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1Z0-414 Oracle ZFS Storage ZS3 Implementation Essentials

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1Z0-414 exam Dumps Source : Oracle ZFS Storage ZS3 Implementation Essentials

Test Code : 1Z0-414
Test denomination : Oracle ZFS Storage ZS3 Implementation Essentials
Vendor denomination : Oracle
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Oracle Oracle ZFS Storage ZS3

Oracle Spotlights ZFS Storage appliance Adoption for Oracle Engineered programs Backup, Unveils ZS3 collection for Backup | real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

REDWOOD SHORES, CA--(Marketwired - Apr 28, 2014) - Oracle ( NYSE : ORCL )

news summary valued clientele throughout a vast scope of geographies and industries are adopting Oracle ZFS Storage home tackle for Oracle Engineered programs backup and recovery. With the brand current ZS3 string for backup, Oracle ZFS Storage ZS3-BA, consumers Have a pre-configured, pre-racked solution co-engineered with Oracle Database to give exorbitant backup and repair performance with sophisticated efficiency to back meet SLAs. in addition to exorbitant performance, ZS3-BA offers 5x lower three-year TCO over EMC facts domain 990(1) for Oracle Engineered systems facts insurance plan. 

news facts

  • Spotlighting require for Oracle ZFS Storage home tackle for Engineered techniques backup and recuperation, Oracle these days introduced customers throughout the globe are adopting Oracle ZFS Storage appliances for Oracle Database backup environments.
  • Oracle's ZFS Storage commerce posted stout year-over-year augment in fiscal Q3, demonstrating an extra quarter of revenue momentum for the NAS product portfolio.
  • Oracle ZFS Storage can provide unique cost for Oracle Database customers with aspects now not attainable to NetApp and EMC storage, including Oracle ingenious Storage Protocol (OISP), and computerized records Optimization (ADO) with Oracle Hybrid Columnar Compression.
  • shoppers cite the astonishing efficiency, effectivity, and cost of Oracle's entertaining utility Engineered Storage capabilities executed via co-engineering Oracle hardware and utility:
  • DB Schenker Rail "as the leading rail freight company in Europe, DB Schenker Rail requires quick and reputable entry to immense quantities of statistics. Oracle Exadata Database machine and the Oracle ZFS Storage tackle has been the redress solution for us, enabling very quick backup and fix times," said Dominic Marx, Head of company Intelligence Competence center, DB Schenker Rail. "we Have been impressed with exorbitant compression prices bought the consume of Hybrid Columnar Compression with the Oracle Exadata and Oracle ZFS Storage appliance, and the proven fact that the compression degrees are maintained by the ZFS Storage equipment, so they know charge and capability discount rates on excellent of elevated performance."

    sanatorium Alemão Oswaldo Cruz "Hospitals Have very selected company and IT requirements such as availability 24 hours a day, seven days per week. The Oracle ZFS Storage tackle changed into a herbal alternative for Oracle Exadata Database computing device backup as a result of its efficient and massive means storage, and it is already completely integrated with Oracle Exadata," referred to Denis da Costa Rodrigues, supervisor of assistance technology, medical institution Alemão Oswaldo Cruz. "As section of the answer, they additionally implemented Oracle lively data guard, which extra raises their records insurance goal capabilities. The confidential Oracle Exadata - ZFS Storage solution has now not simplest enhanced their potential to bring exceptional healthcare services, but additionally gives the exorbitant availability, agility and data coverage to aid their operations."

    SunGard Availability features "Over the final 5 - 6 years, now they Have considered their facts double then triple in dimension, putting real stress on their infrastructure," stated Hal Moretto, Director, enterprise Infrastructure, SunGard Availability capabilities. "the usage of RMAN and Oracle's ZFS Storage appliance to backup the Oracle Exadata Database computer, they Have now been in a position to create encrypted backups and leverage the InfiniBand connectivity between ZFS and Exadata to enhance throughput, as well as replicating the backup to their offsite D/R location to a 2d ZFS storage appliance by artery of storage replication, making that backup set purchasable for offsite restoration if required."

  • additional valued clientele using Oracle ZFS Storage home tackle for Oracle Engineered programs backup, inform their stories here.
  • Oracle's current ZS3 string for Backup complements Engineered techniques intense performance, Helps reduce Backup and recovery possibility and value Over EMC

  • ZS3-BA helps ensure backup and restoration SLAs are met by artery of scaling to 26 TB/hr for plenary backups and 17 TB/hr for plenary restores -- a 30 percent augment for backups and 80 % augment for restores over the outdated generation.
  • ZS3-BA presents 5x lessen three-12 months TCO over EMC records zone 990 without the want for extra expensive agents, media servers and third-celebration utility required via rivals' programs, and it is available in a HA configuration, not fancy EMC records zone items.
  • ZS3-BA additionally helps valued clientele meet backup window and restoration time targets through offering a completely optimized I/O stack for sophisticated database backup and healing efficiency through a vast cache-centric architecture (DRAM and flash), symmetric multiprocessing OS, and applied sciences comparable to OISP, Oracle Direct NFS (dNFS), far off Direct recollection entry (RDMA), and InfiniBand.
  • ZS3-BA supports Hybrid Columnar Compression (HCC), which may compress Oracle Database records with the aid of 10-50x, enabling valued clientele to enormously reduce the volume of storage and bandwidth required. furthermore, HCC compression is maintained perquisite through the backup atmosphere and for secondary processing including snaps and clones that may likewise breathe used natively for building/look at various/QA. HCC is purchasable only with Oracle storage.
  • Oracle ZFS Storage appliance is the best NAS product with direct InfiniBand connectivity to Oracle engineered techniques' own InfiniBand backplanes, allowing customers to leverage the fastest bandwidth available to carry 40Gb/sec throughput speeds.
  • ZS3-BA is pre-configured and pre-racked for engineered systems integration to hurry deployment and in the reduction of configuration possibility. Oracle's engineered methods backup utility helps additional fetch rid of setting up guesswork to allow quickly and trustworthy setup. 
  • helping Quote

  • "extraordinarily elevated velocity streaming performance, ease-of-use, and Oracle Database co-engineering supply the ZFS Storage appliance a transparent competitive skills in Oracle engineered programs backup and recovery consume circumstances. shoppers global are adopting it as their backup solution of choice," preeminent Scott Tracy, vp, Storage application, Oracle. "the current ZS3-BA additional extends these capabilities whereas providing advanced TCO for consumers with annoying Oracle Database and Engineered methods information protection necessities."
  • supporting supplies

    About Oracle Oracle engineers hardware and utility to work collectively within the cloud and in your data center. For more guidance about Oracle ( NYSE : ORCL ), consult with


    Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. other names can breathe logos of their respective homeowners.


    (1) Three-yr TCO calculated the usage of non-discounted record expenditures from publicly purchasable statistics. EMC records zone DD990, 12xES30 - 15x2TB SATA 7.2K RPM (supply: with EMC DD990 Replicator (supply: and EMC DD990 VTL contains 2 x PCiE cards, DP, DG (source:

    Oracle ZFS Storage appliance system overview | real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    The Oracle ZFS Storage appliance is designed for mid-tier NAS environments. the line has two products, the ZS3-2...

    and ZS4-4, that Have variable setup alternate options and a wide scope of configurations. Oracle ZFS products aid mechanical challenging disk drives (HDDs) for information, and flash-based mostly strong-state drives (SSDs) for metadata and write acceleration.

    The Oracle ZFS Storage ZS3-2 matches up to 184 serial-connected SCSI (SAS) HDDs in capacities of 300 GB, 900 GB and four TB, for a optimum 736 TB of storage per sole node. Drives are arranged in 24-slot disk cabinets. in contrast to many NAS arrays, the Oracle ZFS Storage appliance doesn't aid statistics SSDs. in its place, Oracle carried out a recollection means of 1 TB per node, a read flash cache capacity of 12.eight TB and 28 TB of write flash the consume of write accelerators. Write accelerators are drives that retain the contents of the ZFS Intent Log (ZIL). products back 1.6 TB SSDs for the read cache and 300 GB SSDs for the write accelerators.

    The ZS3-2 helps up to four write flash accelerators per disk shelf. it can Have 4 or eight 10 Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) Base-T ports depending on configuration. It runs on up to 4 eight-core Intel Xeon processors, and nodes may likewise breathe clustered as exorbitant as three.1 PB.

    Write operations to ZFS Storage drives are atomic, which means they are either carried out completely or now not at all.

    The Oracle ZFS Storage ZS4-4 suits as much as 544 SAS HDDs in capacities of 900 GB and 4 TB, for a optimum 2.1 PB of storage per sole node. Drives are organized in 24-slot disk enclosures, with aid for as much as 4 write accelerators per enclosure. The array can Have as much as eight 10 GbE Base-T ports, and runs on eight 15-core Intel Xeon processors and as much as three TB of memory. ZS4-4 nodes will likewise breathe clustered as exorbitant as 6.9 PB.

    ZIL is an intent logging characteristic designed to raise statistics availability on ZFS systems. Write operations to ZFS Storage drives are atomic, that means they are either performed absolutely or now not in any respect. A list of each operation -- accepted because the "intent to operate" -- is logged to the ZIL earlier than it occurs. in the adventure of a power failure, the gadget will study the intent log to become vigilant of which operations had been in routine when the failure took spot and either revert or redo them. The ZIL is saved on flash-based mostly SSDs, presenting sooner write efficiency than if it changed into written to mechanical HDDs.

    in addition to ZIL, the Oracle ZFS Storage tackle includes software for storage administration, monitoring and encryption. The ZFS Storage utility has elements akin to thin provisioning, monitoring and analytics, aid for iSCSI and Fibre Channel interconnects, and replication within local ZFS Storage clusters. additional application will likewise breathe licensed one by one for far off replication, AES 256-/192-/128-bit encryption and database backup. The ZFS Storage tackle is tuned to work with Oracle databases, and its software comprises the Snap management Utility for Oracle Database and the Oracle commercial enterprise manager Plug-in for Oracle ZFS Storage appliance.

    Pricing for the Oracle ZFS Storage tackle depends upon configuration. Pricing for the ZS3-2 model degrees from $35,600 to $314,600, while the charge of the ZS4-4 is between $one hundred thirty five,600 and $988,900. totality ZFS Storage items comprise a one-yr restrained hardware warranty with cell aid totality through indigenous enterprise hours. Response instances are tiered by severity: Severity 1 has a 4-hour response time, Severity 2 has an eight-hour response time and Severity three has a subsequent-enterprise-day response. An optional premier assurance gives 24/7 technical aid and two-hour on-site support. Oracle's advanced assist kit gives extra points comparable to 24/7 monitoring, device installation and support.

    New Oracle ZFS Storage ZS3-BA Proves top of the line for Backing Up and Restoring Oracle’s Engineered methods | real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Mar 3, 2014

    conserving helpful enterprise tips has become extra faultfinding than ever as information continues to grow through 40 to 50 % per year, by means of some estimates. IT managers pan a predicament: a artery to comprehensive backup and restoration operations within shrinking windows of time while likewise cutting back complexity, possibility, and price.

    When it comes to preserving statistics stored in Oracle’s engineered methods, the lately introduced Oracle ZFS Storage ZS3  addresses these challenges with excessive-performance streaming throughput and tense integration with Oracle Database it really is unavailable to competitors. Oracle ZFS Storage ZS3-BA enhances the strict performance of Oracle’s engineered programs, including Oracle Exadata Database computing device  and Oracle SuperCluster, and gives pleasing functionality via

  • offering direct excessive-speed InfiniBand connectivity
  • maintaining Oracle recuperation supervisor greatest practices devoid of the necessity for harmful and costly third-party backup application agents, servers, and ability-sets
  • presenting co-engineered options reminiscent of Oracle Hybrid Columnar Compression that cleave back statistics and augment efficiency throughput
  • Pre-racked, pre-configured and leverages Oracle’s unique Engineered systems Backup Utility to velocity implementation
  • “firms Have shorter windows of time during which to comprehensive backup and repair operations, which makes exorbitant performance basic,” says Kerstin Woods, Oracle Senior main Product marketing Director. “on the selfsame time, these operations Have to breathe handy to build into result and authentic, to guarantee that simple statistics is effectively obtainable if a failure happens. Oracle’s ZFS Storage ZS3 ensures that famous service-degree agreements are met and streamlines operations for stronger IT productiveness.”

    furthermore, Oracle ZFS Storage home tackle aid cleave back the possibility of failed restores by artery of enhancing availability with dual controllers, predictive self-healing aspects, and a fault-administration architecture that immediately detects and diagnoses underlying issues. To ease management complexity, Oracle ZFS Storage appliance’s DTrace Analytics duty provides an intuitive graphical consumer interface with which to monitor and perquisite away unravel performance bottlenecks totality the artery through backup and fix operations.

    Oracle ZFS Storage ZS3 is equally efficient for Oracle Database installations operating on Oracle SPARC T5, M5, and M6 systems, as well as non-Oracle servers.

    Get greater details about Oracle ZFS Storage appliances and register for an Oracle webcast  that discusses backup and restoration for Oracle’s engineered systems

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    Oracle ZFS Storage ZS3 Implementation Essentials

    Pass 4 positive 1Z0-414 dumps | 1Z0-414 real questions |

    New Oracle ZFS Storage ZS3-BA Proves ideal for Backing Up and Restoring Oracle’s Engineered Systems | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Mar 3, 2014

    Protecting valuable commerce information has become more famous than ever as data continues to grow by 40 to 50 percent per year, by some estimates. IT managers pan a dilemma: how to complete backup and restore operations within shrinking windows of time while likewise reducing complexity, risk, and cost.

    When it comes to protecting data stored in Oracle’s engineered systems, the recently announced Oracle ZFS Storage ZS3  addresses these challenges with high-performance streaming throughput and tense integration with Oracle Database that is unavailable to competitors. Oracle ZFS Storage ZS3-BA complements the extreme performance of Oracle’s engineered systems, including Oracle Exadata Database Machine  and Oracle SuperCluster, and provides unique functionality by

  • Delivering direct high-speed InfiniBand connectivity
  • Maintaining Oracle Recovery Manager best practices without the necessity for risky and costly third-party backup software agents, servers, and skill-sets
  • Providing co-engineered solutions such as Oracle Hybrid Columnar Compression that reduce data and augment performance throughput
  • Pre-racked, pre-configured and leverages Oracle’s exclusive Engineered Systems Backup Utility to hurry implementation
  • “Enterprises Have shorter windows of time in which to complete backup and restore operations, which makes elevated performance essential,” says Kerstin Woods, Oracle Senior Principal Product Marketing Director. “At the selfsame time, these operations must breathe light to implement and reliable, to assure that essential data is readily available if a failure occurs. Oracle’s ZFS Storage ZS3 ensures that faultfinding service-level agreements are met and streamlines operations for greater IT productivity.”

    In addition, Oracle ZFS Storage Appliances aid reduce the risk of failed restores by enhancing availability with dual controllers, predictive self-healing features, and a fault-management architecture that automatically detects and diagnoses underlying problems. To ease management complexity, Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance’s DTrace Analytics feature provides an intuitive graphical user interface with which to monitor and quickly resolve performance bottlenecks during backup and restore operations.

    Oracle ZFS Storage ZS3 is equally efficient for Oracle Database installations running on Oracle SPARC T5, M5, and M6 systems, as well as non-Oracle servers.

    Get more details about Oracle ZFS Storage Appliances and register for an Oracle webcast  that discusses backup and restore for Oracle’s engineered systems

    Hybrid storage arrays vs. all-flash arrays: A shrimp flash or a lot? | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Now that solid-state storage prices Have dropped, more vendors tender all-flash arrays; but are they really much...

    better than hybrid storage arrays that amalgamate flash with spinning disk?

    Comparing technology systems has traditionally relied on a "price-to-performance" analysis that tries to normalize system differences into an apples-to-apples comparison. With respect to storage, the advent of flash (solid-state) drives created a situation where IT buyers had to determine between expense and performance. flash storage offered blazing speeds, but at a very elevated cost per gigabyte ($/GB). At the other finish of the spectrum, multi-terabyte difficult disk drives (HDDs) are very economical, but with just around 75 raw IOPS per drive there better not breathe much work in the workload if that's where your data is located.

    HDDs Have an odds in $/GB, while flash has an odds in $/IOPS.

    Hybrid arrays are intended to balance that equation. By adding a thin slice of flash storage to an array (i.e., 2% to 5% of total capacity), available IOPS may double and reduce read latency from 10+ milliseconds (ms) down to 3 ms to 5 ms. Even though the flash is expensive by itself, an overall 10% to 20% augment in array expense to capitulate a 2X performance gain adds a lot of bang to the buck.

    As Good as 3 ms to 5 ms latency sounds, for an increasing number of applications this variability is unacceptable. All-flash arrays can deliver sub-millisecond read latency with a guaranteed character of service (QoS). There are no pre-fetch issues with flash and no variability between a cached read and a search because on flash totality I/Os are effectively cache reads. To build it in perspective, improving from 10 ms to 5 ms and then down to 0.5 ms is a 20X performance gain from HDD to all-flash on a latency basis. Although the incompatibility between HDD prices and flash has narrowed considerably, most organizations quiet don't Have the budget to deploy hundreds of terabytes of it. So, if deploying flash technology judiciously is famous to an organization, knowing where the breakpoints between hybrid and all-flash are will aid managers to design the best decision.

     Selecting hybrid and all-flash arrays Price/performance of hybrid storage arrays vs. all-flash arrays

    With price-to-performance being the major consideration in storage purchases, let's examine those two areas first. When it comes to cost, it's an industry truism that the purchase expense is approximately 20% of the three-year cost of ownership for conventional HDD arrays. All-flash storage arrays smash this model, however, partly because the purchase expense goes up but operating costs fade down. For example, Nimbus Data, a maker of all-flash arrays, estimates that its arrays consume just 8 watts per TB, whereas HDD arrays may consume 80 watts per TB. Moreover, Nimbus advises that users can fully populate a rack with usable space and fetch up to 90% utilization without performance degradation. This offers the potential for less floor space, cooling and power per TB of storage. High-capacity SATA drives tender gigabyte density, but won't meet even moderate IOPS or latency requirements. Given that flash is following the downward curve of cache memory, it's well worth the time to compare the total cost of ownership (TCO) of all-flash and hybrid storage systems.

    Hewlett-Packard (HP) Co. offers a different perspective on cost metrics: $/transaction. This metric is reflective of the accurate commerce cost, whereas $/GB and $/IOPS reflect purchase cost only. The $/transaction metric can breathe applied irrespective of media type, making a "non-denominational" comparison between techs. High-transaction workloads may actually notice a lower $/transaction on all-flash arrays, whereas lower transaction environments may Have a lower $/transaction on hybrid storage arrays. Either way, the result is calculable and definitive.

    Although it may breathe considered a "soft" cost, IT managers should factor in the value of the user's experience. Justifiably or not, if users perceive an application to breathe slow, they're more likely to Have a negative perception of the IT organization or provider. It's a bit fancy the adage that when airline passengers find coffee stains on their tray tables, they question the character of engine maintenance. It may therefore design sense to disburse a few extra dollars to better the user's perception of quality, especially in this era of IT outsourcing.

    Deduplication and compression are staples of nearly totality storage systems and are frequently used to generate a $/GB figure that's much more favorable than those based on raw capacity. However, a cautionary note is in order. Increasingly, deduplication and single-instance storage (SIS) are taking spot at the OS and application layers (i.e., VMware and SIS products for Exchange). Deduplication and compression can't occur twice on the selfsame data, so storage managers may notice less reduction than they anticipate as dedupe moves up the stack.

    For the purposes of commercial computing applications, storage performance has been totality about IOPS until very recently. Perhaps this was because storage arrays inherently couldn't guarantee a specific QoS. All-flash arrays change that game, and SolidFire promotes its flash arrays squarely as storage QoS delivery vehicles. SolidFire allows IOPS to breathe provisioned on a per-volume basis with minimum, maximum and burst parameters. This throttling, along with dynamic adjustment, gives storage managers an additional mechanism for precisely delivering performance where it's needed. SolidFire likewise suggests that guaranteed QoS solves the "noisy neighbor" problem. For example, in a typical hybrid array, applications may compete for the flash tier of storage based on data access, resulting in oversubscribed flash and sub-optimal performance for totality applications. Allocating IOPS to each application specifically solves this problem.

    Either or both?

    Established vendors Have extended their traditional HDD products to embrace flash technology, often with hybrid devices and all-flash units. IBM, EMC Corp., NetApp Inc. and HP each tender an "all of the above" portfolio, though the specific implementations differ in famous ways.

    IBM has extended its SAN Volume Controller (SVC) virtualization capability to manage "fit for purpose" all-flash devices such as the FlashSystem family or hybrid arrays in its XIV Storage System, Storwize and DS product lines. Because totality devices can breathe managed through SVC, IBM extends the concept of hybrid to not only arrays, but the enterprise storage ecosystem. The intent is to allow ultimate flexibility in deploying both combinations of media, as well as combinations of arrays for scale and performance where needed.

    EMC's VMAX can virtualize hybrid and all-flash systems into a sole ecosystem. Its VMAX, VNX, VNXe and Isilon products can likewise breathe configured as either hybrid or all-flash. Thus, users can enter at any point and evolve the solution as requirements change over time. In addition, the company's XtremIO arrays tender an all-flash solution from the ground up. Because it doesn't necessarily Have to sunder its hybrid and all-flash offerings, EMC views the market more horizontally. That is, it can tender traditional HDD arrays to the more budget-conscious buyer, hybrid configurations to those needing more performance and all-flash for situations that require guaranteed QoS. Which product line will breathe recommended is determined by Reliability, Availability and Serviceability (RAS) requirements, with customers needing up to "six nines" of availability choosing VMAX, regardless of hybrid or all-flash provisioning.

    HP's 3PAR similarly offers everything from all-HDD to hybrid to flash configurations, but with some Interesting wrinkles. HP offers both single-level cell and multi-level cell flash in the selfsame arrays. The company recommends using the caching layer for writes and the flash tier for reads. This builds upon its Adaptive Optimization software that enables sub-LUN tiering. 3PAR's OS has a built-in clustered volume manager and virtual recollection implementation that seamlessly virtualizes totality media types, including current media.

    NetApp offers flash across its entire portfolio of FAS, V-series and E-series arrays; the EF540 is an all-flash system. NetApp usually recommends flash Pools in its arrays with 1% to 2% of total capacity in flash. The company suggests that typical workloads, such as email, Web serving, app dev and collaboration are best served with hybrid configurations. In these consume cases, workloads require less than 150,000 IOPS and can tolerate 3 ms to 5 ms of latency. For higher IOPS workloads or where QoS demands sub-ms latency, all-flash is prescribed.

    Oracle's ZFS Storage ZS3 are hybrid arrays, but the company says users may fetch up to a 90% data hit rate using its flash/DRAM architecture and sub-ms latency on those reads. Moreover, the company touts a significant cost odds over competitive all-flash systems. Thus, users may fetch near all-flash performance at a hybrid price. Oracle's Hybrid Storage Pool dynamically and automatically moves data across DRAM, read-flash and write-flash to optimize array performance.

    RAID considerations

    Flash devices necessity to breathe protected by RAID just fancy any other storage media. Although most vendors back conventional RAID techniques for flash, RAID consume can extract a expense in capacity terms as well as processing overhead just as it does for HDDs. IBM addresses this issue with "variable stripe RAID" in its FlashSystem technology where RAID 5 is built into the flash controller. The result is parity-based RAID at line hurry with the workload distributed across controllers. NetApp deploys Dynamic Disk Pools in its SANtricity (E-series) software that distributes data, parity and spare capacity across drives. NetApp claims this speeds recovery of failed drives while maintaining greater performance. Nimbus uses a RAID 5 algorithm designed to avoid the wear penalty associated with writing to flash.

    Some agreement on guidelines

    Despite differences in architectures, the vendors generally disagree on some hybrid vs. all-flash guidelines. First, if sub-ms or guaranteed QoS is required, then all-flash arrays are the artery to go. Or, in the case of Oracle, a hybrid that can deliver near all-flash performance. QoS application candidates comprise e-commerce where user sustain is paramount and decision back analysis where time is of the essence. Second, if variable and unpredictable workloads are to breathe serviced, hybrid devices can often serve the necessity at a lower $/GB. Nimbus, SolidFire and other all-flash vendors may Have different answers to this rule of thumb that result indeed Have Interesting price/performance characteristics and may Have a $/IOPS advantage. Application candidates in this zone comprise collaboration, email and anything where data lifecycle issues add up to that not totality data requires immediate access.

    7.2 OpenStack | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the bespeak 

    A structured implementation of a private cloud would capitalize from well-defined services, which are consumed by the virtual environments that self-service users deploy. One current implementation of those services, along with the management tools necessary to deploy and consume a private cloud, is OpenStack. The following subsections record OpenStack briefly, and then argue the integration of Oracle Solaris and OpenStack.

    7.2.1 What Is OpenStack?

    OpenStack is a community-based open-source project to contour a comprehensive management layer to create and manage private clouds. This project was first undertaken as a joint distress of Rackspace and NASA in 2010, but is now driven by the OpenStack Foundation. Since 2010, OpenStack has been the fastest-growing open-source project on a worldwide basis, with thousands of commercial and individual contributors spread across the globe. The community launches two OpenStack releases per year.

    OpenStack can breathe considered an operating system for cloud environments. It provides the foundation for Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) clouds. Some current modules add features required in Platform as a Service (PaaS) clouds. OpenStack should not breathe viewed as layered software, however, but rather as an integrated infrastructure component. Thus, although the OpenStack community launches OpenStack releases, infrastructure vendors must integrate the open-source components into their own platforms to deliver the OpenStack functionality. Several operating system, network, and storage vendors tender OpenStack-enabled products.

    OpenStack abstracts compute, network, and storage resources for the user, with those resources being exposed through a web portal with a sole management pane. This integrated approach enables administrators to easily manage a variety of storage devices and hypervisors. The cloud services are based on a string of OpenStack modules, which communicate through a defined RESTful API between the various modules.

    If a vendor plans to tender back for inescapable OpenStack services in its products, it must implement the functionality of those services and provide access to the functionality through the relaxation APIs. This can breathe done by delivering a service plugin, specialized for the product, that fills the gap between the relaxation API definition and the existing product feature.

    7.2.2 The OpenStack general Architecture

    Figure 7.3 depicts the general architecture of an OpenStack deployment. It consists of services provided by the OpenStack framework, and compute nodes that consume those services. This section describes those services.

    Several OpenStack services are used to contour an OpenStack-based private cloud. The services are interconnected via the relaxation APIs and depend on each other. But not totality services are always needed to contour a cloud, however, and not every vendor delivers totality services. Some services Have a special purpose and are configured only when appropriate; others are always needed when setting up a private cloud.

    Because of the clearly defined relaxation APIs, services are extensible. The following list summarizes the core service modules.

  • Cinder (block storage): Provides screen storage for OpenStack compute instances and manages the creation, attaching, and detaching of screen devices to OpenStack instances.

  • Glance (images): Provides discovery, registration, and delivery services for disk and server images. The stored images can breathe used as templates for the deployment of VEs.

  • Heat (orchestration): Enables the orchestration of complete application stacks, based on heat templates.

  • Horizon (dashboard): Provides the dashboard management tool to access and provision cloud-based resources from a browser-based interface.

  • Ironic (bare-metal provisioning): Used to provision bare-metal OpenStack guests, such as physical nodes.

  • Keystone (authentication and authorization): Provides authentication and high-level authorization for the cloud and between cloud services. It consists of a central directory of users mapped to those cloud services they can access.

  • Manila (shared file system): Allows the OpenStack instances to access shared file systems in the cloud.

  • Neutron (network): Manages software-defined network services such as networks, routers, switches, and IP addresses to back multitenancy.

  • Nova (compute): The primary service that provides the provisioning of virtual compute environments based on user requirement and available resources.

  • Swift (object storage): A redundant and scalable storage system, with objects and files stored and managed on disk drives across multiple servers.

  • Trove (database as a service): Allows users to quickly provision and manage multiple database instances without the tribulation of handling complex administrative tasks.

  • 7.2.3 Oracle Solaris and OpenStack

    Oracle Solaris 11 includes a plenary distribution of OpenStack as a standard, supported section of the platform. The first such release was Oracle Solaris 11.2, which integrated the Havana OpenStack release. The Juno release was integrated into Oracle Solaris 11.2 back Repository Update (SRU) 6. In Solaris 11.3 SRU 9, the integrated OpenStack software was updated to the Kilo release.

    OpenStack services Have been tightly integrated into the technology foundations of Oracle Solaris. The integration of OpenStack and Solaris leveraged many current Solaris features that had been designed specifically for cloud environments. Some of the Solaris features integrated into OpenStack include:

  • Solaris Zones driver integration with Nova to deploy Oracle Solaris Zones and Solaris Kernel Zones

  • Neutron driver integration with Oracle Solaris network virtualization, including Elastic Virtual Switch

  • Cinder driver integration with the ZFS file system

  • Unified Archives integration with Glance image management and Heat orchestration

  • Bare-metal provisioning implementation using the Oracle Solaris Automated Installer (AI)

  • Figure 7.4 shows the OpenStack services implemented in Oracle Solaris and the related supporting Oracle Solaris features.

    All services Have been integrated into the Solaris Service Management Framework (SMF) to ensure service reliability, automatic service restart, and node dependency management. SMF properties enable additional configuration options. Oracle Solaris Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) ensures that the OpenStack services, represented by their corresponding SMF services, Run with minimal privileges.

    The OpenStack modules are delivered in sunder Oracle Solaris packages, as shown in this specimen generated in Solaris 11.3:

    # pkg list -af | grep openstack cloud/openstack 0.2015.2.2- i-- cloud/openstack/cinder 0.2015.2.2- i-- cloud/openstack/glance 0.2015.2.2- i-- cloud/openstack/heat 0.2015.2.2- i-- cloud/openstack/horizon 0.2015.2.2- i-- cloud/openstack/ironic 0.2015.2.1- i-- cloud/openstack/keystone 0.2015.2.2- i-- cloud/openstack/neutron 0.2015.2.2- i-- cloud/openstack/nova 0.2015.2.2- i-- cloud/openstack/openstack-common 0.2015.2.2- i-- cloud/openstack/swift 2.3.2- i--

    To easily install the total OpenStack distribution on a system, the cloud/openstack group package may breathe installed. It automatically installs totality of the contingent OpenStack modules and libraries, plus additional packages such as rad, rabbitmq, and mysql.

    The integration of OpenStack with the Solaris Image Packaging System (IPS) greatly simplifies updates of OpenStack on a cloud node, through the consume of plenary package dependency checking and rollback. This was accomplished through integration with ZFS boot environments. Through a sole update mechanism, an administrator can easily apply the latest software fixes to a system, including the virtual environments.

    7.2.4 Compute Virtualization with Solaris Zones and Solaris Kernel Zones

    Oracle Solaris Zones and Oracle Solaris Kernel Zones are used for OpenStack compute functionality. They provide excellent environments for application workloads and are quickly and light to provision in a cloud environment.

    The life cycle of Solaris Zones as compute instances in an OpenStack cloud is controlled by the Solaris Nova driver for Solaris Zones. The instances are deployed by using the Nova command-line interface or by using the Horizon dashboard. To launch an instance, the cloud user selects a flavor, a Glance image, and a Neutron network. Figures 7.5 and 7.6 present the flavors available with Oracle Solaris OpenStack and the launch screen for an OpenStack instance.

    Figure 7.6

    Figure 7.6 OpenStack Instance Launch Screen

    Oracle Solaris options specify the creation of a Solaris indigenous zone or a Solaris kernel zone. Those special properties are assigned as extra_specs, which are typically set through the command line. The property’s keys comprise a set of zone properties that are typically configured with the zonecfg command and that are supported in OpenStack.

    The following keys are supported in both kernel zones and non-global zone flavors:

  • zonecfg:bootargs

  • zonecfg:brand

  • zonecfg:hostid

  • zonecfg:cpu-arch

  • The following keys are supported only in non-global zone flavors:

  • zonecfg:file-mac-profile

  • zonecfg:fs-allowed

  • zonecfg:limitpriv

  • The list of current flavors can breathe displayed on the command line:

    +----+-----------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+ | ID | denomination | extra_specs | +----+-----------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+ | 1 | Oracle Solaris kernel zone - tiny | {u'zonecfg:brand': u'solaris-kz'} | | 10 | Oracle Solaris non-global zone - xlarge | {u'zonecfg:brand': u'solaris'} | | 2 | Oracle Solaris kernel zone - little | {u'zonecfg:brand': u'solaris-kz'} | | 3 | Oracle Solaris kernel zone - medium | {u'zonecfg:brand': u'solaris-kz'} | | 4 | Oracle Solaris kernel zone - large | {u'zonecfg:brand': u'solaris-kz'} | | 5 | Oracle Solaris kernel zone - xlarge | {u'zonecfg:brand': u'solaris-kz'} | | 6 | Oracle Solaris non-global zone - tiny | {u'zonecfg:brand': u'solaris'} | | 7 | Oracle Solaris non-global zone - little | {u'zonecfg:brand': u'solaris'} | | 8 | Oracle Solaris non-global zone - medium | {u'zonecfg:brand': u'solaris'} | | 9 | Oracle Solaris non-global zone - large | {u'zonecfg:brand': u'solaris'} |

    The sc_profile key can breathe modified only from the command line. This key is used to specify a system configuration profile for the flavor—for example, to preassign DNS or other system configurations to each flavor. For example, the following command will set a specific system configuration file for a flavor in the previously given list (i.e., “Oracle Solaris kernel zone – large”):

    $ nova flavor-key 4 set sc_profile=/system/volatile/profile/sc_profile.xml

    Launching an instance initiates the following actions in an OpenStack environment:

  • The Nova scheduler selects a compute node in the cloud, based on the selected flavor, that meets the hypervisor type, architecture, number of VCPUs, and RAM requirements.

  • On the chosen compute node, the Solaris Nova implementation will dispatch a request to Cinder to find suitable storage in the cloud that can breathe used for the current instance’s root file system. It then triggers the creation of a volume in that storage. Additionally, Nova obtains networking information and a network port in the selected network for an instance, by communicating with the Neutron service.

  • The Cinder volume service delegates the volume creation to the storage device, receives the related Storage Unified Resource Identifier (SURI), and communicates that SURI back to the selected compute node. Typically this volume will reside on a different system from the compute node and will breathe accessed by the instance using shared storage such as FibreChannel, iSCSI, or NFS.

  • The Neutron service assigns a Neutron network port to the instance, based on the cloud networking configuration. totality instances instantiated by the compute service consume an exclusive IP stack instance. Each instance includes an anet resource with its configure-allowed-address property set to false, and its evs and vport properties set to UUIDs supplied by Neutron that depict a particular virtualized switch segment and port.

  • After the Solaris Zone and OpenStack resources Have been configured, the zone is installed and booted, based on the assigned Glance image. This uses Solaris Unified Archives.

  • The following specimen shows a Solaris Zones configuration file, created by OpenStack for an iSCSI Cinder volume as boot volume:

    compute-node # zonecfg -z instance-00000008 info zonename: instance-00000008 brand: solaris tenant: 740885068ed745c492e55c9e1c688472 anet: linkname: net0 configure-allowed-address: false evs: a6365a98-7be1-42ec-88af-b84fa151b5a0 vport: 8292e26a-5063-4bbb-87aa-7f3d51ff75c0 rootzpool: storage: iscsi://st01-sn:3260/ capped-cpu: [ncpus: 1.00] capped-memory: [swap: 1G] rctl: name: zone.cpu-cap value: (priv=privileged,limit=100,action=deny) rctl: name: zone.max-swap value: (priv=privileged,limit=1073741824,action=deny) 7.2.5 Cloud Networking with Elastic Virtual Switch

    OpenStack networking creates virtual networks that interconnect VEs instantiated by the OpenStack compute node (Nova). It likewise connects these VEs to network services in the cloud, such as DHCP and routing. Neutron provides APIs to create and consume multiple networks and to allot multiple VEs to networks, which are themselves assigned to different tenants. Each network tenant is represented in the network layer via an isolated Layer 2 network segment—comparable to VLANs in physical networks. figure 7.7 shows the relationships among these components.

    Subnets are properties that are assigned much fancy blocks of IPv4 or IPv6 addresses—that is, default-router or nameserver. Neutron creates ports in these subnets and assigns them together with several properties to virtual machines. The L3-router functionality of Neutron interconnects tenant networks to external networks and enables VEs to access the Internet through source NAT. Floating IP addresses create a static one-to-one mapping from a public IP address on the external network to a private IP address in the cloud, assigned to one VE.

    Oracle Solaris Zones and Oracle Solaris Kernel Zones, as OpenStack instances, consume the Solaris VNIC technology to connect to the tenant networks. totality VNICs are bound with virtual network switches to physical network interfaces. If multiple tenants consume one physical interface, then multiple virtual switches are created above that physical interface.

    If multiple compute nodes Have been deployed in one cloud and multiple tenants are used, virtual switches from the selfsame tenant are spread over multiple compute nodes, as shown in figure 7.8.

    A technology is needed to control these distributed switches as one switch. The virtual networks can breathe created by, for example, VXLAN or VLAN. In the case of Oracle Solaris, the Solaris Elastic Virtual Switch (EVS) feature is used to control the distributed virtual switches. The back-end to OpenStack uses a Neutron plugin.

    Finally, EVS is controlled by a Neutron plugin so that it offers an API to the cloud. In each compute node, the virtual switches are controlled by an EVS plugin to contour a distributed switch for multiple tenants.

    7.2.6 Cloud Storage with ZFS and COMSTAR

    The OpenStack Cinder service provides central management for screen storage volumes as boot storage and for application data. To create a volume, the Cinder scheduler selects a storage back-end, based on storage size and storage nature requirements, and the Cinder volume service controls the volume creation. The Cinder API then sends the necessary access information back to the cloud.

    Different types of storage can breathe used to provide storage to the cloud, such as FibreChannel, iSCSI, NFS, or the local disks of the compute nodes. The nature used depends on the storage requirements. These requirements comprise characteristics such as capacity, throughput, latency and availability, and requirements for local storage or shared storage. Shared storage is required if migration of OpenStack instances between compute nodes is needed. Local storage may often breathe sufficient for short-term, ephemeral data. The cloud user is not vigilant of the storage technology that has been chosen, because the Cinder volume service represents the storage simply as a nature of storage, not as a specific storage product model.

    The Cinder volume service is configured to consume an OpenStack storage plugin, which knows the specifics of a storage device. specimen characteristics comprise the routine to create a Cinder volume, and a routine to access the data.

    Multiple Cinder storage plugins are available for Oracle Solaris, which are based on ZFS to provide volumes to the OpenStack instances:

  • The ZFSVolumeDriver supports the creation of local volumes for consume by Nova on the selfsame node as the Cinder volume service. This routine is typically applied when using the local disks in compute nodes.

  • The ZFSISCSIDriver and the ZFSFCDriver back the creation and export of iSCSI and FC targets, respectively, for consume by remote Nova compute nodes. COMSTAR allows any Oracle Solaris host to become a storage server, serving screen storage via iSCSI or FC.

  • The ZFSSAISCSIDriver supports the creation and export of iSCSI targets from a remote Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance for consume by remote Nova compute nodes.

  • In addition, other storage plugins can breathe configured in the Cinder volume service, if the storage vendor has provided the appropriate Cinder storage plugin. For example, the OracleFSFibreChannelDriver enables Oracle FS1 storage to breathe used in OpenStack clouds to provide FibreChannel volumes.

    7.2.7 Sample Deployment Options

    The functional enablement of Oracle Solaris for OpenStack is based on two main precepts. The first aspect is the availability and back of the OpenStack API with various software libraries and plugins in Oracle Solaris. The second aspect is the creation and integration of OpenStack plugins to enable specific Oracle Solaris functions in OpenStack. As discussed earlier, those plugins Have been developed and provided for Cinder, Neutron, and Nova, as well as for Ironic.

    Deploying an OpenStack-based private cloud with OpenStack for Oracle Solaris is similar to the setup of other OpenStack-based platforms.

  • The design and setup of the hardware platform (server systems, network and storage) for the cloud are very important. mindful design pays off during the configuration and production phases for the cloud.

  • Oracle Solaris must breathe installed on the server systems. The installation of Oracle Solaris OpenStack packages can occur with installation of Solaris—a process that can breathe automated with the Solaris Automated Installer.

  • After choosing between the storage options, the storage node is installed and integrated into the cloud.

  • The various OpenStack modules must breathe configured with their configuration files, yielding a plenary functional IaaS private cloud with OpenStack. The OpenStack configuration files are located in the /etc/[cinder, neutron, nova, ..] directories. The final step is the activation of the related SMF services with their dependencies.

  • The design of the hardware platform is likewise very important. Besides OpenStack, a general cloud architecture to breathe managed by OpenStack includes these required parts:

  • One or multiple compute nodes for the workload.

  • A cloud network to host the rational network internal to the cloud. Those networks link together network ports of the instances, which together contour one network broadcast domain. This internal rational network is typically composed with VxLAN or tagged VLAN technology.

  • Storage resources to boot the OpenStack instances and retain application data persistent.

  • A storage network, if shared storage is used, to connect the shared storage with the compute nodes.

  • An internal control network, used by the OpenStack API’s internal messages and to drive the compute, network, and storage parts of the cloud; this network can likewise breathe used to manage, install, and monitor totality cloud nodes.

  • A cloud control part, which runs the various OpenStack control services for the OpenStack cloud fancy the Cinder and Nova scheduler, the Cinder volume service, the MySQL management database, or the RabbitMQ messaging service.

  • Figure 7.9 shows a general OpenStack cloud, based on a multinode architecture with multiple compute nodes, shared storage, isolated networks and controlled cloud access through a centralized network node.

    7.2.8 Single-System Prototype Environment

    You can demonstrate an OpenStack environment in a sole system. In this case, a sole network is used, or multiple networks are created using etherstubs, to contour the internal network of the cloud. “Compute nodes” can then breathe instantiated as kernel zones. However, if you consume kernel zones as compute nodes, then OpenStack instances can breathe only non-global zones. This preference does not permit application of several features, including Nova migration. This single-node setup can breathe implemented very easily with Oracle Solaris, using a Unified Archive of a comprehensive OpenStack installation.

    Such single-system setups are typically implemented so that users can become confidential with OpenStack or to create very little prototypes. Almost totality production deployments will consume multiple computers to achieve the availability goals of a cloud.

    There is one exception to this guideline: A SPARC system running Oracle Solaris (e.g., SPARC T7-4) can breathe configured as a multinode environment, using multiple rational domains, connected with internal virtual networks. The result is quiet a sole physical system, which includes multiple isolated Solaris instances, but is represented fancy a multinode cloud.

    7.2.9 Simple Multinode Environment

    Creating a multinode OpenStack cloud increases the choices available in totality parts of the general cloud architecture. The architect makes the decision between one unified network or sunder networks when choosing the design for the cloud network, the internal network, and the storage network. Alternatively, those networks might not breathe sole networks, but rather networks with redundancy features such as IPMP, DLMP, LACP, or MPXIO. totality of these technologies are section of Oracle Solaris and can breathe selected to create the network architecture of the cloud.

    Another famous decision to breathe made is how to connect the cloud to the public or corporate network. The general architecture described earlier shows a controlled cloud access through a centralized network node. While this setup enforces centralized access to the cloud via a network node, it can likewise lead to complicated availability or throughput limitations. An alternative setup is a flat cloud, shown in figure 7.10, in which the compute nodes are directly connected to the public network, so that no sole access point limits throughput or availability. It is the responsibility of the cloud architect to determine which option is the most appropriate choice.

    For the compute nodes, the decision can breathe made between SPARC nodes (SPARC T5, T7, S7, M7, or M10 servers), x86_64 nodes, or a mixed-node cloud that combines both architectures. Oracle Solaris OpenStack will handle both processor architectures in one cloud. Typically, compute nodes with 1 or 2 sockets with medium recollection capacity (512 GB) are chosen. More generally, by using SPARC systems, compute nodes ranging from very little to very large in size can breathe combined in one cloud without any special configuration efforts.

    The cloud storage is typically shared storage. In a shared storage architecture, disks storing the running instances are located outside the compute nodes. Cloud instances can then breathe easily recovered with migration or evacuation, in case of compute node downtime. Using shared storage is operationally simple because having sunder compute hosts and storage makes the compute nodes “stateless.” Thus, if there are no instances running on a compute node, that node can breathe taken offline and its contents erased completely without affecting the remaining parts of the cloud. This nature of storage can breathe scaled to any amount of storage. Storage decisions can breathe made based on performance, cost, and availability. Among the choices are an Oracle ZFS storage appliance, shared storage through a Solaris node as iSCSI or FC target server, or shared storage through a FibreChannel SAN storage system.

    To consume local storage, each compute node’s internal disks store totality data of the instances that the node hosts. Direct access to disks is very cost-effective, because there is no necessity to maintain a sunder storage network. The disk performance on each compute node is directly related to the number and performance of existing local disks. The chassis size of the compute node will confine the number of spindles able to breathe used in a compute node. However, if a compute node fails, the instances on it cannot breathe recovered. Also, there is no routine to migrate instances. This omission can breathe a major issue for cloud services that create persistent data. Other cloud services, however, effect processing services without storing any local data, in which case no local persistent data is created.

    The cloud control plane, implemented as an OpenStack controller, can consist of one or more systems. With Oracle Solaris, typically the OpenStack controller is created in kernel zones for modular setups. Scalability on the controller site can then breathe achieved just by adding another kernel zone. The OpenStack control services can totality breathe combined in one kernel zone. For scalability and reliability reasons, the services can breathe grouped into sunder kernel zones, providing the following services:

    7.2.10 OpenStack Summary

    Running OpenStack on Oracle Solaris provides many advantages. A complete OpenStack distribution is section of the Oracle Solaris Repository and, therefore, is available for Oracle Solaris without any additional cost. The tense integration of the comprehensive virtualization features for compute and networking—Solaris Zones, virtual NICs and switches, and the Elastic Virtual Switch—in Oracle Solaris provide significant value not create in other OpenStack implementations. The integration of OpenStack with Oracle Solaris leverages the Image Packaging System, ZFS boot environments, and the Service Management Facility. As a consequence, an administrator can quickly start an update of the cloud environment, and can quickly update each service and node in a sole operation.

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    Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    Microsoft [375 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
    OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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    Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
    SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Symantec [135 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
    The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
    VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
    XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
    Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]

    References :

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