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Oracle Java Mobile Edition 1

Oracle Java typical edition Runtime ambiance | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Oracle Java general version Runtime environment (also referred to as JRE SE, Java SE or Java SE Runtime atmosphere) is a closed-supply and freely dispensed laptop know-how that offers a simple route to elude Java programs on any Linux-based working device.

Invented via solar Microsystems

at the genesis invented by using solar Microsystems for interactive television, the utility become prior to now called Java 2 Platform, commonplace version or J2SE. It was later received with the aid of the Oracle organization that now actively develops and maintains the supply code.

it is known as Java SE (standard edition) since the know-how is moreover dispensed as a Micro edition (ME) and an industry version (EE), which can be create most effectual for embedded systems/cellular gadgets and enterprise computing systems respectively.

distributed as binary packages for every Linux distributions

The task permits clients to esteem the entire newest and most advantageous Java technologies from both the cyber web and Java applications which are usually distributed as JAR information. it's distributed as binary archives that will moreover be deployed on any 64-bit or 32-bit GNU/Linux distribution.

besides the common binary data, Oracle additionally provides Linux clients with binary applications for every RPM-primarily based Linux distributions, together with red Hat industry Linux, Fedora, openSUSE and OpenMandriva.

Supported on a big number of operating programs

The JRE (Java Runtime environment) and JDK (Java development equipment) structures are platform-unbiased and suitable with many open source and commercial working methods, reminiscent of Linux, BSD, Solaris, Microsoft windows and Mac OS X, supporting the sixty four-bit, 32-bit and SPARC architectures.

whereas the Java Runtime atmosphere platform is used simplest for having fun with moneyed web content and Java courses, the Java construction package platform helps Java builders to create up to date content for websites or function-prosperous functions that travail on numerous platforms.

Java edifice tackle contains Java Runtime ambiance

it is moreover essential to understand that JDK (Java development equipment) incorporates the JRE (Java Runtime ambiance) platform, so you don’t need to download them one at a time in case your main goal is to develop in Java.

Java Runtime environment Java ordinary edition Oracle Java Oracle Java JRE SE


Google: Oracle Java win will destroy application building, so Supreme courtroom should rule | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Google has requested the united states Supreme court to evaluate its nine-12 months copyright dispute with Oracle over the expend of Java APIs in Android.

Google is asking the Supreme courtroom to Make a option on two overruled selections in Google's want that APIs aren't copyrightable and that Google's expend of Java APIs is "fair use". 

In a blogpost, Google's chief felony officer, Kent Walker, compares copyrighting APIs to "announcing that keyboard shortcuts can travail with only 1 type of computer".

"We built Android following the laptop business's lengthy-authorised ensue of reusing application interfaces, which deliver units of commands that Make it convenient to implement commonplace performance – within the same approach that laptop keyboard shortcuts like urgent 'manage' and 'p' Make it effortless to print," writes Walker. 

"Android created a transformative unusual platform, whereas letting thousands and thousands of Java programmers expend their current learning to create unusual purposes. And the creators of Java backed the liberate of Android, asserting that it had 'strapped a further set of rockets to the [Java] group's momentum'."

Oracle of direction received Java's then proprietor, solar Microsystems, in 2009 announcing Java was the most essential software Oracle had ever got. just over a year later it sued Google over its expend of Java in Android.   

Google positions a option in select of Oracle as a catastrophe for every builders. 

SEE: the route to construct a successful developer profession (free PDF)

"except the Supreme court docket corrects these twin reversals, this case will halt builders' traditional means to freely expend existing utility interfaces to construct unusual generations of laptop programs for consumers," writes Walker. 

Google's challenge about innovation is a smokescreen, in keeping with Oracle EVP and general tips Dorian Daley, who says the Supreme court docket may still deny Google's request to assessment the case.

"The fabricated subject about innovation hides Google's actual concern: that or not it's allowed the unfettered capacity to reproduction the customary and advantageous travail of others as a matter of its own convenience and for colossal economic profit. here is now not, and has under no circumstances been, a legitimate justification for copying," wrote Daley.  

"Oracle will continue its efforts to give protection to and develop its personal innovations, in addition to these of alternative innovators, by using making confident that the neatly-centered principles of copyright legislation don't look to be subverted with the aid of anybody attempting to reduce corners. In primary victories for utility innovation, the courtroom of Appeals has twice sided with Oracle in opposition t Google. The court docket of Appeals turned into commandeer each and every time. The Supreme court should still as soon as once more deny Google's request to purchase the case."

As Google explains in its request to the Supreme court, in 2005 it crucial to "replicate the syntax and structure of the Java API announcement precisely" so that builders might expend customary commands rather than learn unusual ones. 

Google did this for 37 Java API libraries it deemed "key to cell devices", after which wrote its own "implementing code, tailoring the code to accommodate the unique challenges of the smartphone atmosphere".

Google claims that it independently wrote the implementing code and that simplest three p.c of the code turned into the identical between 37 disputed Java API libraries and the corresponding Android libraries. 

common it says below 0.1 p.c of over 15 million valuable traces of code in Android overlaps with Java.

old and linked insurance 

Billions at stake as Oracle beats Google in newest Android Java API criminal dustup

The jury ruled that Google didn't owe Oracle any cash for its expend of Java's APIs in Android, but the US court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit disagreed and overruled the jury. application development as an entire and billions of greenbacks are actually at stake.

Google prevails over Oracle in copyright infringement case

The cyber web giant convinced a jury that its expend of Java APIs to build the Android OS amounted to "fair use." 

Oracle, Google give closing arguments in Java API copyright case

Did Google's expend of Java APIs to build the Android OS amount to "transformative" use, or were they readily stealing at one other firm's cost?

Google asks court to sanction Oracle for revealing particulars of Apple deal

The court docket movement claims each Google and Apple had been harmed when Oracle's legal professional revealed their industry dealings.

Oracle claims Android has generated $forty two billion in revenues for Google

The utility gigantic is pointing to Android revenues to bicker that Google owes it billions for using Java APIs in its edifice of the cell OS.

Oracle sues Google over Android's expend of Java

Oracle, which bought Java-proprietor sun Microsystems in 2009, says the expend of the platform in the Android working device infringes on Oracle's patents and copyright.

How an Oracle win over Google could set the application trade again to the licensing age TechRepublic

Oracle thinks it wants to squeeze Google for Java copyright infringement, but it should not. The future of utility is about APIs and the cloud, no longer licensing.

Oracle v. Google ain't over yet -- Google vows it will enchantment to Supreme courtroom CNET

The resolution comes after a federal appeals courtroom declined to rehear the case.


Eclipse releases GlassFish 5.1 for Java EE 8 | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

relocating forward with its development of commercial enterprise Java, the Eclipse groundwork will provide its own version of the GlassFish software server, which traditionally has served as a reference implementation of the Java EE (Java enterprise edition) platform.

Eclipse GlassFish 5.1 is commandeer with the Java EE eight specification and represents the entire migration of GlassFish to the open supply Eclipse groundwork. The GlassFish utility server supports enterprise applied sciences together with JavaServer Faces, industry JavaBeans, and Java Message service.

From Oracle to Eclipse basis

Eclipse, which took over the evolution of industry Java from Oracle starting in 2017, referred to the liberate serves as a step toward ensuring backward compatibility with Jakarta EE, which is Eclipse’s deliberate successor to Java EE. The next edition of Eclipse GlassFish, Eclipse GlassFish 5.2, will duty a Jakarta EE eight-appropriate reference implementation.

The migration of GlassFish to Eclipse became an “enormous” engineering and legal problem, the foundation observed. GlassFish and Oracle Java EE API contributions to Jakarta EE now are finished. Java EE TCK (look at various compatibility kits), formerly personal and proprietary, now are open source and hosted at Eclipse. additionally, the Eclipse GlassFish code ground changed into re-licensed from the CDDL-GPL (standard edifice and Distribution License, GNU frequent Public License) and Classpath to the Eclipse Public License 2.0 plus GPL with the Classpath Exception.

From Java EE to Jakarta EE

Jakarta EE is a manufacturer and a set of specifications, just as Java EE was a manufacturer and set of specifications. Java application servers could be affecting from Java EE to Jakarta EE. besides the fact that children, the Jakarta EE specification manner continues to be in construction. the first unlock of Jakarta EE can be Jakarta EE eight, akin to Java EE 8. Eclipse hopes to free up Jakarta EE 8 by means of mid-yr. afterward, plans claim due to the fact that the addition of capabilities similar to modularization, microservices, and a reactive, non-blocking off model to Jakarta EE. Modularization would retain commercial enterprise Java in sync with Java SE (ordinary version). Jakarta EE can be concentrated on cloud-native deplloyments. Eclipse additionally calls for varied, commandeer reference implementations of Jakarta EE.

the dwelling to download Eclipse GlassFish 5.1

The production unencumber of Eclipse GlassFish 5.1 may be downloadable from Eclipse genesis Tuesday, January 29, 2019.


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10 Language and Technology Trends for 2016 | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

What current programming languages and technologies will become even more famous in 2016? Jeff Friesen presents 10 candidates that will proffer significant continuing job rewards to people who can apply them effectively.

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New technologies are constantly being developed, and existing ones champion changing. Which programming languages and technologies will become even more famous in 2016? In this article, I stare into the crystal ball to identify 10 current language and technology trends that will be worth your time in pursuing next year. My prognostications are based on information gleaned from Google Trends, GitHub, TIOBE Software, and other websites (such as Indeed.com's job search). The first section of this article focuses on language trends, and the second section focuses on technology trends.

Language Trends

To further your career, what programming languages should you target for 2016? This section identifies several languages to consider, and I account for why they're important. My choices are based largely on information gleaned from the most recent TIOBE Index at the time of writing, as well as GitHub's language trends and data from Google Trends. Finally, I considered language applicability to the trending technologies covered in this article.

C and C++

C is a general-purpose, structured programming language that's biased toward system programming. C++ is a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language that's an outgrowth of C and is moreover biased toward system programming.

You might not deem of the C and C++ languages as trendy, but the data shows otherwise. According to TIOBE Index (see device 1), C is in second dwelling and C++ in third dwelling based on search results across multiple search engines.

Figure 1 The C language has dropped to second dwelling (after Java), while C++ has risen to purchase third dwelling in the TIOBE Index as of early December 2015.

The situation differs when examined from GitHub's perspective (see device 2), which determines language popularity based on hosted projects.

Figure 2 GitHub shows the C language dropping, while C++ has risen. The most recent data is from mid-August 2015.

Finally, let's deem Google Trends. device 3 shows the trend graph for the C programming language topic, and device 4 shows the trend graph for the C++ programming language topic.

Figure 3 Interest in the C language declined rather until around 2007, when interest seemed to stabilize.

Figure 4 Interest in the C++ language continues to be strong.

The enduring interest in C and C++ probably has a lot to enact with their usefulness in embedded programming. At one time, many developers believed that C was the better option for embedded development. However, that belief has more recently evolved to where C++ is moreover widely used in the embedded arena. Also, the fact that many Internet of Things devices lack the processing power to elude higher-level languages has given C and C++ an edge in this area.

If you're thinking about a career in programming embedded devices, deem learning C or C++. According to the Indeed.com job search site, at least 38,000 jobs are waiting for C++ developers, and around 130,000 jobs are waiting for C developers.

Java

Java is a general-purpose programming language that's concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and designed to devour as few implementation dependencies as possible. Java applications are compiled to bytecode, which executes on any Java-supported platform, leading to a lofty degree of portability. Java is moreover a software platform largely consisting of a virtual machine for executing bytecode.

The TIOBE Index ranks Java as the most common programming language (refer to device 1). GitHub ranks Java as the second most common programming language (refer to device 2). If you enter Java programming language into Google Trends, you'll notice that interest in Java has been steadily increasing since 2007. Java's pace of evolution is largely accountable for the enduring interest. For example, enter Java 8 into Google Trends, and you'll notice a sharp uptake in Java's popularity, which is most likely the result of introducing Lambda expressions and the Streams API. Conversely, interest in the Java software platform and Java virtual machine has fallen.

Java is widely used in enterprise computing. It's moreover widely used in gigantic Data (discussed later) contexts via projects such as Apache Hadoop. Another widely used domain is embedded devices and the Internet of Things, where Java's portability and security features are advantages. Finally, Java is widely used to write source code for Android apps. However, the Java version for Android is based on Apache Harmony and not on Oracle's version of Java.

Many jobs are currently waiting for Java developers to fill them. For example, a recent search for Java jobs on Indeed.com revealed nearly 90,000 jobs in the United States. Java will undoubtedly gain more interest in 2016, when Java 9 arrives with its Java Module System. This capability will Make it easier to race Java to many more platforms, resulting in many additional job opportunities.

JavaScript and ECMAScript

JavaScript is a high-level, dynamic, untyped, and interpreted programming language, standardized in the ECMAScript language specification. Although the TIOBE Index ranks JavaScript as the seventh most common language, GitHub ranks JavaScript as number 1 (refer to device 2). Google Trends for JavaScript programming language moreover shows a steadily increasing interest in JavaScript.

What accounts for JavaScript's popularity? Basically, JavaScript is the language of the web browser, which serves as a universal client on platforms ranging from mobile devices to desktops. As well as being the top option for creating the client side of HTML5-based web apps, JavaScript is moreover common for server-side development via node.js, which is an open-source, cross-platform runtime environment for developing server-side web applications.

JavaScript is moreover starting to benefit from the significant changes introduced by ECMAScript 6 and 7. These changes, which embrace classes, modules, a for of loop, and static methods, befriend to simplify the development of involved applications. Check out Mozilla's "ECMAScript 6 champion in Mozilla" and "ECMAScript 7 champion in Mozilla" pages to find out how much of these specifications devour been implemented in the Firefox web browser.

According to Indeed.com, at least 63,000 jobs are available to JavaScript developers. This might be the language for you in 2016.

Python and R

Python is a general-purpose, high-level programming language that emphasizes code readability and expressing concepts in fewer lines of code than is feasible in languages such as C++ or Java. R is a programming language and software environment for statistical computing and data visualization, which Python moreover supports. If you need to select between these languages, check out the DataCamp.com post "Choosing R or Python for data analysis? An infographic."

According to the TIOBE Index, Python is more common than R. GitHub reinforces this position by listing Python and not R in its top 10 languages. Python's general-purpose nature probably accounts for its greater popularity. However, Google Trends indicates about the same flush of interest in both languages, which may be due to their usefulness with gigantic Data (discussed later). If you're planning to become involved with gigantic Data, deem learning Python and/or R.

What does the job situation spy like for Python and R? A recent Indeed.com probe revealed at least 43,000 Python jobs and 57,000 R jobs. Learning either language is time well spent.

Technology Trends

To further your career, what technologies should you target for 2016? I've identified six worthy candidates in this section. Each technology is already changing society, and its influence will become more pronounced next year.

3D Printing

3D printing creates three-dimensional objects via various processes. moreover known as additive manufacturing, 3D printing relies on computer control to shape an kick by printing successive layers of a material. Materials currently in expend embrace thermoplastics, advanced nickel alloys, carbon fiber, glass, conductive ink, rubber, modeling clay, and biological matter.

The 3D printing topic on Google Trends indicates significant interest in this technology. If you contrivance to secure into 3D printing from a career perspective, check out the i.Materialise.com post "Getting Started with 3D Printing: Skills & Resources You Need."

What kinds of 3D printing jobs can you anticipate? The industry news Daily article "10 3D Printing Jobs on the Rise" (September 2013) identifies 3D design, 3D computer-aided design (CAD) modeling, research and development, biological and scientific modeling, architecture/construction modeling, and other job categories. The more recent Fabbaloo post "CNBC Reports on 3D Print Job Growth" (November 2015) points out that Lockheed Martin wants to hire at least 120 unusual workers skilled in 3D design and printing.

Big Data and Data Visualization

According to Wikipedia, gigantic Data is a broad term for data sets so big or involved that traditional data-processing applications are inadequate. Challenges embrace analysis, capture, data curation, search, sharing, storage, transfer, visualization, and information privacy. Data visualization involves the creation and study of the visual representation of data in order to extract meaningful information. Processing and analyzing gigantic Data is challenging for data visualization.

A Google Trends search on gigantic Data shows that interest in this technology has been rising since around 2011. Similarly, a search on data visualization shows interest increasing since around 2007. One intuition for growth could be the surge in activity involving the Internet of Things (discussed later), which is a top generator of gigantic Data from every kinds of devices that must be analyzed and visualized.

Languages and technologies widely used with gigantic Data and data visualization embrace Python, programming with gigantic Data in R, Apache Hadoop, and NoSQL. The previously mentioned DataComp.com infographic shows how Python and R compare from a data-analysis perspective.

In May 2014 InfoWorld.com published "Hadoop, Python, and NoSQL lead the pack for gigantic data jobs." The information in the article was obtained from statistics gathered by the tech job site Dice.com. A recent visit to this site shows that R has made significant gains in terms of R-related gigantic Data and data visualization jobs.

Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is a kind of Internet-based computing in which shared resources and information are provided to computers and other devices on demand. It provides users and enterprises with various capabilities to store and process their data in third-party data centers.

At the time of writing, a Google Trends search for cloud computing showed that interest in this technology started to surge after 2007 and peaked around 2012 before falling rather to a more modest and sustainable level, which isn't surprising given that the early hype has largely died down as the technology has matured.

In late 2014, Forbes.com published the article "Where Cloud Computing Jobs Will be in 2015," which famous nearly 400,000 IT cloud computing jobs in the United States alone. Less recently, the influential Gartner Inc. (an American marketing, market research, and advisory solid providing insights on information technology topics) released a report stating that cloud computing will shape the bulk of IT spending in 2016, which should translate into even more jobs.

Internet of Things

Wikipedia describes the Internet of Things (IoT) as the network of physical objects or "things" that are embedded with electronics, software, sensors, and network connectivity, enabling these objects to collect and exchange data. The IoT lets objects be sensed and controlled remotely across existing network infrastructure, creating opportunities for more direct integration between the physical world and computer-based systems, and resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy, and economic benefit. Each thing is uniquely identifiable through its embedded computing system and is able to interoperate within the existing Internet infrastructure. Experts estimate that the IoT will consist of tens of billions of objects by 2020.

A Google Trends search for Internet of Things reveals interest in this technology starting after 2005 and surging around 2010, probably due to Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao calling the IoT a key industry for China, which plans to Make major investments in IoT. In 2011, IPv6, which provides IP addressing for IoT devices, was revealed to the public via World IPv6 Day. That year moreover witnessed the maturation of Arduino and other hardware platforms that Make the IoT accessible to do-it-yourselfers who are interested in the IoT.

Interest in the IoT continues to grow. Gartner.com forecast in November 2015 that 6.4 billion connected "things" will be in expend in 2016, up 30% from 2015. How does this translate into jobs? According to Indeed.com, nearly 10,000 IoT jobs are available in the United States alone. The number of jobs should grow significantly as the IoT surges ahead.

If you're interested in pursuing an IoT career, you'll need to acquire some famous skills. In late 2014, Forbes.com published the article "Ready for the Internet of Things? 5 Skills You'll Need," listing the necessary skills as being an associative thinker, a collaborator, a communicator, knowledgeable, and persistent. You should moreover become intimate with related technologies, such as gigantic Data, data security, and data analytics.

Mobile Computing

Wikipedia describes mobile computing as human-computer interaction in which a computer is expected to be transported during everyday usage. Mobile devices compass from smartphones and tablets to wearables such as the Apple Watch. The two paramount mobile-device operating systems are Android and iOS.

Mobile computing is expected to surge even higher next year. For example, one school of thought is that tablets will overtake notebook computers by 2016. Other people believe that wearables that can elude third-party apps will purchase the lead over wearables that don't elude third-party apps in 2016.

According to Indeed.com, nearly 37,000 mobile device jobs are currently available in the United States. You can await greater job growth as mobile devices become even more ubiquitous. The Gartner.com report "Top Strategic Predictions for 2016 and Beyond: The Future Is a Digital Thing" (registration required) forecasts that by 2018 two million employees will be required to wear health and fitness devices as a condition of employment.

Virtual and Augmented Reality

Popularized by devices such as the Oculus Rift and Google Cardboard, virtual reality replicates an environment that simulates physical presence in a actual or imagined world and lets the user interact in that world. By contrast, Wikipedia describes augmented reality as a live direct or circuitous view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented (or supplemented) by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics, or GPS data. Augmented reality is popularized by Google Glass.

According to Google Trends, interest in virtual reality began mounting around 2014. Interest in augmented reality took off around 2009, but has retreated somewhat. A recent job search on Indeed.com backs up this trend by showing around twice as many jobs in virtual reality as in augmented reality. Although the number of virtual/augmented reality jobs is quite low at the moment, articles such as Road To VR's "200 Companies Now Hiring—A spy at the Growing Virtual Reality Jobs Market" and The Market Mogul's "The next gigantic trend: Augmented Reality" testify tough growth potential and an increasing number of jobs for these technologies over the next several years.

Final Thoughts

If your career is stagnating, or you just want to obtain a job involving current high-impact programming languages and other technologies in 2016, become an expert in at least one of the languages and technologies I've discussed here. Each is trending and supported by many job opportunities. Furthermore, the synergy from using these and other languages and technologies to transform their world into something unusual is exciting. be Part of it!


Couchbase NoSQL database addresses mobility, synching issues | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

NoSQL software provider Couchbase Inc. updated its Couchbase Server, releasing the 3.1.0 Enterprise Edition. While described as a minor release, it is notable in that it is production-certified for expend with the Couchbase Sync Gateway 1.1, a version specially tuned for meeting users' data needs in the unique world of mobile applications.

In mobile apps, keeping individuals' devices "on the same page" as the database server can be challenging. That is only one of several reasons mobile applications can be a unique nut to crack. Couchbase Sync Gateway focuses on such a problem.

In the same vein, there is an embedded version of the Couchbase NoSQL database, which can fortunate on a smartphone. Phones can encounter unique session and data synchronization issues when working as Part of larger cloud-based systems. An onboard database can address such problems.

While Couchbase's expend of performance enhancing Memcached technology and its recent additions of clustering management are useful features for mainstream enterprises, analyst William McKnight said the software's mobile champion is important, too. 

"Mobile capabilities are a nice Part of the Couchbase family," said McKnight, president of McKnight Consulting Group LLC, based in Plano, Texas. "They champion a Couchbase Lite that actually gets embedded in mobile devices."

Sync traits purchase to the airways

Couchbase Server, Sync Gateway and Couchbase Mobile client database proved a fortunate for Dublin, Ireland-based air carrier Ryanair Ltd., according to Vladimir Atanasov, lead developer for the airline's Android development team. "People walk around with phones in their pockets. They wanted a system that travelled well," said Atanasov.

According to colleague Paul Sheridan, senior software architect at Ryanair, the historically low-cost carrier is in the midst of an worry to better customers' travel experience, and development of a better-performing, mobile flight-booking application by Atanasov and his team is Part of that effort. He said the application had reduced flight-booking process times from five to two minutes.

Atanasov said Couchbase's NoSQL embedded database for devices can better champion applications that sometimes lose connection to a server. Also, he said, using the Sync Gateway proved beneficial, as developing such synchronization can be complex.

He said the Couchbase software helped eased the cross on developers working with indigenous APIs in Java and Swift. Much of this data is handled in the shape of JSON objects, a format that often goes hand-in-hand with the NoSQL databases.

If your data is local, it's going to elude better. Bob Wiederholdpresident and CEO at Couchbase

Atanasov said the system Ryanair developed had to account for changing industry rules -- but could only enact this successfully if it limited traffic between devices and cloud-based servers. "Our synch must be dynamic," he said.

The mobile segment is one marked for special attention by Couchbase, according to the NoSQL database company's leader.

"Customers expend us as a cache, as a key-value database and as a document database, and they are continuing to expand the expend cases they support," said Bob Wiederhold, president and CEO at Couchbase. "We want to be a general purpose database for Web and mobile apps."

He said that as mobile devices become more powerful from a processor perspective, people will be able to store more data on their device. Couchbase's managers deem more data is going to be processed on mobile devices in the future, "as opposed to everything running in the cloud," he said.

"It's an oversimplification, but basically, today, everything runs in the cloud. The data every sits in the cloud," Wiederhold added. "If your data is local, it's going to elude better."

He said insurance, plumbing and electrician province workers can exploit the same Couchbase capabilities that Ryanair developers tapped into.

Dipping its toes in SQL support

In other moves, Couchbase said it released a beta version of its N1QL query language (pronounced "Nickel"). travail is continuing now on the software as a collaborative worry with the University of California, San Diego. The goal is to create a sort of SQL for JSON documents. N1QLemploys declarative queries that open up the Couchbase NoSQL document database to SQL features, such as joins and nesting. Third-parties pledged to build connectors to Nickel embrace Informatica Corp., Metanautix Inc., Simba Technologies Inc., Tableau Software and others.

Should users spy beyond SQL access for other decidedly non-SQL traits that will enter the product portfolios at Couchbase and other NoSQL companies? "I await that they will notice more of that in the NoSQL world going forward," said McKnight.


Ten years of BlackBerry | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

It's the network, stupid

This is the landscape Canadian start-up Research In Motion faced at the tail halt of the millennium. It seemed pellucid that "staying connected on the road" was the Next gigantic Thing -- email had finally started to become a touchstone in corporate communication, after every -- but the roadblocks were many and formidable. "Always on" cellular technologies like GPRS and 1xRTT weren't yet readily available, and circuit-switched data running over pervasive D-AMPS and CDMA networks was painfully tedious and expensive -- not to mention a death wish for battery life.

Manufacturers and service providers took a two-pronged approach to overcoming the limitations: one, champion data consumption modest; and two, bypass the traditional cellphone networks altogether. Two-way paging networks like ReFLEX didn't devour the bandwidth to wield the data demands of a late 1990s-era PDA with a gigantic display, but DataTAC and Mobitex networks -- running at a blistering 19.2Kbps and 8Kbps, respectively -- were already widely deployed across North America. Neither technology had been conceived with consumer expend in mind, but they were robust, proven, and most importantly, available.

Palm takes a leap of faith -- and falls flat

Riding a wave of commercial successes, Palm saw the writing on the wall and plunged head-first into the connected market with its Palm VII, which used a Mobitex-based service called Palm.net to proffer bite-sized chunks of material data -- news headlines, weather, email, flight times, and the like -- on a device that resembled an overgrown Palm III with a flip-up antenna. The product was troubled from the start. Though Palm.net's heart-stoppingly expensive monthly pricing wasn't necessarily an issue for the business-minded target audience, the device relied on proprietary "web clippings" from content providers to reduce data consumption; if your favorite newspaper didn't travail with Palm to develop a web clipping app, you were stuck using the shoddy WAP browser. What's more, despite its whopping $599 sticker price, it failed to borrow from the high-end Palm V's legendary industrial design. Palm hobbled along with two more Palm.net-compatible models, the VIIx and i705, before the GSM-based Tungsten W along with Treos obtained through its acquisition of Handspring overshadowed the dedicated network and doomed it to closure in 2004.

The BlackBerrys aren't ripe yet in Waterloo

Palm, of course, didn't need the Palm VII to succeed. The company would proceed on to notice plenty of success from its traditional PDA industry and -- eventually, anyway -- the Treo smartphones it was able to add to the line through its acquisition of Handspring. Meanwhile, the always-on, always-connected market was still waiting to be won, and RIM was perfectly positioned to purchase the prize. It had been making Mobitex radio modules for industrial systems for many years, and in 1995 had introduced its Inter@ctive Pager 900 -- a fairly revolutionary product that promised two-way email communication from a device minute enough to fortunate on a belt holster. The technology was there -- RIM merely had to wait for email to become business-critical while working on making its hardware smaller, sexier, and ultimately, needful to anyone who picked it up.

In 1998, the Inter@ctive Pager 900 -- a bulky brick with a flip-top parade -- was succeeded by the smaller Inter@ctive Pager 950. As its name implied, RIM considered the 900 and 950 pagers first, emailing devices second; paging was still a constrain to be reckoned with in the mid-90s (SMS was yet to become material in North America) and the company needed to identify with the paging mob in order to find an audience. Indeed, RIM's own press release for the 950 proudly declared the device a "revolutionary two-way pager that allows users to both route and receive full-length, error-free, alphanumeric messages with guaranteed delivery."

The 950 retailed for $360 with plans starting at $25 a month through BellSouth, one of several companies that would ultimately become Cingular (and eventually AT&T Mobility, though Cingular's Mobitex network -- Cingular Interactive -- would be sold off prior to the name change). That pricing set aside the device well within the compass of any company who needed its employees a page (or an email) away. RIM estimated that some 80 percent of pages required a response -- and at a time when one-way pagers still dominated the belts of province techs, executives, and doctors, the 950 was priced perquisite to pinch some of that market. Even better, the 950 was barely larger than those one-way devices it sought to displace.

A legendary brand emerges

In early 1999, RIM was in pudgy city. It was coming off a record quarter of earnings thanks to brisk sales of its handhelds and unusual contracts for its wireless modems, but it wasn't standing still. On January 19 of that year, the company made a bold declaration: email's the future. The Inter@ctive Pager devices were excellent two-way pagers, yes, but that wasn't where the market was going -- and RIM knew that it already had a powerful framework for mobile email in play. It introduced a tense miniature solution called "BlackBerry," which essentially bundled a version of its Inter@ctive Pager 950 with a PC dock, a unusual service for synchronizing to Microsoft Exchange accounts, and optionally, a product called BlackBerry Enterprise Server geared at corporations looking to manage fleets of these devices.

Unlike the Palm VII, BlackBerry didn't try to be fancy -- no "web clippings," no huge touchscreen, no handwriting recognition, and no massive flip-up antenna. Instead, RIM's device was almost singly focused on delivering a killer email suffer with a scroll wheel, relatively cozy QWERTY keyboard, and exact push service (something many other platforms are still trying to secure perquisite ten years later, interestingly). For suits who'd been sucked into the Exchange ecosystem for corporate email, BlackBerry was a doughty unusual world -- a chance to untether -- and they came calling in droves.

And that was just the first yoke months of the year. Later in 1999, RIM would release the Inter@ctive Pager 850, which expanded BlackBerry's North American footprint by bringing the technology to DataTAC networks in the US and Canada (battery life dropped from the 950's claimed three weeks to just one week, but the 850's champion for rechargeable NiMH packs made it a bit more palatable). Shortly thereafter, the company announced that it would adopt Sun's Java 2 Micro Edition platform for third-party development in its devices, and -- for better or worse -- BlackBerry developers write in Java to this day.

A shape factor more familiar

By 2000, BlackBerry had cemented itself as a power brand -- a corporate status symbol. Paging was on the route out, and RIM had to a confident degree expertly ridden the wave perquisite into mobile email as though that had been its contrivance every along. Thing is, the parade on the 850 and 950 models -- a carry-over from the Inter@ctive Pager days -- wasn't particularly well-suited for reading emails, which tended to be longer and richer than old-school pages. The solution? A much, much larger display.

RIM introduced the BlackBerry 957 in concert with BlackBerry OS 2.0 in April of 2000. It would prove to be a landmark device for RIM, though it may not devour seemed that route at the time. At its release, it was miniature more than an overgrown 950, but unlike its miniature brother, the 957's basic shape factor would ultimately stand the test of time -- and if you let your eyes proceed out of focus just a bit, you can actually notice the beginnings of the ubiquitous user interface create on every BlackBerry sold today.

At this point, carriers and content partners were really starting to secure it: to borrow a phrase from a 2000 press release detailing a unusual partnership with Nortel, RIM was becoming a champion of the "always on, always connected" internet, and everyone wanted in on the mojo (Nortel had just invested $25 million in RIM; ironically, RIM would try to buy a big chunk of Nortel's bankrupt remains just nine years later). Rogers (then Rogers AT&T), Bell Mobility, and BT were among the heavyweight networks to welcome BlackBerry to their lineups. AOL created a version of AOL Instant Messenger for the platform, and RIM started bundling its first web browser with the 950 and 957, though using it ran a rigid $9.95 a month -- for 25KB. Yes, twenty-five whopping kilobytes! Fortunately, unlimited service was available for another $10, although it's amusing to deem that wireless data devices were ever rudimentary enough, mobile content services simple enough, and networks tedious enough to justify a service that allotted just a few thousand bytes every month.

Conquering the organizer

Today, cloud computing is a fact of life; if you expend Gmail, Facebook, Flickr, or any of their contemporaries, much of what makes you who you are is stored in some nebulously-defined network of servers you'll never notice -- computers that spy like overgrown refrigerators, sound like jet engines, and live in cold, windowless facilities nigh to power plants and jaw-droppingly rapidly internet connections. In 2001, the cloud as they know it today was just an understanding on a whiteboard (and no one was calling it "the cloud") but BlackBerry customers were starting to flavor bits and pieces of the experience.

RIM used CTIA Wireless in Vegas that year as the venue to interject the next iteration of its connected experience: wireless calendar synchronization. Up until this point, the BlackBerry platform had been about email first, everything else second (and really, you could bicker that's still the code RIM lives by today), but the company was starting to concede that a businessperson's mobile office was about more than messaging -- and it's not always convenient to pop open the laptop to check the day's schedule. Besides, while RIM was making wireless data a mainstream concept in the pocket, laptop data cards were still exceedingly rare. Of course, your middling Joe off the street still couldn't walk into their carrier's shop, buy a BlackBerry, and secure their personal Outlook calendar delivered over the aether -- but for corporate customers with Exchange and BES installations, things were really getting interesting.

Pushing "push"

BlackBerry didn't just commoditize mobile email or connected organization -- it helped pioneer the very concept of "push." push continues to be an elusive, contentious technology for users of many systems, devices, and mobile platforms to this day -- the understanding that you secure unusual content pushed to you as it happens, rather than waiting until you request it -- but RIM was well ahead of the game here, touting its push technology by name as early as 2001. If someone shot you an email, you had it immediately. Meeting requests zipped down to you the second they were made. Of course, push would ultimately proceed on to become one of BlackBerry's hallmarks and one of the major reasons users continue to cite for steadfastly refusing to try other platforms, no matter how outdated RIM's well-worn interface may now look by modern standards -- it's a really powerful selling point.

2001 marked a number of famous unusual partnerships for RIM, too, including VoiceStream (which would ultimately become T-Mobile USA) and Italy's TIM. Maybe more interesting, though, was an announcement the company made at the very tail halt of the year: it'd be developing a device compatible with Motorola's iDEN network technology in partnership with Nextel. iDEN's claim to fame, of course, was (and still is) its push-to-talk interface -- so did this add up to that a hybrid BlackBerry cellphone was in the works? Smartphones were still a novelty at the time and heavyweights like Microsoft hadn't yet near to play ball, but the synergy was pretty obvious: road warriors enact their email and purchase conference calls from the back of the cab on the route to LAX, after all.

Feeling litigious

For RIM, the decade has been filled with seemingly countless bouts of Law & Order-worthy courtroom drama, a theme that can vestige its origins to November of 2001 when IP holding solid NTP -- whose mere mention causes knee-jerk grumbles of "patent troll!" in some circles -- filed its first lawsuit against the company. The suit focused on technologies surrounding the wireless transmission of email, which... well, kind of sums up RIM's entire industry model, so the spat naturally garnered its objective partake of attention. After some four and a half years of legal action, tentative settlements, and breakdowns, RIM and NTP finally came to terms to the tune of $612.5 million -- considerably less than the $1 billion NTP had originally wanted, but still a breathtaking sum for a company that had done miniature more than sit on some purely hypothetical technology.

Of course, RIM was sitting on an enviable IP portfolio of its own by this point, and that portfolio was starting to pay dividends perquisite around the time of NTP's original filing. 2002 saw a licensing agreement purchase hold with Palm (without which the Treo line's famously splendid keyboards would've had a difficult time existing) and a sequence of claims filed against upstart emulate splendid Technology -- which at the time was working on a suspiciously BlackBerry-esque device called the G100 to chaperone its server-side suite that duplicated much of RIM's functionality. splendid would ultimately proceed on to abandon the G100 to focus strictly on software and services and undergo a yoke takeovers -- most recently by well-known patent plaintiff Visto -- so the rough-and-tumble hardware biz clearly hadn't treated them with as much kindness as it had RIM.

Finally, two devices become one

2002 would prove to be a watershed year for the smartphone. Nokia's Communicator line had been around since the 1990s, but its models were niche devices -- bulky beasts that didn't duty very well as phones, PDAs, or computers -- and they clearly weren't the leavening the industry (and consumers) needed to purchase the concept mainstream.

Following news late in 2001 that there'd be a BlackBerry coming to Nextel's iDEN network, a flurry of press releases hit in the first Part of '02 touting that unusual handhelds with "data and voice services" would be made available on carriers around the world; AT&T in the States and Rogers AT&T in Canada both followed Nextel's lead in committing to offering them. Nextel's announcement was especially positive, dropping the bombshell that the companies had signed a "multi-year" agreement to supply iDEN-powered BlackBerrys to the network. Of course, that agreement must've worked out pretty well for everyone involved, seeing how the relationship continues to the present day.

Well, at first, it turns out that RIM really wouldn't be helping mainstream smartphone adoption any more than Nokia had. RIM's very first voice-enabled BlackBerry handset -- the 5810 -- debuted on Rogers AT&T in April of 2002 for a rigid CAD $750 (about $715 at today's conversion rates), looking like nothing more than a 957 with a headset jacked into it.

That's because it was nothing more than a 957 with a headset jacked into it.

Just as wireless calendar synchronization had taken a back seat to email, RIM was now treating another critically famous duty -- voice -- as an afterthought. The all-important messaging suffer was as splendid on the 5810 as it was on any BlackBerry before it, but everything about the glued-on phone functionality screamed "usability nightmare," from the non-numeric pad digit layout to the handsfree permanently wired into dwelling (well, not permanently, but it may as well devour been as long as you wanted to expend the device as a phone). Bluetooth and integrated speakerphones were yet to become must-have features in 2002, and you certainly weren't going to find them here.

The engineers up at RIM headquarters weren't taking a breather, though -- far from it. The early Part of the decade was a pretty magical time for wireless, for mobile, and for gadgetry in general; a primordial soup of paradigm-shifting technologies were every rapidly coming to fruition at the same time -- everything from cheap, high-quality color LCDs to lithium-ion polymer batteries and broadly-available data networks -- and phones from every companies were being developed, announced, and released more rapidly than they ever had been before. Gone were the days of owning a DynaTAC for eight years or a StarTAC for four -- useful innovation was simply coming to market too quickly for consumers (or manufacturers) to secure cozy for more than a year or two at a stretch.

Make no mistake, it was a fun (if not terribly expensive) time to be paying attention to the market. Just six months -- yes, merely half a year -- after launching its first voice-capable BlackBerry, RIM gave the people what they really wanted: the 6800 series, introduced at CTIA in October of 2002. Unlike the awkward 5810, the 6810 and 6820 brought a proper earpiece to the equation, finally consummating the marriage of cellphone and connected organizer in a proper, usable way. Though some of BlackBerry's most famous developments were yet to come, you could bicker that this was RIM's turning point -- the single, common progenitor to which every modern BlackBerry can vestige its lineage.

Two (or three, or four) can play this game

At this point, the industry's starting to present some early glimmers of awareness: it turns out that people like having their phone, their email, and their calendar in a single, pocketable device. proceed figure! Of course, RIM wasn't the only company having this revelation in 2002; Palm founder Jeff Hawkins' pet project, Handspring, was just coming to market around the same time with the first members of its sexy, fully-integrated Treo line.

The first Treos -- the 180 and 180g -- were forgettable (particularly the 180g, which tragically required Palm's classic Graffiti handwriting input for text entry), but before the halt of the year, the 270 (for GSM networks) and 300 (for CDMA) were both shipping. That's where things started to secure interesting. These suckers had color displays and at least pretended to enact a decent job of web browsing using the company's Blazer app -- something RIM couldn't really claim with the 6800. The 270 and 300 were so interesting, in fact, that they ultimately led directly to the release of the Treo 600 the following year, one of the most significant and influential smartphones ever released (it was so influential, in fact, that its genes still live on today in Palm's Treo Pro).

Even though RIM had just launched the 6810 and 6820, they were already looking outdated sitting on a table next to Handspring's (and later palmOne's) offerings. It didn't really matter, though; Waterloo's clandestine sauce lay as much in its robust server-side capabilities as it did in the hardware itself. What early BlackBerrys lacked in finesse, they made up for in manageability -- music to any IT staff's ears. Palm and Handspring, on the other hand, had both done a better job over the years of straddling the fence between office and home -- their devices had already been sold in big-box stores since the 90s, and the Treo seemed like a natural extension of that. Palm, of course, lacked a well-known, enterprise-friendly push email solution; for some, that was a deal breaker, but for others, the Treo's sex appeal made it the obvious choice.

Indeed, RIM was still years away from hitting its stride with consumers; just like its predecessors, carriers were positioning the 6800 sequence toward businesspeople alone, but the strategy certainly seemed to be paying dividends. Before 2002 closed out, they'd proceed on to announce the 6510 for Nextel and the 6850 for Verizon -- the company's first CDMA device. The world had started the year with a selection of zero BlackBerry phones and ended it with five. The revolution had begun, and as it turned out, there was plenty of play in the market for RIM and Palm to both stake their claims -- the concept was still young, competition was yet to become fierce, and the target demographic was hungry for innovation. Both companies would proceed on to hold significant pieces of the pie among industry users (particularly in North America) in the latter half of the decade.

Acknowledging the elephant in the room

It wasn't just Handspring (and later palmOne) with skin in the game, either. Though it had a muted presence in North America, Nokia was jumping out to a commanding lead globally on the energy of its Symbian-based sequence 60 platform, a lighter-weight derivative of the sequence 80 core used on the Communicator series. By the halt of 2003, some estimates had its smartphone market partake near a staggering 90 percent worldwide. That's a stat you can't ignore, and RIM was eminently vigilant that it needed to capitalize on its "CrackBerry" reputation -- its energy as an enterprise software and services player -- and champion its hardware ego in check. Sure, it now had several phones in the market, but so did everyone else -- so why try to beat 'em if you can just unite 'em and still Make money?

To that end, early '03 saw the introduction of BlackBerry Connect on Symbian, bringing BlackBerry's then-legendary corporate email capabilities to a seemingly limitless firehose of Nokia devices (along with a yoke Sony Ericssons) and potentially upping RIM's profile in the all-important European theater. It moreover hit Windows Mobile and Palm OS the same year, cementing BlackBerry's status as a platform, not just a line of devices. The Connect solution would ultimately never gain the same flush of popularity as the company's handsets would for hooking up to BlackBerry servers, but from RIM's perspective, that's probably just as well -- they saw it as a win-win opportunity, and Nokia, Microsoft, and Palm very likely did as well.

Consumers are people, too

Even in these early years, RIM had already reinvented itself a yoke times; gone were the days of "BlackBerry" signification a small, ugly, all-black pager with every the ergonomics of a VAX that you could only secure (and probably were forced to take) through your employer. Thanks likely to the introduction of its compass of smartphones in the prior few months, 2003 would be the year that the company started to finally douse its toe in what it called the "prosumer" market -- customers that weren't necessarily being offered a BlackBerry as Part of an IT-managed fleet at their company, but still really needed (and were willing to pay for) always-on push email. Cingular, T-Mobile, and others started to interject POP and IMAP email access on their BlackBerry devices early that year, marking the first time they were viable options for one-off buyers. Paying $30 a month for a mere 3MB of data service on top of a voice contrivance -- as Cingular was doing at the time -- was still a quaint concept to 99 percent of the non-enterprise market, but it marked one of the first early steps in acclimating halt users to the idea. Today, even for a high-feature dumbphone, $70 is a reasonable saturate for monthly service and $120 or more isn't unheard of -- it's a trade-off we've collectively made to be connected every of the time, and RIM helped glare that wallet-emptying trail.

Small and colorful

RIM continued to press as difficult on the hardware front in 2003 as it had in 2002, proving it wouldn't let its hardware proceed quietly into the night and transform into a software solid the same route splendid would. The unusual 6200 sequence took baby steps toward the classic BlackBerry spy they every know today by lightening and shrinking the package, squishing the 6800's parade down to a more typical landscape aspect ratio, and making it more functional than ever by stuffing in more RAM and introducing integrated attachment viewing.

Just a few months later, the company would interject the 7200 series, its very first color models -- but they wouldn't spy very intimate to a modern-day Bold owner. Instead, the 7200 was nearly a departed ringer for its lower-end 6200 cousin, swapping out the low-resolution monochrome parade for a 65,000-color one that clocked in at just 240 x 160 pixels -- brutal by modern standards. The crappy resolution on the unusual model could be chalked up in Part to the fact that the screen was transflective, a sunlight-viewable tech that has been every but abandoned in modern smartphones because they simply don't pony up sufficient eye candy -- these days, you need HVGA or WVGA resolution and killer contrast ratios to merit respect and market share.

The 7250 would moreover be RIM's first EV-DO-capable handset, but taken as a whole, the sequence seemed built less to knock socks off and more simply to appease the market's calls for a color BlackBerry. In a way, it would tag the genesis of an age of R&D conservatism in Waterloo that plagues the company to this very day.

One million tough (and growing)

The year is 2004. Palm OS would arguably compass its zenith with the introduction of the Treo 650, a model that refined the well-received 600 in every the perquisite ways (and brought about the slightly-curved QWERTY arrangement that most -- but not every -- future Palms would proceed on to use). RIM signed up its millionth subscriber early in the year, a sign of distinguished things to near over the next twelve months; the company would be announcing unusual carrier deals in every corner of the world virtually every week, and the tall-display shape factor introduced route back on the data-only 957 would devour one eventual hurrah on the 7700 series. 2004 would moreover notice the first speakerphone-enabled BlackBerry, Nextel's 7510 for iDEN. As with the 7200, RIM going all-in with groundbreaking design or functionality -- both of the unusual models looked virtually identical to the 6200 of old, not a splendid thing considering that the 6200 had already looked pretty outdated by the time it was released.

The solution? Completely rethink the keyboard. RIM came out of its slumber and rocked the boat later in '04 more than it had since the announcement of its first phones by rolling out the 7100 line -- along with a miniature something called "SureType." Up until that point, each and every BlackBerry that came off the line used a traditional QWERTY thumb board; SureType turned things upside-down by doubling up two letters per key, a compromise between complete QWERTY and the T9 / triple-tap world of numeric keypads. Beyond SureType, though, the 7100 was a radically different design for RIM -- its first that made concessions to appeal to consumers. It looked and worked vaguely like a phone. Though it hadn't yet succumbed to the d-pad trend, the 7100 moreover added dedicated route and halt keys above the keyboard and was marketed directly to consumers in T-Mobile, Cingular, Sprint, and Verizon stores. set aside simply, it was a predecessor to the Pearl in every sense of the word -- RIM finally had its eye squarely on the consumer side of the market, and it'd halt up paying off.

Reinventing the bread and butter

BlackBerry was more common than ever. In a year and a half, the service exploded from 1 million to over 4 million subscribers, but the time had come: RIM could no longer stretch the industrial design of the 6800 any further than it already had, and in late 2005 it finally took the bold (but totally necessary) step of redesigning its time-tested flagship from the ground up. Waterloo rode the resulting lineup -- the 8700 sequence -- to unusual heights, deploying on dozens of carriers around the world with a theme that mimicked the 7100 that had been unveiled a year prior. There were notable firsts: in North America, it became both the company's first EDGE-compliant handset and its first with a QVGA display. It was moreover the first QWERTY BlackBerry with a proper route / halt key arrangement; needless to say, the modern BlackBerry they know today cemented its ancestry perquisite here.

Though it supported EV-DO early on, RIM was much slower in taking up UMTS than most of its rivals, putting it at a discrete spec sheet detriment on Cingular in the US and virtually every carrier in Europe (even the 8900 and brand-new 8500 lines discontinue at EDGE, practically unheard of for a smartphone from a major manufacturer these days). Mercifully, some Europeans got a flavor with confident variants of the 8700 that supported UMTS 2100 -- but Americans would still devour years to wait.

A BlackBerry in every pocket

By 2006, every carrier that offered BlackBerry was more than satisfied to sell a 7100 or 8700 to Joe Six-Pack, regardless of corporate affiliation. RIM and its partners had done a decent job of making it pellucid to would-be buyers that you didn't need to wear a suit, own an Exchange account, or secure leave from your IT overlords to purchase, use, and devour a BlackBerry of your own. Problem was, RIM had never designed and built a no-compromises consumer device. The 7100 came within earshot, but by 2006, times had changed -- you couldn't set aside a phone (smart or otherwise) on the shelf without a camera and a handsome design and await it to sell itself.

That every changed in September of '06 with the introduction of the 8100 series, a phone they would near to know better as the Pearl. The fact that this was RIM's first handset christened with a brand name underscored its intended target audience: this was solidly a consumer device. Adopting the SureType input system first seen on the 7100, everything about it screamed its consumer roots from the snazzy color palette to the presence of a 1.3 megapixel camera -- a BlackBerry first. It moreover marked the introduction of the trackball, an utterly unique feature for a phone at the time and the genesis of the "Pearl" name; it was the first time RIM had employed front-facing directional navigation of any kind, in fact, and as it turns out, they wouldn't spy back.

As they know today, the Pearl would become a defining phone for RIM -- its own RAZR, in a way, but without the brutal downside than Motorola would proceed on to experience. Versions of the handset were sold on virtually every carrier in North America and in many locales around the world; some of those are still sold today, including a clamshell version in the 8200 series. The design was so popular, in fact, that RIM took a mid-cycle occasion to swap out the guts of the original GSM-flavored 8100 to add in a 2 megapixel camera, WiFi, and GPS. In an industry as brutal and fickle as consumer wireless, it takes nothing less than a miracle to create a device with three solid years of market longevity.

Meet the grandkids

Outside the Pearl line, RIM ultimately chose to split the bulk of its industry -- the traditional QWERTY shape factor -- into discrete consumer- and pro-oriented sequence starting with the Curve 8300 and 8800 in early 2007. Over the years, we've gone on to witness the release of two more Curves -- the 8900 and 8500 -- along with three more pro models, spawning the Bold and Tour brands. By the halt of 2008, RIM seemed to concede the fuzzy line between its two QWERTY sequence by giving the original Bold a name, something that had previously been reserved for the more laid-back consumer devices. RIM's exercise of slow-but-steady evolution has now brought us the broad adoption of 3G, dual-mode and WiFi radios, autofocus cameras, gorgeous high-res displays, and robust optical trackpads in dwelling of the finicky trackballs of old, every while pushing the same back-end security, collaboration, and communication benefits that brought them superstar status a decade ago.

As in the early days of the 6800, 6200, and 7200, the company's once again taking criticism for driving a theme into the ground -- one spy at the family tree starkly demonstrates how miniature has changed in nearly three years. The counterargument, of course, is that they've settled on a winning formula, refining it year after year without messing with the recipe that made billionaires of co-CEOs Lazaridis and Balsillie. What side of the fence you Fall on is very much a matter of personal opinion, but on some level, it says something about one's personality: it's a option between productivity and multimedia, vanilla and chocolate, Ford and Chevy. A BlackBerry can be your music player just as an iPhone can connect to your Exchange account -- it's ultimately a question of priorities, and for some, allegiances.

A gamble on reinvention

Push email in a mobile device isn't the same kind of massive, paradigm-changing differentiator that it was ten years ago, and RIM can't lanky on it nearly as heavily as it used to for sales -- even in its traditional corporate strongholds. It needs powerful, sexy products that can compete head-to-head with any smartphone the industry has to offer. To an extent, it has those with modern QWERTY sets like the Curve 8900 and Bold 9700, but here's the rub: the consumer market has made a sharp circle toward finger in the two-plus years since the iPhone has been available. It's a segment that's not just difficult for competitors to ignore -- it's impossible. Android, S60 5th Edition, and an endless onslaught of mid- to high-end featurephones validate it and Make it harder to remain material without it. So how does a company with a host of patents regarding QWERTY thumb boards -- a company that has built its reputation on the character of its physical input methods -- capitalize on something so quaint to its core competency?

That question remains largely unanswered as they halt this first decade of BlackBerry's colorful existence. The company that taught us they could belt out messages with two thumbs using keys no bigger than eraser heads and made us crave constant email access from the bus, the airport, the bathroom, and the beach finds itself today in need of another revolution.

The splendid news is that RIM doesn't roll the dice very often, but when it does, it plays for keeps; the 7100 and the Pearl were both early evidence of that, and we're now seeing that brazen attitude again with the Storm line. The company's early forays into finger are taking Waterloo well outside its comfort zone and the first models to market were almost universally panned as usability failures, but it's not every gloom and doom -- like SureType, the Storm's SurePress technology is unique in the industry, and a miniature more refinement could probably still Make it the virtual keyboard powerhouse RIM wants it to be.

In 2005, RIM had 4 million subscribers to its name; in 2009, it adds over 4 million subscribers in a lone quarter. BlackBerry isn't going anywhere, clearly, but for a company in RIM's position, relevance is a daily battle that requires a exquisite mingle of innovation and respect for tradition.

And on that note, RIM, bring on the next ten years -- you may devour calloused and cramped their thumbs, but you haven't managed to consume them just yet.



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