and RPM culprit) Eric Troan gets married, no pictures (yet) available.

    The Linux Kernel Archive Mirror System is established to better rep current kernels out to the world. (Mirror page here).

    The Linux Kernel History is published due to the efforts of Riley Williams and others. An almost complete reconstruction of complete the released Linux kernels has been done. (Kernel history page here).

    [Mandrake] [Gecko]

    Mandrake distribution 5.2 is released.

    Netscape's "Gecko" rendering engine is released. Gecko is the first high-profile product out of the Netscape/Mozilla open source progress effort; it is a leaner, meaner, faster, more standards-conformant web page layout engine. (Press release here).

    [YellowDog]

    The "Yellow Dog Linux" distribution for the PowerPC is announced. (Home page here).

    Corel announces a partnership with the KDE progress team which will provide the KDE interface for the Netwinder. (Press release here).

    IBM releases version 3.5 of the AFS filesystem for Linux (press release here). (An earlier version of AFS had been available before 1998, descry the Linux-AFS FAQ for more).

    Electric Lichen announces "Die Linuxbierwanderung" - the Linux Beer Hike, a Linux-training, Alps-walking, beer-drinking adventure in Bavaria next August. (Information here).

    GNOME 1.0 enters code freeze and 0.99 betas are released.

    Compaq releases a Linux driver for its PCI RAID controller, and it is under the GPL. (Press release here).

    LibGGI 2.0 (beta) released (Announcement here).

    IBM releases some software goodies under an open source license, including the Jikes Java compiler and Secure Mailer. They moreover deliver out the beta version of DB2 for free download. [Sun]

    Sun opens up the Java license. It's soundless not an open source license, but things are headed in the prerogative direction.

    Sun announces advocate for Linux on UltraSparc systems

    "The question is how to enact it without exposing IBM and its partners," says one source close with IBM's plans. "With a general public license, there are some exposures with liability and how open are the patents if you modify the code. The best pass to solve this is by cleaning up the license."(Sm@rt Reseller, December 18).

    Silicon Graphics joins Linux International and moreover announces advocate for Samba on their systems.

    KDE 1.1 goes into code freeze and beta releases are made available.

    IBM is said to be considering becoming a advocate provider for Linux according to some reports. They are held back by fears about patent and liability issues.

    The first public beta of SuSE 6.0 is released (announcement here).

    Reports avow that Apple will start selling Power Macintoshes with Linux installed. [Corel]

    WordPerfect 8 becomes available for download; it proves to be popular. (Information here).

    The "LinuxPPC on the iMac HOWTO" is released, allowing users to rep Linux on those stylish blue boxes. (HOWTO here).

    The first pre-2.2 kernel is released.

    A report from IDC says that Linux shipments rose by more than 200% in 1998, and its market partake rose by more than 150%. Linux has a 17% market share, and a growth rate unmatched by any other system on the market.

    Eklektix, Inc. Linux powered! Copyright © 1998 Eklektix, Inc., complete rights reservedLinux ® is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds


    Symantec tips hand on CDP roadmap | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    LAS VEGAS -- It's no furtive that Symantec Corp. plans to incorporate the continuous data protection (CDP) assets it bought with Revivio Inc. in November into its NetBackup product, but further details were not made publicly available until discussions Wednesday afternoon at the company's annual Vision conference.

    According to Sean Macnew, senior director of the CDP and replication product group for Symantec, the company's Continuous Data Protection and Replication (CDP/R) product is currently being developed as a "joint venture" between his group and the NetBackup group. Each group, he said, has committed 10 engineers to the project, and 10 engineers from Revivio are moreover fragment of the team.

    Symantec is planning to beta test the initial integration of the CDP feature with version 6.0 of NetBackup in August. That integration will allow NetBackup 6.0 users to request snapshots from any point in time from the CDP/R repository. Configuration of the CDP/R repository will be managed in its own sunder console, called CDP/R Recovery Manager.

    "This way, if the storage administrator controls the CDP/R repository, the NetBackup administrator can soundless enmesh data from it," Macnew said.

    For the release of version 6.5.2 of NetBackup, slated for Jan. 2008, NetBackup's Enterprise Disk Foundation, which controls policy-based lifecycle management features, will be able to request point-in-time snapshots from the CDP/R repository and automatically stagger them to other repositories. However, NetBackup 6.5 will not be able to control the configuration of the CDP/R repository, including which hosts and applications are protected using CDP.

    Also, once the snapshot schedule is set within NetBackup, for example, for a snapshot every four hours, the user would not be able to retroactively change the policy and receive snapshots from every two hours at a later time. The CDP/R repository will soundless record every changed block, and applications will be recoverable from any point in time, but only within the CDP/R repository in that case.

    According to Macnew, this is due to a fundamental dissimilarity between the NetBackup and CDP/R interfaces. "NetBackup can only descry point-in-time objects," Macnew said, whereas CDP/R will be able to descry data grouped by application on an object-oriented basis. "NetBackup will always need a quiesced, point-in-time view of a backup image," Macnew said.

    But, by the time NetBackup 7.0 is released (slated for 2009), CDP/R Recovery Manager will become a "pane" within the NetBackup management console. Once that happens, NetBackup will be fully able to configure CDP/R and own an application-oriented view of its backups.

    "The CDP/R console will become fragment of a DR-oriented option within the NetBackup management GUI," Macnew said.

    Integration with Storage Foundation, Volume Manager, Veritas Cluster Server

    The next step after integration with NetBackup will be integration with Storage Foundation version 6.0. This will allow users to configure an application-oriented view of replication for calamity recovery, and moreover do Symantec's replication more granular using CDP, which functions at the shroud level, rather than traditional replication, which functions at the byte level.

    Symantec has changed the Revivio software so that CDP happens asynchronously and out-of-band in order to avoid performance bottlenecks in high-performing applications. In the first integration with Storage Foundation, users will own to exercise a host-splitter driver to ship CDP data to the CDP/R repository.

    However, by next year, there will be integration with Veritas Volume Manager, which will eradicate the need for the sunder driver. Integration with volume manager will moreover be of value that CDP policies can be set by volume, rather than disk or LUN.

    "It's easier to set up CDP at the volume plane because the volume plane is the logical protest you protect," Macnew said. "If you're protecting by LUN or disk, as file systems grow, administrators can forget to add current LUNs to the CDP group."

    The final integration, Macnew said, will be with Veritas Cluster Server (VCS), moreover slated for next year, in version 2.1 of CDP/R. VCS has replication management as fragment of its Global Cluster feature, and the integration will allow VCS to control CDP/R replication. CDP/R will moreover be integrated with the VCS Fire Drill feature, which will allow users to create virtual point-in-time images for test environments without reserving storage space for another snapshot.

    Partner reaction

    At least one of Symantec's traffic partners is not jubilant with the timeline of integration with NetBackup -- even if it's as soon as later this year. "They bought Revivio six months ago, and Revivio already had a product on the market," said Mahesh Vaidyanathan, senior manager, solutions architecture, for STME, Symantec's largest channel colleague in the Middle East.

    "EMC [Corp.] is pushing Kashya, and [Network Appliance Inc.] is pushing Topio," Vaidyanathan said. "We're quite keen on Symantec having this product out, otherwise they may own to Look for other solutions to offer customers."

    "In great enterprises, CDP is only just starting to find a market," Macnew argued, adding that Symantec has had CDP for smaller enterprises as fragment of Backup Exec, since October 2005. He added, "Users don't want to buy another point solution; they don't want to release this unless it's integrated with other products."

    New utilities for Storage Foundation

    Also being discussed on the clarify floor at Vision were current utilities coming for Storage Foundation in future releases, including a current Linux installation utility, which is in the early stages of progress and is currently dubbed Prep Utility.

    The utility will port complete of Symantec's compatibility lists for servers, operating systems and storage into a free software utility that will be downloadable from Symantec's Web site, as well as packaged with Storage Foundation, according to William Lang, principal software engineer for Symantec, who is currently putting together the code for the utility.

    Storage Foundation has sunder editions for Linux and Windows, Lang said, and the Windows version has its own compatibility discovery engine through Microsoft. "Eventually, they hope to deliver compatibility information into Storage Foundation from complete OS types," said Jeff Martin, group product manager, storage and server management group. "That's soundless a vision, though it's not known yet what the technical challenges will be."

    Still, Lang and Martin said they hope the current utility will provide a "one-stop shop" for users looking for compatibility information, rather than the process today, which requires searching through Symantec's Web site for compatibility information. The utility is moreover slated to include direct links to "ReadMe" information about each product or patch in the compatibility matrix.

    Another feature that's coming will be a change to the Storage Foundation dynamic multipathing (DMP) process, which currently accesses third-party vendors' host bus adapter (HBA) drivers. The next version of Storage Foundation, Martins said, will access SCSI drivers in the server directly, improving performance.

    Martin said Symantec is currently looking for users to participate in focus groups and beta tests of the current Prep Utility this summer. Interested users can contact Symantec.



    Direct Download of over 5500 Certification Exams

    3COM [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AccessData [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACFE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Acme-Packet [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACSM [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ACT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Admission-Tests [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ADOBE [93 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AFP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AICPA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AIIM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Alcatel-Lucent [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Alfresco [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Altiris [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Amazon [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    American-College [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Android [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APICS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Apple [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AppSense [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    APTUSC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Aruba [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ASTQB [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Avaya [101 Certification Exam(s) ]
    AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BEA [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CA-Technologies [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CheckPoint [43 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
    College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CPP-Institute [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    CyberArk [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DELL [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
    FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Fortinet [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HP [752 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IBM [1533 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Juniper [65 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
    LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Microsoft [375 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
    OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Oracle [282 Certification Exam(s) ]
    P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Symantec [135 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]





    References :


    Dropmark : http://killexams.dropmark.com/367904/11883641
    Wordpress : http://wp.me/p7SJ6L-1VH
    Dropmark-Text : http://killexams.dropmark.com/367904/12846753
    Blogspot : http://killexamsbraindump.blogspot.com/2017/12/just-memorize-these-250-253-questions.html
    RSS Feed : http://feeds.feedburner.com/WhereCanIGetHelpToPass250-253Exam
    Box.net : https://app.box.com/s/m9c2t0364tms0jtdfwhx6yaqsuawl77h






    Back to Main Page





    Killexams 250-253 exams | Killexams 250-253 cert | Pass4Sure 250-253 questions | Pass4sure 250-253 | pass-guaratee 250-253 | best 250-253 test preparation | best 250-253 training guides | 250-253 examcollection | killexams | killexams 250-253 review | killexams 250-253 legit | kill 250-253 example | kill 250-253 example journalism | kill exams 250-253 reviews | kill exam ripoff report | review 250-253 | review 250-253 quizlet | review 250-253 login | review 250-253 archives | review 250-253 sheet | legitimate 250-253 | legit 250-253 | legitimacy 250-253 | legitimation 250-253 | legit 250-253 check | legitimate 250-253 program | legitimize 250-253 | legitimate 250-253 business | legitimate 250-253 definition | legit 250-253 site | legit online banking | legit 250-253 website | legitimacy 250-253 definition | >pass 4 sure | pass for sure | p4s | pass4sure certification | pass4sure exam | IT certification | IT Exam | 250-253 material provider | pass4sure login | pass4sure 250-253 exams | pass4sure 250-253 reviews | pass4sure aws | pass4sure 250-253 security | pass4sure cisco | pass4sure coupon | pass4sure 250-253 dumps | pass4sure cissp | pass4sure 250-253 braindumps | pass4sure 250-253 test | pass4sure 250-253 torrent | pass4sure 250-253 download | pass4surekey | pass4sure cap | pass4sure free | examsoft | examsoft login | exams | exams free | examsolutions | exams4pilots | examsoft download | exams questions | examslocal | exams practice |

    www.pass4surez.com | Braindumps Download | www.search4exams.com | http://www.sraigalleries.com/