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Oracle has protected its personal authentication and password management system on the grounds that the very starting. initially, the apparatus was barebones. each and every user acquired a password; the password become assigned and set via the DBA. users had no capability to alternate their own password, and Oracle had no automated controls for password administration. Passwords on no account expired, under no circumstances essential to subsist modified, and could subsist as essential or as advanced because the DBA selected. at the beginning, the issue with this apparatus changed into password distribution. on the grounds that the DBA needed to set every consumer’s password, they might even bask in to dole the password to each and every person. This can subsist a challenge in a mountainous difficult with dozens or even hundreds of database clients. Hand written notes, mobile calls, and private visits bask in been accepted to dole the passwords, but that took time and users needed to wait their gyrate to net their new password earlier than being allowed into the database. on the time, it became no longer absolutely extraordinary for a DBA to without difficulty give each and every person the equal password. This made it convenient to dole the passwords, however created new protection nightmares. any individual with entry could essentially log in with anybody else’s account and privilege stage. things mandatory to alternate.
earlier than lengthy, Oracle gave clients the capacity to change their own password. This turned into a mountainous growth. The distribution difficulty was practically solved. DBAs nevertheless obligatory to set every consumer’s prefatory password, and the equal issues commemorate to distributing those initial passwords. although, the scope of the concern changed into significantly reduced. DBAs would train every user to exchange their initial password the primary time they logged in to the database. They could even consume the auditing apparatus to shape inevitable that a password change had been made. although, Oracle’s password controls bask in been nevertheless neatly behind these offered via the universal OSes of the time, which complete started to gyrate into a legitimate concern when Oracle databases began to settle for connections from throughout the community.Profiles
real password management features had been first provided in the database in Oracle8, with a device called “Profiles.” Profiles deliver a means for atmosphere controls on passwords, and then applying those controls to clients in groups (in a style very comparable to how roles enable permissions to subsist managed in organizations). DBAs might create customized profiles for each and every group of clients, with controls tailored to each and every group’s needs. A DEFAULT profile become offered as a catchall. Any users now not explicitly assigned to a profile can subsist assigned the DEFAULT profile, making inevitable that the password administration features exercise to every person. This profile device continues to subsist in consume nowadays and has been mostly unchanged seeing that its prefatory release. Oracle now had password management on par with most working programs.
FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS This feature, commonly known as “account lockout,” is designed to simply thwart any password guessing makes an attempt against the database. devoid of this ply in place, an attacker can actually spend eternity attempting to damage into Oracle by means of time and again guessing passwords and trying to log in. No recollect how powerful or advanced the passwords, given ample time, an attacker might “brute-force” the gadget and gain entry. The account lockout duty prevents this assault by course of imposing a threshold of failed login attempts earlier than an account is disabled or locked, meaning it is no longer accepted access to the database, however the preempt password is supplied. via environment this parameter to a reasonable value, 5 for example, DBAs can shape sure that brute-force password-guessing attempts will almost always fail, while giving clients a few alternatives to shape a screw up typing of their password before their account is locked. as soon as an account has been locked, a DBA ought to manually free up it, until the database is configured to achieve this instantly.
PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME Even the strongest passwords should subsist modified periodically, and counting on the DBA to subsist watchful when that time comes for each user leaves a big possibility for forgetfulness. The PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME setting enforces password adjustments instantly after the lifetime, set in variety of days, has expired. as soon as a person’s password life time has passed, the database forces the consumer to exchange their password on the next login, denying access to the database unless the password has been modified. Alternately, a DBA can set a grace duration after a person’s password has expired, complete through which the password will nevertheless work to gain entry to the database. besides the fact that children, a warning message can subsist displayed, informing the user that their password has expired and ought to subsist changed soon.
PASSWORD_REUSE_TIME so as to forestall users from trying to trick the password administration apparatus into allowing them to preserve their latest password once it has expired, Oracle tracks password heritage and can invoke a minimal length of time earlier than a password may too subsist reused. devoid of this function, when a person’s password expires, they could easily trade the password to a few new value, enabling the database to log them in, then trade the password preempt lower back to the historical value. The password reuse time atmosphere enforces a few days earlier than a password will too subsist reused. This charge may too subsist set to unlimited to shape sure that a person can under no circumstances consume the identical password twice.
PASSWORD_REUSE_MAX comparable to PASSWORD_REUSE_TIME, the reuse max charge controls how again and again a person can reuse the identical password before it is permanently banned.
PASSWORD_LOCK_TIME As mentioned prior, Oracle will too subsist configured to automatically free up bills that bask in been locked with the aid of the FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS control. The password lock time controls if and when these money owed are automatically unlocked. This parameter is configured with a few days for computerized free up, or set to unlimited to coerce the DBA to release debts manually.
PASSWORD_GRACE_TIME: as soon as a consumer’s password lifestyles time has expired, they may well subsist given a grace length during which they're requested, however no longer forced, to change their password. The length of this grace duration is managed with the aid of the PASSWORD_GRACE_TIME parameter, set in days. as soon as the grace term has expired, a user should exchange their password with the aim to effectively log in to the database.
PASSWORD_VERIFY_FUNCTION likely the most powerful and multifarious of complete password administration elements is the PASSWORD_VERIFY_FUNCTION. This surroundings points Oracle to a person-described characteristic, typically written in C, that can implement any complexity guidelines favored on a new password. wish to implement a minimum size? Require clients to involve a digit? particular character? The password check duty can too subsist as simple or complicated as desired, the best quandary is your programming capability. Oracle comes with a default password check duty which enforces a few controls. they can cover the password investigate characteristic in detail in Chapter eight.
in the database world, compartmentalization of records is anything this is uniquely provided by Oracle. The conception contains classifying information features, and then controlling entry to those aspects in response to the classification and a person’s entry or protection level. via assigning a safety stage and compartment to each row of records in the database, access can too subsist tightly managed on a row-by-row foundation, even when permissions had been granted on the entire desk. When queries are issued, the device compares the security degree and compartments on the information being accessed with the protection authorizations of the consumer executing the query. only the rows that in shape the consumer’s authorizations are purchasable, implementing necessary entry control.relied on Oracle7
facts compartmentalization facets first looked in an add-on product to Oracle7, called depended on Oracle7, basically pushed via Oracle’s clientele in the US armed forces. in accordance with the Bell-LaPadula security mannequin, trusted Oracle7 came pre-configured with three security ranges: private, Secret, and amend Secret. by course of combining these ranges with a collection of cubicles, stammer one for each assignment that makes consume of the database, it turned into viable to create a hierarchical set of controls that confined every user to getting access to best the information from their challenge(s) at their protection degree. on the properly of the hierarchy, clients might behold information from any compartment with any safety level. at the bottom, a person could subsist restrained to seeing only private records (no longer secret or preempt Secret) for their one compartment (or task).
trusted Oracle7 offered some tremendous benefits, but got here with a significant volume of bags, as the complexity of configuring and implementing the apparatus may well subsist reasonably daunting, in particular in a system internet hosting a dozen or extra initiatives with millions of rows of facts kept within the database. The device become deployed in some military and even just a few industrial functions, but it surely was extensively viewed as too onerous and knotty for extensive market acceptance. Even after improving the product to permit for the utilization of consumer-described roles to silhouette cubicles, the commerce world persevered now not to settle for the product, and eventually it changed into redesigned and renamed.
The Bell-LaPadula mannequin became invented by David Elliot Bell and Len LaPadula in 1973, in an pains to define a multi-level security policy for the U.S. department of protection. The mannequin defines a collection of protection labels, ranging from accurate secret down to Unclassified (or Public) that can subsist used to implement controls on entry to data. Bell-LaPadula is described as a state machine with a obviously described set of states and services to transition from one state to the subsequent. When implemented competently, a device will too subsist proven to fulfill its protection design necessities.
beyond primary entry controls, Bell-LaPadula enforces two main guidelines, referred to as the fundamental safety property and the *-property. The elementary security property ensures that a user can't examine data that is categorised above their safety stage (no study up). This skill that a consumer assigned the key classification can study both secret and exclusive facts, but cannot read the repose labeled suitable Secret. The *-property (read as distinguished person-coverage) ensures that a consumer can not write information it really is categorized under their security stage (no write down). A user with the secret classification can write secret and properly secret facts, however can not input any records it is categorised as private. A change to the *-property, known as the efficient *-property restricts users to writing records at their personal smooth only, by no means above or below.virtual deepest Database
while depended on Oracle7 proved too adamant and complicated to establish in force, it supplied a duty that the market evidently favored: a mechanism to enable dissimilar clients inside the equal schema to gawk best the records that applied to them. believe an online retail equipment, where consumers can log in and gawk at the popularity of their pending orders. It’s doubtless that the orders for complete customers are kept in the equal table and it’s essential that each user cannot view the orders that belong to others. Some skill of entry ply is required. earlier than the liberate of digital deepest Database (VPD), organizations often carried out this access control within the application. a simple strategy changed into taken. assemble a question that includes a the site clause that ensures most efficient the existing user’s facts is back. This works considerable until the user finds a routine to connect with the database without delay, then complete bets are off. as soon as linked without delay, there is nothing to circumscribe the information that a person can see. in the event that they bask in rights on the Orders table, they bask in rights on the entire records in that table. VPD was added to eradicate this difficulty and implement security within the database, in order that no matter what software is used to connect, each person can simplest behold their records.
VPD makes consume of an light mechanism to invoke this entry control. by using transparently appending a the site clause to every question a consumer runs, VPD can effectively circumscribe access to records by means of matching every consumer to a group of labels saved with the data. users are granted access to records with targeted labels, the VPD is configured, and then Oracle does the relaxation.Oracle Label safety
With the free up of Oracle8i got here the new edition of trusted Oracle7, now dubbed “Oracle Label protection.” in accordance with the selfsame classification ranges as bask in been used in relied on Oracle7, Oracle Label security was almost a pre-configured VPD for armed forces purposes. Oracle Label security came with a number of innovations, exceptionally across the capacity to create customized configurations with consumer-described labels and compartments. The device additionally got here with an intuitive graphical consumer interface (GUI) for configuration called “Oracle policy supervisor.” The coverage supervisor product allowed DBAs to set up policies, silhouette labels and their services, and control person authorization. as soon as the install is complete, Oracle will create a VPD designed to implement the desired policies and authorizations.
Label protection can subsist applied at both the schema or individual table level, offering finished flexibility. Most purposes require best a small percent of the facts they store to subsist secured by Label, by means of enabling Label protection to subsist implemented on the few tables that require it. Configuration and management of the database is vastly simplified over what turned into offered in depended on Oracle7. groups now had a collection of efficient tools to create a highly compartmentalized database, with valuable access controls in zone to shape sure that users can simplest access the records they exigency to net their job executed.Oracle10g and past
Oracle10g represents the state-of-the-art in database protection. With more efficient protection features packed into the product than ever earlier than, 10g and the upcoming Oracle11g tender an unheard of degree of ply over who can net into your database and what they could entry whereas they are there, whereas making inevitable that an audit trail is saved that can log every minute thing that goes on. It is probably going that Oracle databases tender more security aspects than another piece of utility that has ever been created.
while this complete sounds extremely good, with complete these points comes enormous complexity. Therein lies the difficulty. Complexity is hazardous for security. The greater elements and options you've got, the greater abilities for misconfigurations. Even worse, the greater advanced the code, the more alternatives there are for making mistakes, the sort of oversight that can void complete the fancy safety aspects. Oracle isn't resistant to making coding errors. basically, so many vulnerabilities were institute that Oracle has been compelled to implement a quarterly patch free up schedule, fully for fixing protection holes of their products. every quarter, extra devastating vulnerabilities are announced and glued, and with every free up, extra researchers and hackers leap into the fray, finding more and more vulnerabilities for the application tremendous to fix. a number of of the vulnerabilities institute to date bask in been extraordinarily disastrous. in more than 10 circumstances, vulnerabilities had been institute that enable an unauthenticated consumer to connect with the database and expect the duty of SYSDBA, taking comprehensive ply over the database and every thing in it, even with the security aspects which are enabled on the time. here is a desirable dichotomy, as Oracle is likely each the most comfy and probably the most prone database in being nowadays.The Regulatory environment driving Database protection
Over the closing a pair of years, issues bask in modified dramatically within the IT protection world. statistics safety has become an famous focus zone for each executive and commerce laws, existent regulations with accurate penalties for non-compliance. on the coronary heart of any information safety program should subsist a database security program, as lots of the world’s delicate data spends 95+ p.c of its time in a database, most generally an Oracle database. we've complete heard of Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) , the U.S. Federal legislation imposing strict control pecuniary reporting practices for publicly traded organizations, however there are a host of different rules that govern statistics protection in the selfsame method. fiscal institutions exigency to conform to the Gramm-Leach-Bliley economic capabilities Modernization Act (GLBA), requiring protection of individually identifiable counsel. health keeping associations ought to conform to the health insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), requiring protection of affected person fitness counsel. sellers and bank card processors bask in to conform to the payment Card industry facts security plain (PCI-DSS), requiring robust protection of cardholder assistance. US Federal executive departments ought to conform to the Federal guidance protection management Act (FISMA), requiring preempt safeguards to protect complete sensitive statistics kept in Federal programs. The checklist goes on and on, with a huge backlog of pending law dealing with records protection presently working its manner via both the state and Federal legislation method.
the world of the DBA has completely modified. while protection within the database became commonly overlooked, or more often was left for the firewall and community team to deal with, nowadays’s regulatory ambiance has changed complete that. inadequate security controls on the database smooth can now lead to fines, penalties, loss of enterprise, and in extravagant situations even detention seat time. businesses are no longer left to their own instruments to subsist inevitable the security of their techniques. today, third-celebration audit companies police facts security below the auspices of auditing regulatory compliance. There is no longer a conclusion but to draft and invoke a superior safety application round conserving the confidentiality and integrity of sensitive facts. Database safety has entered the limelight.
Let’s determine some of the rules that you are likely to hasten into which mandate that you comfy your databases.The Sarbanes-Oxley Act
Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) is probably the most widely well-known legislation governing the coverage of corporate facts. often known as the generic public company Accounting Reform and Investor coverage Act of 2002, SOX requires that each one public organizations implement advantageous inside controls around economic reporting, and mandates evaluation of these controls through impartial auditors. SOX changed into handed amidst a storm of company disclosure of illegal and irresponsible accounting practices led by course of Enron, WorldCom, and Tyco. The fury over re-setting up investor self assurance turned into overwhelming, and when establish to a vote the invoice handed in the Senate 99 to 0 and in the residence 423 to 3.
SOX comprises several necessities that at once relate to data safety, essentially focused round ensuring the integrity of monetary suggestions that could subsist pronounced to the public. SOX makes company Chief govt Officers (CEOs) and Chief economic Officers (CFOs) in pervade for the accuracy of fiscal reviews, requiring them to provide personal certification of each and every document launched. prison time is stipulated for these executives who purposefully misstate monetary performance. computer techniques that keep, method, and manage monetary statistics are identified as tightly coupled with the basic economic reporting process, and are therefore required to subsist secured. usually, businesses implement mighty entry controls, auditing of entry to economic reporting methods, strict segregation of duties, and an intensive vulnerability administration process in an pains to conform to SOX and dispose of the scholarship for a mistake or assault sending an government off to the big house.The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act
The Gramm-Leach-Bliley fiscal services Modernization Act (GLBA) handed in November 1999 in order to reform guidelines governing the economic institutions. The invoice repeals the Glass-Steagall Act, permitting banks to present funding, industrial banking, and assurance functions. GLBA paved the course for mega-mergers within the fiscal functions business, together with the combination of Citibank and tourists community, forming Citigroup, the biggest economic institution in america.
GLBA includes two key rules which govern the collection, storage, coverage, and disclosure of client’s very own monetary suggestions with the aid of monetary associations: the fiscal privateness Rule and the Safeguards Rule. The Safeguards Rule mandates monetary associations to enhance and document an assistance safety draw to protect customer’s very own information kept within their methods. The draw bask in to involve a system for performing possibility evaluation on latest techniques and controls, a routine to parade screen access to very own information, and a program to gawk at various the effectiveness of the safety controls in region. in view that well-nigh complete personal statistics saved by course of pecuniary institutions is saved inside a database, GLBA has direct implications on database protection.California Senate invoice 1386
leading what has gyrate into a countrywide can charge, in 2003, California passed a invoice requiring organizations to divulge any incident where the unencrypted own assistance became, or is, fairly believed to bask in been obtained with the aid of an unauthorized person. seeing that the bill passed, a number of other states bask in enacted similar legislations, and it is simply a matter of time before the Federal government passes a infringement expose bill as neatly (on the time of this writing, more than a dozen such Federal expenses had been proposed).
The motivations at the back of California Senate bill 1386 are naturally stipulated in the text of the law; privacy and fiscal protection are in danger as a result of a significant extend within the incidences of id theft. The invoice notes a 108 p.c 12 months over year extend in establish theft instances in los angeles County in 2000. earlier than the passage of this invoice, it was tolerable for businesses that skilled some variety of infringement to hold it a secret, no longer even reporting the theft to legislation enforcement. Senate invoice 1386 modified complete that, leading to what bask in gyrate into ordinary disclosures of fundamental facts breaches that bask in made headlines embarrassing agencies and devastating customer confidence. The threat of disclosure alone has been ample to coerce many corporations into establishing precise programs for data safety, often grounded inside the database infrastructure.The health insurance Portability and Accountability Act
handed in 1996, the medical health insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) is designed to give protection to worker's and their families from losing their medical health insurance when they change or lose their jobs. HIPAA additionally establishes a group of Administrative Simplification provisions which serve a pair of capabilities together with growing national requisites for digital health keeping transactions and guaranteeing the security and privacy of protected health suggestions (PHI). PHI is interpreted as any facts about scientific information or health keeping pervade background that may too subsist linked to an individual.
HIPAA compliance requires that companies establish into consequence administrative, physical, and technical safeguards to shape inevitable the insurance draw of PHI. Administrative safeguards are a documented set of procedures that witness the mechanisms by which a company will comply with the act. physical safeguards are a set of controls designed to tender protection to in opposition t an unauthorized person gaining existent entry to covered information (for example, with the aid of taking a server or challenging disk). Technical safeguards are entry controls meant to shape sure that only authorized people can benefit ratiocinative entry in an pains to view, adjust, or delete covered records. This contains protecting facts at relaxation while kept in a database, in addition to facts in transit whereas traversing the network.The payment Card industry facts protection normal
before the charge Card industry issued their first records security tolerable (PCI-DSS) in January 2005, each some of the most famous credit card groups had created their personal set of specifications for the course their merchants, issuers, and acquirers should soundless tender protection to cardholder guidance. Visa CISP, MasterCard SDP, find DISC, Amex DSOP—it turned into an alphabet soup of requirements that bask in been comparable to one a further but not ever the equal. For colossal retailers that accept every class of card, compliance to the note of every common become very nearly unattainable. so as to simplify compliance and obtain huge acceptance of a single, neatly-considered set of standards, the PCI protection necessities Council turned into situated by means of American categorical, discover, JCB, MasterCard, and Visa. This group has labored collectively to provide two revisions of the PCI-DSS. The newest version, 1.1, changed into approved in September 2006.
The PCI measure is tremendously diverse than the government standards they bask in lined thus far. PCI-DSS gives selected details on what steps ought to subsist taken as a course to safely at ease cardholder facts. at the top degree there are six classes of controls that exigency to subsist applied:
The PCI DSS is a multifaceted protection typical that comprises requirements for safety management, guidelines, approaches, community architecture, software design, and different crucial defensive measures. This finished measure is supposititious to aid businesses proactively give protection to consumer account data.The Federal guidance safety management Act
The Federal assistance protection administration Act (FISMA) was enacted in 2002 as a fraction of the E-govt Act, designed to modernize the inner workings of the USA Federal government. earlier than FISMA came alongside, assistance safety become largely neglected in the executive, chiefly by using the civilian businesses. The condition become clear; there changed into minute motivation or budget allotted to cyber protection, so Congress intervened in an try and shape implementing protection controls a compulsory accountability of executive IT retail outlets.
FISMA requires that any assistance system used or operated via a US Federal agency, together with these hasten by contractors and others on behalf of the government, comply with a group of prescribed protection methods. These techniques don't seem to subsist defined in the FISMA regulations, however rather FISMA makes reference to different pertinent requirements and legislations, together with Federal suggestions Processing requirements (FIPS) files, countrywide Institute of measure and technology (NIST) particular publications, HIPAA, and the privateness Act of 1974.
FISMA mandates that every one Federal recommendation programs subsist reviewed to verify the sorts of records contained in the system, and then categorized in keeping with the harm that can subsist brought about if the gadget’s confidentiality, integrity, or availability bask in been to gyrate into compromised. there is gigantic debate as to the effectiveness of FISMA; although, few will bicker the incontrovertible fact that FISMA and its internet of related standards is extremely complicated. minimum safety requirements for Federal corporations are outlined in FIPS 200, which refers to safety controls described in NIST SP 800-53 (suggested protection Controls for Federal information methods). NIST 800-fifty three is additional damaged down into classes for various styles of information programs, and describes each operations and technical safeguards that must subsist implemented for each and every. it can subsist no shock that NIST has created documents within the 800-53 sequence that without detain ply databases and database protection.
Compliance with FISMA is often evaluated on a departmental smooth with the aid of the office of the Inspector measure (OIG). This technique is referred to as certification and accreditation (C&A) and contains a overview of the controls and strategies in area, after which signoff that the controls and approaches meet Federal requirements. typically, each and every apparatus exigency to flood the C&A technique as a minimum as soon as each three years or whenever an famous exchange is made to the device, whichever comes first.
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AICPA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
AIIM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Alcatel-Lucent [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Alfresco [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Altiris [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Amazon [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
American-College [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Android [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
APA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
APC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
APICS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Apple [71 Certification Exam(s) ]
AppSense [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
APTUSC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Aruba [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASTQB [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Avaya [106 Certification Exam(s) ]
AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
BEA [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CA-Technologies [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
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CheckPoint [45 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CompTIA [79 Certification Exam(s) ]
ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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CyberArk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
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ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [16 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Google [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
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McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Microsoft [393 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Oracle [314 Certification Exam(s) ]
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PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
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SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [136 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [68 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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