00M-246 exam Dumps Source : IBM Smarter Commerce Sales Mastery Test v1
Test Code : 00M-246
Test appellation : IBM Smarter Commerce Sales Mastery Test v1
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In concurrent ever greater related world consumers maintain much bigger expectations of the businesses they deal with.
They want groups to understand their preferences and bring a customized, beneficial journey. What's greater they are expecting this the entire time not just at the factor of sale.
To assist businesses carry for his or her shoppers IBM is the usage of its Smarter Commerce global climax in Florida to unveil ExperienceOne, an built-in portfolio of cloud-based and on premise offerings to assemble advertising, sales and repair practices and support create deeper, extra effectual customer engagements.
IBM ExperienceOne draws on innovation from IBM analysis as well as more than $3 billion invested in organic pile and acquisitions. or not it's furthermore constructed on top-quality practices drawn from IBM's experience of working with over eight,000 corporations throughout the globe.
"Smarter Commerce is about assisting shoppers normally reinvent themselves around the client journey," says Craig Hayman, time-honored supervisor, trade Cloud options at IBM. "IBM ExperienceOne provides a at ease and simplified portfolio -- including innovation from greater than 1,200 companions -- to support consumers design and bring extra constructive client engagements. With cloud, on premise and hybrid options, IBM ExperienceOne quickly scales to engage every client in the second while retaining their privateness".
New capabilities aid to enhance understanding of client relationships, maximize earnings through directing the amend tender to the amend consumer, and beget use of cell and gregarious media to convey improved client event. Combining ExperienceOne with SoftLayer cloud infrastructure IBM is additionally in a position to tender client statistics, customer analytics and digital commerce as a service.
The enterprise is aiming to deliver similar stages of customer insight to the B2B sector as neatly with the launch of recent associate and organization engagement application via its Smarter Commerce initiative. This contains a Multi-business Relationship management (MRM) platform for improved collaboration. IBM Sterling B2B features Reporting and Analytics to video display transactions and back traffic spot traits and beget recommended decisions. Plus other tools present improved adherence to compliance requisites and sooner and more efficient sharing of information.
"Now more than ever, the fate of any traffic is deeply intertwined with the success of its network of partners and suppliers total over the world," says John Mesberg, vp, B2B & Commerce solutions at IBM. "by using orchestrating these involved engagements with surprising precision and perception, organizations can create recent gateways to alternate that permit groups to convey outstanding consumer experiences. With today’s news, IBM basically transforms these dynamics with partners and shoppers to pressure faster time to salary throughout the prolonged cost chain".
which you can find more about IBM ExperienceOne on the enterprise's web site. there's additionally an infographic on how Smarter Commerce can carry greater consumer engagement beneath.
graphic credit score: Sergey Nivens / Shutterstock
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2. The Up & Comers: Health and Auto are mammoth progress areas for AI/ML due to the copious amount of data being created in those industries. For example, patient records house vital information related to disease identification and treatment. In Ontario alone, there are over 2.3 billion medical test results from 11.1 million Ontarians. On the other cessation of the spectrum, automobiles are constantly generating slews of data — distance traveled, tolerable speed, destination — that can breathe used for optimizing traffic, city planning and accident prevention. For AI/ML to breathe effectively implemented within the enterprise, it needs to breathe integrated into core determination making processes within a company; just peer at Facebook’s newsfeed algorithm and Uber’s surge pricing and route optimization system. AI/ML will replace a lot of the grunt toil in the enterprise, freeing employee time for more value-add activities (e.g. Amy, x.ai’s robot assistant, who saves me from so many unnecessary emails when scheduling a meeting). Near-term opportunities in the enterprise are in data optimization, data search and messaging (think: commerce, payments and gaming), and you’ll likely remark this quickly penetrate areas such as Enterprise Optimization, Law, Security and Sales.
By Tyler Titherington
I am a restaurateur. I’m behind schedule. Again. Not because I am disorganized or maintain too much to do, more so because I maintain a hierarchy of tasks that are addressed based on priority. Guest needs are my first priority, staff needs are a proximate second and everything else last. There is a tertiary hierarchy in the last basket as well. Some tasks with a lower priority descend through the cracks. Not because they are unimportant, but rather there just was not enough time. The truth is that I am obsessively organized. I devotion “To Do” lists, calendars, flow charts and the accomplishment of tasks. I ingest projects for breakfast, while living on the edge of chaos and complete catastrophe. Short staffed? Yawn. Drains flooding? Been there, done that. POS system crash during service on a weekend? Bring it. I am the duck – tranquil above water and feet lamentable nonstop below. However, how attain I manage total the curveballs and still manage to gain time without compromising any of my other priorities? It is very simple – conform and embrace technology wherever possible, specifically, cloud-based computing solutions that allow one to breathe in many places at one time. These applications simplify daily tasks for management teams and staff, which will ultimately leverage senior management down to focus on the bigger picture. Maybe even Get a day off…
Over the last 10 years or so, the increased availability of cloud-based computing solutions (using network computers over the internet rather than property-based difficult drives) has been a major paradigm shift for many industries. However, as with most technological advances, the restaurant industry has been very late to adapt. tight margins, resistance to change, and dismay of unknown outcomes maintain long driven the restaurateur’s decision-making process. However, with increased options, cheaper costs, and ease of use, that mindset is quickly becoming a thing of the past. Restaurant operators are beginning to embrace cloud-based solutions for everything from Point of Sale and Tableside Payment to Menu Design and Scheduling.
Our foray into cloud computing began with an hapless set of circumstances that the entire industry was facing. The year was 2010 and the impending doom of PCI Compliance was upon us. At best, their network infrastructure was dated and they needed to act quickly to Get it into compliance. devotion most operators, their hand was forced and they had no choice. What is PCI Compliance? The reply depends on who you ask.
Your guests maintain never heard of it and maintain no persuasion what it is. Most restaurant operators will flaunt you that PCI Compliance is an almost unachievable set of network security standards designed to protect the credit card giants, who already imbue them course too much for credit card processing and continually squeeze them with a plethora of monthly fees. The definition of PCI Compliance is below, according to PCI ComplianceGuide.org
“The Payment Card Industry Data Security measure (PCI DSS) is a set of security standards designed to ensure that total companies that accept, process, store or transmit credit card information maintain a secure environment. The PCI Security Council Card focuses on improving payment account security throughout the transaction process. It is an independent body that was created by the major payment card brands (Visa, MasterCard, American Express, determine and JCB.).”[i]
PCI DSS is mandatory for any and total businesses that accept credit cards. It involves a process of assessment, remediation and reporting. Operators must identify network vulnerabilities, physical vulnerabilities, and operational vulnerabilities that could result in a credit card breach and fix them. In summary, it is a painfully tedious, extremely time consuming, and potentially expensive process.
It is extremely distinguished for the security of their guest’s payment information, both for ensuring confidence with their customers and limiting legal liabilities. In 2017-8, major retail stores including Home Depot, Macy’s, Sears, Kmart, Best Buy and Lord & Taylor made headlines across the country for data breaches possibly compromising customer’s credit card personal information. The restaurant industry is furthermore plagued with security breaches, including large chains such as Darden (Cheddar’s), Panera Bread, Sonic and Arby’s. The number of customers whose credit card information may breathe compromised totals into the millions.[ii]
At Grafton Group, the process of obtaining Credit card security involved working directly with their IT vendor and POS vendor to achieve PCI compliance. The first order of traffic was to Get their network infrastructure in order. Some of the major network upgrades that they undertook were upgrading wiring, locking down patch panels, securitizing external ports, adding wireless access points (WAPs), and replacing firewalls. The WAPs and recent firewalls were the heart of the upgrades and would ultimately allow us to operate unencumbered in the cloud. The recent access points give their guests their own network and avert them from accessing ours. The security firewalls avert intrusions and furthermore allow their IT vendor remote access so they can beget changes without actually being in the restaurant. What used to breathe a scheduled visit from their IT vendor that may maintain taken weeks, is now a simple email and can often breathe addressed online in minutes. In a nutshell, PCI DSS forced us to upgrade their network, which ultimately allowed us to operate in the cloud. This unintended outcome to a painful requirement was truly a blessing in dissemble and it pushed us into recent territory – the cloud! Being in the cloud has allowed us access to exciting applications and services that would otherwise breathe unavailable to us.
IBM defines cloud computing as “the delivery of on-demand computing resources — everything from applications to data centers — over the internet on a pay-for-use basis.”[iii] For their purposes, these on exact computing resources primarily consist of “SaaS” or Software as a Service. Here are some of the areas where cloud computing can streamline their operation.Point of Sale
POS systems are the most intriguing area of cloud-based solutions for restaurant operators. Legacy systems such as Positouch, Micros, and Aloha are bulkier, more expensive, and much harder to program and implement. There are quite a few cloud-based POS options, most notably Boston-based Toast. Toast has done a distinguished job streamlining and simplifying the interface for both front and back cessation users. Management can access the system remotely for screen programming, troubleshooting or reviewing sales. It is extremely intuitive, devotion using a smartphone, thus needing very tiny training. As wireless POS solutions evolve, legacy systems will eventually breathe phased out. It is only a matter of time.Tableside Payment
EMV (Europay, MasterCard and Visa) is another set of regulations that are coming to the restaurant industry. “EMV is a global measure for cards equipped with computer chips and the technology used to authenticate chip-card transactions.”[iv] Used in Europe for years, the credit card never leaves the customer and total transactions are processed tableside with a handheld device. One case of an EMV compliant, cloud-based device for tableside payments that they at Grafton Group are currently analyzing and device on implementing is Pay My Tab. Pay My Tab will fully integrate with their POS system and eliminates many bulky PCI DSS requirements. Many similar systems are already in use at quick service operations, where guests and staff maintain easily adapted to them. In addition to tougher security, the implementation should subside payment time, liquidate paper receipts (emailed instead) and simplify the process for management to search for specific receipts.
Reservations and Floor Management
There are a variety of solutions for reservations and floor management systems. Their difficult has been using OpenTable for over 15 years, so when they rolled out their cloud-based system, GuestCenter, they were early adopters. This has been one of the separate best applications in terms of roll out, ease of use, and seamless integration. It is iPad-based and eliminates total the wiring and host stand true estate. It is compatible to smart phones that allows for remote access, allowing management to check flow of service, identify unique reservations, and beget confident that waitlists are being managed appropriately. Soon to near is an interface with POS systems that automatically applies any “guest notes” from GuestCenter to the server’s check, such as special occasions, etc. Most importantly, due to its intuitive design, their millennial hosts use the system seamlessly.Private Event Management
Private events are the foundation of most full service restaurant operations. They are the contrast between a salubrious week and a distinguished week. However, it can breathe a very confusing process with total of the lamentable parts. In order to stay organized, they use TripleSeat to manage leads, create BEOs and track their events calendar. The cloud-based event management system allows their Private Event Coordinators to respond at any given time from anywhere, giving them a leg up on the competition, giving them the chance to win fees for each event. Since their coordinators receive an administrative fee for each event, they value responding when available off-site; salubrious communication is key for making confident work-life poise is maintained.Bar at the Russell House Tavern in Cambridge, MA. Photo: graftongrouphospitality.com Inventory
An area which the cloud has really saved their restaurants time is with food & beverage inventories. No more paper and no more transposing paper to spreadsheet. Inventories can breathe uploaded in true time using a tablet, laptop or even a smart phone. BevSpot is used for both their food and beverage inventories. They maintain furthermore given access to their accounting firm, in order to reduce bulky invoice scans and uploads. total information can breathe entered into the cloud and accessed by total of their approved users. It furthermore allows for multiple people to purloin inventory simultaneously. One person can breathe on the bar, another in the walk in fridge, and another in the liquor room, total at the identical time. In addition to being a major time saver, it has helped Grafton Group to reduce sitting inventory by a significant amount across total properties.Scheduling
Staff scheduling is a weekly administrative headache for managers, but there are cloud-based scheduling applications that lessen the pain. They maintain create HotSchedules to fit their needs as it interfaces with their POS system and allows their difficult to attain some creative reporting in regards to budgeting and forecasting, as well as taking employees requests and requirements into consideration.Email and File Sharing
Grafton Group has near a long course from sharing access to a desktop version of Outlook and toggling between accounts. They were able to liquidate their main server entirely and now they use Office 365 for their email and file sharing needs. Not only is this highly securitized, it has redundancy so their information is always backed up. They access both their email and files from anywhere in the world. This has greatly improved productivity and allowed their management teams to communicate in true time.Grafton Street in Cambridge, MA. Photo: graftongrouphospitality.com Computer Hardware
Our office hardware now consists of much less expensive “Network Computers”, which attain not require expanded recollection for giant programs, CD drives for downloading drivers, or expansion slots for extraneous drives. They can purchase more computers at a reduced cost and their managers no longer maintain to participate computer access in the office.Menu Design
For their menu design need, they maintain create InDesign to breathe the most efficient program, which is section of the Adobe Creative Cloud. This program can now breathe selected a la carte from Adobe’s menu of programs and paid for on a month to month basis for under $20. This is much more palatable than paying $600 for the entire Adobe suite.
These are just a handful examples of how cloud computing has impacted their operations and ultimately saved time for their management team and staff. Ten seconds here, 5 minutes there, an hour tomorrow – it adds up to impactful chunks of time that can breathe better spent elsewhere. They maintain only scratched the surface as an industry – they will remark more and more options for cloud-based solutions to true world restaurant problems. Although the solutions highlighted above create efficiency and redeem time, they attain not serve guests and they don’t understand the know-how of hospitality. It is imperative that as restaurateurs they continue to create a positive environment, embrace innovation, and engage and train their employees in the know-how and skill of hospitality.
There are some things you will never maintain time for in the restaurant industry, regardless of cloud-based advancements. “Lunch”, for example, I maintain heard is a meal that takes residence in the middle of the day. For me, “lunch” is the sandwich that I ingest in 30 seconds somewhere between 2pm and 6pm standing over a trash can in the back of the kitchen. There is no technology for that…
PDF Version Available HereReferences [i] “PCI Compliance guide FAQ.” PCIComplianceGuide.Org. September, 2018. https://www.pcicomplianceguide.org/faq/#1. [ii] Green, D. and Hanbury, M. (Aug. 22, 2018). “If you shopped at these 16 stores in the last year, your data might maintain been stolen.” https://www.businessinsider.com/data-breaches-2018-4 [iii] “What Is Cloud Computing?” IBM.com. September, 2018. https://www.ibm.com/cloud/learn/what-is-cloud-computing. [iv] Kossman, Sienna. ” 8 FAQs about EMV credit cards.” CreditCards.com. August 29, 2017. https://www.creditcards.com/credit-card-news/emv-faq-chip-cards-answers-1264.php. Tyler was born and raised in Portland, Maine and has lived in the Boston area since attending Boston University. After graduating from the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration, Mr. Titherington operated a handful of bars and restaurants in Boston. He has been with Grafton Group since October 2007.
By Christopher Muller
In section 1 of this analysis of the restaurant delivery system they looked at the owner/operator models which still tender some measure of control over expense and quality. This is quick becoming an issue with the ascend of the Ghost Kitchen where the ODP is an integral section of the equation. Here they present the larger challenges from the dominant ODP control of the marketplace. It is salubrious to bethink that most of the ODPs themselves are still looking to find profits in what they do, a suggestion that those profits will requisite to near at the expense of the restaurant providers in one course or another.5. The Aggregator or On-Line Delivery Provider (ODP) – No Driver Fleet
If someone were to say, “Let me purloin confidence of total of your delivery problems for a diminutive prick of your revenues” many restaurant operators, especially those involved to Get into the market with the least amount of upfront investment, would jump at the chance. Enter the On-Line Delivery Provider with a traffic model built upon a brand appellation customer-facing APP, website or phone number and an gargantuan amount of back office computing power to drive order volume.
At its core, to breathe successful the Aggregator needs to breathe a world-class matchmaker for food orders, with both a large customer database of users and a broad assortment of restaurant menus offered in major cities. devotion many of what MIT’s Bill Aulet calls an Innovation Driven Enterprise (IDE) the cost of customer acquisition is the key hurdle in entering this distribution channel. What it doesn’t requisite is its own fleet of employee delivery drivers. Capitalizing on the DIY gig economy, drivers are hired on a contractual basis, working as independent delivery agents with their own vehicles.
The barrier to lowering this lofty cost of entry has favored early market entrants and large well-funded digital innovators. Worldwide, the fastest growing ODP is Uber Eats, the natural extension of car service provider, Uber, with its existing gargantuan data foundation of users, an ever expanding fleet of drivers, and the understanding for a driver that delivering food with an APP-based pre-payment system is considerably faster and easier than dealing with human passengers.
The upside for restaurant companies using an ODP such as Uber Eats, from those as dominant as McDonalds or as diminutive as the local pizzeria, is that there is no requisite to hire and train non-core employees. As touted by Uber Eats delivery service can start almost immediately upon signing up. The downside, that has a potential for long term impact, is two-fold. The fee structure for traditionally low margin restaurants can breathe between 20-30% of a menu detail price, leaving tiny to cover remaining expenses. Worse though is that the restaurant gives away its brand and trade dress image to the company making the delivery to the front door. McDonalds hamburgers may breathe in the bag, but the appellation on the ordering APP and the uniform on the person handing it to the customer says Uber Eats.
6. The Consolidator – Bulk “Bus Stop”
As noted, the most expensive separate piece of the delivery puzzle is getting food from the restaurant to the front door, what is called “the last mile.” One proven course to minimize that expense is to maintain the customer meet the food delivery at a central drop-off spot (see: Amazon ). A start-up, Yun Ban Bao, in recent York City is taking edge of ethnic Chinese food deserts through direct targeted marketing using the dominant Chinese online service provider, WeChat. By doing so it is creating a captive delivery market with the edge of pre-ordering and payment.
Taking online requests for delivery on the next traffic day, then consolidating orders using a bulk delivery model, Yun Ban Bao is lowering the cost of delivery while maintaining control with its own fleet of drivers. It advertises a data analytics service for smaller restaurants as well as being a revenue growth accelerator for restaurants in suburban locations which otherwise could not find recent or broader market opportunities.
Using a pre-arranged group delivery network, often outside parks, office towers or apartment buildings, the system mirrors a bus route, not the more traditional taxi route model of one-on-one delivery. This furthermore affords the network of restaurants a course to lower operating costs by controlling the production process in advance.7. The Aggregator ODP – Owned Fleet
Some of the largest ODP players started in the delivery traffic by controlling their own fleets of employee managed delivery drivers. The global leader, Just Eat, has used this model throughout the UK, Europe and worldwide. But it furthermore has worked directly with restaurants who maintain their own in-house deliver fleets to create a broad partnership. Just ingest acts as the online ordering platform, but then allows the local branded company to breathe the puss at the door.
The aptitude to present a standardized customer facing brand identity means that confidence may breathe established with the customer directly. While this can near at the risk of the restaurant losing its direct brand relationship, what Just ingest has been able to master is the collection of a vast customer database of its users. It has created a relationship with many of its restaurant partners to assist them in finding pattern store locations, menu detail design and creative targeted pricing and promotions programs which would not otherwise breathe affordable or even available to smaller companies.
For these ODP companies, the costs for maintaining their own fleets or working as a hybrid with a local restaurant creates a higher operating expense, but these are often offset with a higher fee participate from both the restaurant and the consumer. It furthermore creates a competitive edge by pile a broader network of restaurants to choose from for the customer, which builds long term loyalty and habitual purchase behaviors.
8. The ODP Aggregator – obscure Kitchens
One of the greatest threats to the bricks and mortar restaurant delivery partners is the emerging concept of a obscure Kitchen. This is a space created by an OPD to facilitate the lowest cost per delivery mile from restaurant kitchen to the highest density of users. While this is similar to the Cloud Kitchen model, in this case the OPD establishes a cluster of diminutive dedicated but competitive restaurant kitchens in a separate site. A obscure Kitchen is furthermore similar to the trending food hall concept, but comes with no direct customer interaction—no walk-in guest visits these production facilities. In the UK this was pioneered by Deliveroo with its urban RooBox or Editions concepts. ally restaurants rent portable kitchen space from the delivery service and pay a larger percentage fee to cover the build-out costs for their space. Restaurants staff the kitchens at their own expense, as well.
Earlier this year, Grubhub invested $1 million in Green climax Group (see Ghost Kitchen in section I), a startup with nine virtual restaurants operating from a separate kitchen. DoorDash is renting extra space from the Santa Clara Fairgrounds in San Jose, Calif., and making it available to foodservice operators who want to create delivery-only options. In Los Angeles, Postmates leased a commissary kitchen space so its restaurants can reach recent customers. And UberEATS is exploring the concept with Poke Café in Chicago — a virtual restaurant serving Hawaiian poke bowls.
“We can toil with existing restaurant partners to create delivery-only menus. (They would) emerge as entirely recent restaurants on the UberEats app,” Ambika Krishnamachar, UberEats product manager, said in an article on Mashable.
And again, while on its puss this appears to breathe a positive chance for independent or chain restaurants to lower costs or disaggregate the dine-in from the delivery production process, it is not cost free. In fact, as a rational progression would suggest, the OPD Deliveroo service has realized that the actual local restaurant in this amalgamate is not a necessity for success. Instead by using its own “innovation fund” it will to Go directly into the restaurant traffic itself, creating “from scratch” concepts by working with notable chefs and data mining information from its gargantuan customer data base. 
As more of the OPDs peer to find profits to pass along to the aggressive investors who maintain funded rapid growth, they will inevitably peer to prick out the middleman and provide meals themselves to multiply margins. The kitchen that may actually Go “dark” is the local one on the corner down the street in an independent restaurant.
This is undoubtedly both an intriguing and a challenging time for the restaurant industry and the Online Delivery Providers who are feeding from it. Neither side seems to maintain figured out how to beget the recent consumer exact for off-site delivery toil to their complete advantage.
It is impossible to believe that any restaurant can survive if it gives away up to 30% of its top line revenues when the tolerable net profit is less than 10%. No amount of increased volume in sales will beget up for that. As Cameron Keng wrote in his column “Why Uber Eats Will ingest You Into Bankruptcy” in March, 2018:
Based on the tolerable profit margins above, every restaurant that engages Uber Eats will lose money on every order they take. The more orders coming from Uber Eats, the more money a restaurant would lose.
At the identical time, while it is difficult to Get exact information, it appears that almost not a soul of the largest On-Line Delivery Providers, in any of the described segments is actually showing a profit. Uber Eats is only profitable in 27 of its more than 100 urban markets, and while Deliveroo’s sales rose in 2017 to £277 million ($356 million), the company lost an astounding £185 million ($237 million). Yet Uber Eats is offering over $2 billion to purchase/merge with Deliveroo.
Finally, as Jonathan Maze wrote in his Bottom Line column in early October the restaurant industry is simply unprepared for what appears to breathe a tectonic shift in traditional restaurant segments, consumer behavior, labor utilization, true Estate valuation and investor interest.
If delivery is the future of the restaurant business, the restaurant traffic as it is currently constructed is in trouble.
The service is growing rapidly. But it’s increasingly replacing existing restaurant traffic rather than taking traffic away from grocers or other food retailers. 
As they notable in the beginning, it took the lodging industry almost 20 years to start to beget this benevolent of tectonic change and it is nowhere near complete. A few very large hotel companies, through merger and acquisition, maintain consolidated enough power to start the trudge away from handing over total of their pricing to the OTA’s. In economic terms, hotel companies are trying to Go from being expense Takers to expense Setters.
At this early stage of the restaurant OPD’s domination of the delivery cycle, it is not pellucid that any restaurant organization is large enough to atomize the fever, especially now that McDonald’s is partnering with Uber Eats. While it may emerge that the On-line Delivery Provider is a restaurant’s partner, friend or even savior, it is not a soul of those. In fact, in order to become profitable the OPD is looking to become a direct competitor.
What is certain is that few restaurant companies, and certainly no independent operations, can survive the next two decades letting third parties impose what convenience and expense mean. In fact, this might breathe a salubrious time to Get out of the house and Go visit your favorite local restaurant. Sacrificing some convenience for a distinguished experience is a salubrious value and that restaurant may not breathe around the next time you want to exhibit up.
PDF Version Available HereReferences  remark Bill Aulet, Disciplined Entrepreneurship,  The Financial, October 25, 2018, https://www.finchannel.com/~finchannel/business/76317-amazon-expands-grocery-delivery-and-pickup  Menqi Sun, WSJ, September 9, 2018, https://www.wsj.com/articles/how-to-get-food-delivered-from-your-favorite-faraway-restaurant-1536516000  See https://www.just-eat.com/  James Cook, traffic Insider, April 5, 2017, https://www.businessinsider.com/deliveroo-editions-pop-up-restaurants-roobox-2017-4  Tim York, The Packer, March 23, 2018, https://www.thepacker.com/article/rise-virtual-restaurant Sophie Witts, mammoth Hospitality, May 21, 2018, https://www.bighospitality.co.uk/Article/2018/05/21/Deliveroo-to-create-own-restaurant-brands-using-5m-fund#  Cameron Keng, Forbes, March 26, 2018, https://www.forbes.com/sites/cameronkeng/2018/03/26/why-uber-eats-will-eat-you-into-bankruptcy/#778a3b0621f6  Ibid., DealBook, September 21, 2018  BBC News, October 1, 2018, https://www.bbc.com/news/business-45707700  Jonathan Maze, Restaurant traffic Online, October 17, 2018 https://www.restaurantbusinessonline.com/financing/delivery-could-force-changes-restaurant-business-model Christopher C. Muller is Professor of the practice of Hospitality Administration and former Dean of the School of Hospitality Administration at Boston University. Each year, he moderates the European Food Service Summit, a major conference for restaurant and supply executives. He holds a bachelor’s degree in political science from Hobart College and two graduate degrees from Cornell University, including a Ph.D. in hospitality administration. Email: email@example.com
By Christopher Muller
The entire restaurant industry, from the simplest quick service joint to the most involved fine dining jewel, is caught in a veritable frenzy of delivery. It may be, unfortunately, a very risky path to travel for the uninitiated restaurant operation, but delivery is driving the investment community to a fever pitch.  They maintain entered into the time of the restaurant On-Line Delivery Provider (ODP) which mirrors in many ways the On-Line Travel Agent (OTA) which has so disrupted the lodging industry.
In two complimentary BHR articles here, they present a peer at the 8 different models of restaurant delivery and how they are affecting both senior management and customer choices.
A Quick Lesson From Pricing History
For observers of the global Hospitality Industry this should dispatch up warning flags. In a galaxy far, far away, the Lodging industry managed revenues by using simple seasonal or ascribe pricing models (On-, Shoulder- and Off-Peak rates, or premiums for “A elbowroom With A View”) and sold some limited excess inventory through a network of independent Travel Agents (at an onerous 10% commission!).
Then, as the Internet expanded, and the travel market imploded after the 9-11 tragedy, a recent and exciting model emerged – the On-Line Travel Agent (OTA) acting as a third party aggregator appeared. Hotel companies willingly gave open access to total of their unsold elbowroom inventory to the OTAs (Expedia, Travelocity, Priceline, Booking.com, Kayak, Trivago, etc.) to sell directly at abysmal discounts, often between 25 and 30% off posted Rack Rates. Occupancies rose, but tolerable Daily Rates plummeted, and profits quickly diminished. Hotels, relying on the conventional pricing models were caught competing “with themselves” and watched as formerly loyal customers switched their buying habits and loyalties to the OTA that gave them the best rate. Customers could scroll through pages of prices, often for the exact identical elbowroom in the identical hotel, searching for the cheapest rate. Hotel rooms, instead of being unique destinations became interchangeable commodities.
It has taken almost twenty years, but through brand consolidation and a total system-wide transformation into a Revenue Management based pricing model, the hotel traffic has been transformed and the OTAs are being aggressively challenged for dominance. This should breathe a lesson for the restaurant owner/operator, the OTAs drove nothing but expense as a determination attribute, the ODPs are poised to attain the identical thing with both expense and convenience, unfortunately restaurants probably won’t maintain decades to recover.
Today’s Restaurant Delivery Frenzy –The ascend of the ODP
Whether it’s the savvy but shape-shifting Millennial, the rapidly aging Baby Boomer, or the rising puerile digital indigenous from the i-Generation, it seems that customers in total shapes and sizes just want to maintain their meals brought to them at home, the office, or somewhere in between. Breaking the code of the delivery model—becoming the customer’s option of who serves up breakfast, lunch or dinner at home, toil or play—has emerged as the Holy Grail of the foodservice business. But it may breathe more devotion the other mythic obscure Ages metaphor, the Plague, potentially killing upwards of 30% of existing restaurant units.
So, what exactly is “delivery” today, how did it evolve into such a big, expanding component of the restaurant offering and what are the implications going forward for the industry? Just how attain the On-Line Delivery Providers, the ODP, dominate the market?
We can start by agreeing that delivery is a separate and rapidly growing distribution channel, although it has been around in one contour or another for a very long time. And while not exactly a recent technology, nor necessarily a profitable one, the exploding market for the delivery of food is poised for an inevitable quake out as it quickly approaches a ripen aspect consolidation.
In late 2018 delivery is total about instant gratification, not just for the diner but some would insinuate for the restaurant as well. At first glance, it total feels so simple and easy. But devotion so much in restaurant management, there is more than one course to Get something done, even the simplest of things.
Emerging Key Success Factors
Like so many emerging traffic models in the on-line digital age, food delivery is developing its own metrics and factors to breathe considered and mastered. While still evolving, among these now are:
Delivery of food, especially from a restaurant to a consumer, has become a multi-billion dollar segment of the industry. Some are predicting that it will overtake the traditional dine-in segment completely within a decade, although the complexity of getting it prerogative and turning a profit while doing so, can still breathe elusive even for the largest players. And of course, no one should forget that Amazon is over in the corner waiting to remark how things evolve in an online delivery world they basically invented.
Traditional and Controlled
As noted, the delivery of food from a restaurant directly to a local customer is not a recent persuasion although traditionally the customer came to the restaurant and picked up or carried out their food order. Both delivery and carry-out were best suited to a restaurant with a simple, easily transported menu. Where a significant amount of the value of the meal was the dining experience and table service, meals to Go were often comprised of a package of leftovers or the long gone term “doggie bags.”
Here is a peer at four models with some measure of control for restaurant owners and operators over the character and profitability of their offerings.
1. The Independent – One Shot
As a service provider a restaurant may determine that in order to meet the needs of its local customer foundation it should provide a delivery option. At one time, only a few restaurants in an urban core would maintain delivery offers and these might typically breathe delicatessens or Chinese restaurants with few seats and a very stalwart focus on offering takeout options. The food can breathe cooked, boxed, wrapped and brought quickly to an office or apartment within a few blocks on foot or by bicycle.
This model is the most basic – a caller, the kitchen, and an employee bringing heated food directly to the customer. The restaurant controls the quality, manages the relationship with the diner and absorbs the full cost and total the revenues. It typically comes with higher operating costs for labor (primarily from an in-house paid delivery driver fleet) and with premium rent from the requisite for an attractive customer-facing retail space. On the plus side, total local customer information may breathe controlled by the restaurant and there are no fees to participate with an outside third-party service.
But as the independent operator reaches for the brass ring on the delivery merry-go-round, they furthermore requisite to breathe watchful not to lose their grip on their existing ride. A recent distribution channel can breathe much more challenging that just taking a customer order. As notable by Jennifer Marston:
…restaurants are under pressure to adapt…More and more, that means altering the physical restaurant space so it can better accommodate this influx of recent orders. Extra meals require extra bodies to cook and package the food, after all, not to mention extra space for third-party devices, and somewhere to set aside completed orders waiting to breathe picked up by a delivery driver.
An intriguing twist on this separate restaurant model of trying to find a course to both control and expand the delivery system while maintaining some measure of profitability is one recently proposed in the restaurant trade magazine Restaurant traffic Online:
He (CMO Nabeel Alamgir) explained that Bareburger is already striving to transmute customers ordering through third parties’ apps into users of the chain’s own channels. Patrons of an Uber Eats or Postmates might breathe offered a 10% discount on their next order if it’s placed through Bareburger’s website. The chain can afford a discount that abysmal because the fiscal repercussion is still less than the 20% or 30% discount an outside service typically charges.
Alamgir notable at the start of the panel’s presentation that a service started by restaurants for restaurants would maintain been an attractive alternative to some of the third-party giants. “Let’s beget their own platform. Let’s beget their own Grubhub,” he said.
2. The Cloud Kitchen – A Hub & Spoke System
It can breathe argued that today’s focused delivery channel began in earnest when Domino’s offered up a “30 Minute or Free” guarantee in 1973. In order to beget this guarantee effective, the company created a hub and spoke system, in result pile a train of franchised units in low cost locations. They were characterized by being geographically market-centered but with no requisite for a “High Street” customer facing address. This was directly in contrast to the overwhelming market edge owned by Pizza Hut and its network of “Red Roof” full service pizzerias with their focus on dine-in and takeout service. But the competitive edge that came from having units with no dine-in, limited customer carry-out, and which were serviced by a central commissary set in motion the shift away from the traditional eat-in model.
“The reality is, when the red roof restaurant was created, the persuasion of delivery wasn’t section of the concept,” said Pizza Hut chief executive David Gibbs, a 26-year veteran at parent company Yum Brands…”so in many cases, their traffic has outgrown the capabilities of those restaurants…”
Now, four decades later Domino’s is the world leader in delivery, pizza or otherwise. It has done this by controlling the entire process or what is called the “full stack” in the delivery cycle. Now describing itself as an IT and logistics company that sells pizza, the backbone of the system is that they control the customer ordering process, the production character process, and through a vast franchise network the delivery process.
Next to come, using recent GPS and AI technologies, Domino’s predicts that it will breathe able to beget deliveries not just to a formal pile address, but to anywhere a customer can breathe located by tracking their cellphone, even if that is a park bench or a blanket on the beach.
But Domino’s is not the only leader to breathe expanding its Cloud Kitchen delivery system. Already designed on a commissary production system model, giant quick casual leader, Panera Bread, tested delivery in Boston and then announced an expansion across the United States in early May, 2018 with a system based upon using its own delivery drivers.  Following the trend in October the largest chicken sandwich chain, Chick-fil-A, announced it was beginning to test the hub and spoke model of delivery in Nashville, TN and Louisville, KY.
Chick-fil-A is opening two recent restaurants that don’t maintain something you commonly associate with the chain: seats.
Chick-fil-A, the Atlanta-based chicken sandwich chain, is testing catering and delivery locations in Nashville and Louisville, Ky., that will open this month.
The locations, according to an announcement on the chain’s website, maintain no dining rooms or drive thru’s and are designed to breathe hubs for catering and delivery orders. The restaurants will not accept cash, either.
The Cloud Kitchen model can breathe very effectual for restaurant companies with large enough scale, whether in a separate city or across a region, to purloin edge of a separate production kitchen site with remote staging kitchens. Ultimately the “full stack” control from order to front door can near from as few as three restaurants or as many as 3000. This furthermore means that the foundation is laid for vast proprietary customer data collection and eventually data mining by the most forward-looking operators.
It can breathe argued that the Food Truck movement of the past decade is a subset of the Cloud Kitchen model. By most local health code laws, food trucks must maintain a “home kitchen” or commissary for their bulk production that meets total health and sanitation code requirements. In many urban centers, to be successful a food truck company needs to maintain multiple trucks on the road acting as a distribution network. While this is furthermore a classic Hub & Spoke model, it comes with similarities to a model in the next article, #6 The Consolidator, with distribution on a bus stop route and not a one-to-one last mile taxi route.
3. The Ghost Kitchen
One further refinement of the Cloud Kitchen is the Ghost Kitchen. As delivery becomes more of a threat to the traditional dine-in restaurant option, some insinuate that this model, in fact, is the future of restaurants—basically a highly efficient hybrid of menu concepts, specialized production and logistics, and low labor cost with no eat-in customers.
In that way, this model is identified by three key components.
First, it removes the dining elbowroom or takeout from the restaurant completely, working out of a kitchen whose location is based on nearness to its core customer market yet in a typically low rent out-of-the-way space.
Second, it does not hire any paid employees to deliver, instead making use (through partnership or agreement) of the many third-party delivery companies devotion GrubHub, Postmates or Doordash.
Third, and possibly the most important, because of the flexibility of only needing an APP, website or traditional telephone ordering system, more than one cuisine can breathe produced in the identical kitchen space. smooth to prepare, cook and deliver foods such as salads, sandwiches, Asian and other ethnic dishes, or gourmet pizza can total breathe offered while cross-utilizing similar ingredients in creative menu offerings.
This can best breathe described as an “order only” restaurant. The most prominent or well-known of these Ghost Kitchens would breathe Green climax (see transition to #8 obscure Kitchen in section 2). While garnering a salubrious amount of press, the notable chef David Chang’s Maple, closed its operation in 2017 with some assets lamentable to London and the delivery company Deliveroo. Chef Chang sold the physical kitchen space, Ando, to Uber Eats after ceasing operations in January, 2018. 
Because no customer ever sets foot through the front door the owners can set aside total of their investment in kitchen equipment and the technology of ordering. A Ghost Kitchen offers customers large menu choices, and just as its cousin the Cloud Kitchen, has the option to withhold track of its own proprietary customer data set through the direct ordering process. The tradeoff is that ownership sacrifices the customer interface at delivery of the Cloud Kitchen model. Operating and start-up costs are low and efficiency can breathe very high. The risk is that a large portion of the margin (sometimes up to 30%) from market-driven menu prices is taken by the delivery partnership, who furthermore control the brand image when customers receive their orders off-site.4. Virtual Restaurants
Along with disrupting the taxi business, Uber Eats is about to globally disrupt the restaurant delivery business. As of October, 2018, Uber Eats had over 1600 “virtual restaurants” around the globe, with almost 1000 in its US partnership portfolio. The majority of these are not the Cloud or obscure Kitchen models mentioned above, but are existing restaurants with recent brands that only exist through Uber Eats. This model, while charging very lofty fees to the restaurant, allows them to technically not compete with themselves in the home delivery marketplace. Uber Eats gains more menus to offer, and limits any requisite for an investment in a commissary space.
For SushiYaa, Kim says the virtual restaurant concept has been transformative. “Because this concept worked so well for us, they actually changed one of their restaurants from a sushi buffet concept to a regular restaurant with 8 different virtual restaurant brands inside it. The buffet sales weren’t doing so well and the delivery side was doing better, so they thought — let’s change it completely so we’re focused more on delivery.” From a sales standpoint, he says it’s “almost as if they maintain another restaurant without paying additional rent and labor, even though [Uber Eats] takes about 30 percent.”
One other character of Virtual Kitchen involves the licensing of existing restaurant recipes and menu items in a curated virtual model. The start-up concept salubrious Uncle is using this to compete in the university meal device segment, offering a ambit of pricing options for higher character prepared meals, delivered by their own delivery fleet using the bus stop common drop off method. This is a limited menu, limited target market, which benefits from a direct marketing approach, lower operating costs, and uses both a subscription and premium fee based pricing system. It is a Virtual Kitchen because there is no restaurant or other customer facing facility, it exists only online.
Part One – Conclusions
Delivery models, some traditional, some evolving, tender many opportunities for restaurant operators, especially those in the QSR and quick Casual segments, where accelerate and expense and convenience are the drivers of consumer choice.
The challenge in today’s delivery market is how owners and operators can maintain both lofty character and long-term profitability in the products/services they offer. For many meals, the time and distance from kitchen to table can breathe more than 30 minutes or multiple miles. character of presentation and flavor may quickly diminish. More importantly, where the medium annual profitability for restaurants across total segments in the USA is considerably less than 10%, losing up to 30% of top line revenues is not a path to a successful future, (even if total sales multiply by 20%).
PDF Version Available HereReferences  Heather Haddon and Julie Jargon, The Wall Street Journal online, October 24, 2018, https://www.wsj.com/articles/investors-are-craving-food-delivery-companies-1540375578?mod=cx_picks&cx_navSource=cx_picks&cx_tag=contextual&cx_artPos=4#cxrecs_s  Liam Proud, DealBook, NYTimes, September 21, 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/21/business/dealbook/uber-eats-deliveroo.html  Jennifer Marston, The Spoon, July 31, 2018, https://thespoon.tech/delivery-is-making-these-restaurants-literally-redesign-the-way-they-do-business/  Peter Romeo, Restaurant traffic Online, Oct. 19, 2018 https://www.restaurantbusinessonline.com/operations/3-big-changes-looming-restaurants  Karen Robinson-Jabos, Dallas News, Jan 6, 2016. https://www.dallasnews.com/business/business/2016/01/06/pizza-hut-is-ditching-the-iconic-red-roof-for-a-more-modern-look  Janelle Nanos, Boston Globe, May 7, 2018, https://www.bostonglobe.com/business/2018/05/07/panera-expanding-its-delivery-service-cities/sZg4pO0yTw9cEdYpv514tL/story.html?event=event12  Jonathan Maze, Restaurant traffic Online, Oct. 09, 2018 https://www.restaurantbusinessonline.com/financing/chick-fil-opening-new-delivery-focused-prototype  Neal Ungerleider, 01.20.17 quick Company https://www.fastcompany.com/3064075/hold-the-storefront-how-delivery-only-ghost-restaurants-are-changing-take-out  Closing announcement from Maple, May 8, 2017 https://maple.com/letter/  Whitney Filloon, Eater, October 24, 2018, www.eater.com/2018/10/24/18018334/uber-eats-virtual-restaurants  remark the online Audiopedia site https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BKO5JFbqKTA  Ibid, Eater, October 24, 2018  remark https://www.gooduncle.com/ Christopher C. Muller is Professor of the practice of Hospitality Administration and former Dean of the School of Hospitality Administration at Boston University. Each year, he moderates the European Food Service Summit, a major conference for restaurant and supply executives. He holds a bachelor’s degree in political science from Hobart College and two graduate degrees from Cornell University, including a Ph.D. in hospitality administration. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
By Makarand Mody and Monica Gomez
For a long time, the hotel industry did not deem Airbnb a threat. Both the industry and Airbnb claimed they were serving different markets and had different underlying traffic models. Over the years, as Airbnb become more successful and grown to being larger than the companies in the hotel industry, the rhetoric has changed. The hotel industry began to realize they had something to worry about.
A stage of denial was followed by the American Hotel & Lodging Association (AH&LA) attacking Airbnb by sponsoring research to demonstrate its negative impacts on the economy and lobbying governments to impose taxes and regulations on homesharing. The association is arguing for a even playing field between homesharing and hotels (and rightly so). The next stage of this battle involves competition and integration. Not only are hotels looking to add homesharing-like attributes and experiences to their properties, to more effectively compete with Airbnb, but are furthermore looking to tap into the platform-based traffic model that underlies Airbnb’s success.
The Past: How does Airbnb repercussion the hotel industry?
Airbnb’s disruption of the hotel industry is significant, both existentially and economically. A recent study by Dogru, Mody, and Suess (2018) create that a 1% growth in Airbnb supply across 10 key hotel markets in the U.S. between 2008 and 2017 caused hotel RevPAR to decease 0.02% across total segments. While these numbers may not emerge substantial at first, given that Airbnb supply grew by over 100% year-on-year over this ten year era means that the “real” subside in RevPAR was 2%, across hotel segments. Surprisingly, it was not just the economy but furthermore the extravagance hotel segment that was difficult hit by Airbnb supply increases, experiencing a 4% true decline in RevPAR. The repercussion of Airbnb on ADR and occupancy was less severe. In Boston, RevPAR has decreased 2.5%, on average, over the last ten years due to Airbnb supply increases. In 2016 alone, this 2.5% subside in RevPAR amounted to $5.8 million in revenue lost by hotels to Airbnb. Brands that felt the repercussion the most were those in the midscale and extravagance segments, with a subside in RevPAR of 4.3% and 2.3% respectively. These supply increases are furthermore fueling Airbnb taking an increasing participate of the accommodation market pie. For example, in recent York City, Airbnb comprised 9.7% of accommodation demand, equaling approximately 8,000 rooms per night in Q1 2016 (Lane & Woodworth, 2016). As a whole, Airbnb’s accommodated exact made up nearly 3% of total traditional hotel exact in Q12016.
Buoyed by a growth rate of over 100% year on year, Airbnb now has over 4 million listings, with the U.S. being its largest market. The company furthermore has significant elbowroom to grow in other countries, particularly emerging markets in Africa and India. The company has Run into some competition in China, with local rivals Tujia and Xiaozhu. Also, within the U.S., the salubrious advice is that Airbnb will not grow at 100% indefinitely and will eventually plateau as it reaches a saturation point (Ting, 2017a). In view of this, the company has turned to alternative strategies to continue to multiply supply. It is now targeting property developers to turn entire buildings into potential Airbnb units, through its newest hotel-like brand, Niido. Currently, there are two Airbnb branded Niido buildings in Nashville, TN and Orlando, FL with over 300 units each and Airbnb plans to maintain as many as 14 home-sharing properties by 2020 (Zaleski, 2018). Niido works by encouraging tenants to list their units on Airbnb, with Airbnb and Niido taking 25% of the revenue generated. Airbnb has furthermore clearly evolved from its original premise of “targeting a different market” to attracting segments traditionally targeted by hotels, such as the leisure family market, traffic travelers, and the upscale traveler, as evidenced through its latest offering, Airbnb Plus. These homes maintain been verified for quality, comfort, design, maintenance, and the amenities they offer. They furthermore maintain smooth check in, premium internet access, and fully equipped kitchens. Their hosts are typically rated 4.8+, and Go above and beyond for their guests. Through Airbnb Experiences, travelers can partake in everything from the distinguished outdoors—hiking and surfing—to “hidden” concerts and food and wine tours. In addition to these products, Airbnb has furthermore “created” its own segments of travelers: novelty and experience seekers who are looking for unique and unconventional accommodation devotion yurts, treehouses, and boats, total things that a traditional hotel company cannot provide.
The Present: Understanding what consumers want lies at the heart of the battle between hotels and Airbnb
There are larger societal trends that are impacting what consumers hunt travel, and they reason this has implications for the Airbnb and hotel dynamic. These trends include:
What attain these trends mean? They require marketers and experience designers to re-think what the travel experience means to the customer. The notion of the experience economy was created by Pine and Gilmore in 1998, and included four dimensions: escapism, education, entertainment, and esthetic. Leveraging one, or ideally, more of these dimensions creates memorable experiences for customers, which in turn results in brand loyalty. This dynamic has been fairly well-established in the academic literature. However, Airbnb has changed the game for the experience economy by emphasizing the sharing lifestyle and a sense of community, cleverly incorporating the above highlighted trends into its communications with customers. Because of Airbnb popularity and success, six recent dimensions maintain been incorporated into the experience economy, in the context of the travel experience: personalization, communitas, localness, hospitableness, serendipity, and ethical consumerism, as was presented by Mody in 2016.
Interestingly, in a recent study by Mody and colleagues (Mody, Suess, & Lehto, 2017), the researchers create that Airbnb outperformed hotels on total the dimensions of this new, expanded, accommodation experiencescape. Airbnb outperforms hotels in the personalization dimension because of its wide array of homes and locations, enabling genuine micro-segmentation and the “perfect match” between guest and host (Dolnicar, 2018). Moreover, no one home is similar to another, giving customers a unique experience every time, enhancing the serendipity associated with an Airbnb stay. Airbnb elevates the sense of community that consumers seek, particularly when sharing space with other travelers and/or with the host, and allows consumers unparalleled access to “the local”—that café or cute tiny store that only locals know about. However, there are areas where hotels hold their own. For example, the pathways between these dimensions and memorability were just as stalwart for hotels as for Airbnb, emphasizing the requisite for hotels to engage customers by leveraging the “right” dimensions for the brand—dimensions that align with the brand’s mission, story, and personality.
One such dimension where hotels discharge just as well as Airbnb is hospitableness, as confirmed in a study by Mody, Suess, and Lehto (2018). More “investor units” on the Airbnb platform means that the host is often not present when guests arrive to the home; moreover, total communication is done electronically and with someone who “manages” the Airbnb unit and doesn’t necessarily own or live in it. In turn, hotels that leverage the human factor—the welcome of a friendly check-in agent, the helpfulness of the concierge, the warm greeting and genuine interaction between guest and food and beverage staff—create more positive emotions, which subsequently lead to higher brand loyalty. It is imperative that hotel brands really reason about the high-tech, lofty paw experience they are looking to provide, particularly in the golden age of brand proliferation that they live in.
From a non-experience standpoint, regulation is another bone of contention that merits proximate inspection. After years of denying that Airbnb was a competitor, in 2016, the American Hotel & Lodging Association first began an extensive lobbying pains for the imposition of taxes and regulations on Airbnb that even the playing field. Over the last pair of years, the voices of the hotel lobby and other community groups maintain translated into governments taking some action, in the U.S. and abroad. However, in a study of regulation across 12 European and American cities, Nieuwland and van Melik (2018) create that governments maintain been fairly lenient towards short-term rentals with tiny to no (meaningful) regulations thus far. Moreover, regulations maintain been designed to alleviate the negative externalities of Airbnb on neighborhoods and communities rather than to even the playing field between Airbnb and hotels. Another challenge with regulating the peer to peer economy has been enforcement. In recent York City, under the Multiple Dwelling law, it is illegal for a unit to breathe rented out for less than 30 days unless the owner is present in the unit at the time the guest is renting. However, it is still possible to find “entire homes” on Airbnb in recent York City, even though, in principle, these typically embrace homes where the host is not present during the guest’s stay. Moreover, Nieuwland and van Melik (2018) and Hajibaba and Dolnicar (2017) maintain create that regulations watch to breathe very similar across cities, without accounting for the specificities of a particular location, which makes the process perfunctory and superficial. There furthermore remains the danger of over-regulating Airbnb, given that there is still very tiny erudition about effectual ways of regulating these innovations in the sharing economy, thus stifling their potential. Avoid over-regulation is critical, since Airbnb has significant welfare effects in the economy. In addition to stimulating travel to previously inaccessible markets, Airbnb furthermore creates customer surplus (Farronato & Fradkin, 2018), an distinguished economic value measure. Moreover, other research has suggested that the tolerable resident is not as negative towards the Airbnb as media rhetoric might insinuate (Mody, Suess, & Dogru, 2018). The requisite for a data-driven approach to Airbnb regulation remains paramount.
The Future: Competing with the sharing economy requires re-thinking the brand and the experience
While regulation is outside the control of the hotel industry, the brand and the customer experience are not. They contend that these are the areas where hotel companies’ efforts requisite to breathe focused. Hotels requisite to re-think the brand promise, both for the parent brand as well as individual brands in the portfolio, and how it defines and shapes the guest experience. Recent research by Mody and Hanks (2018) indicates that while Airbnb leverages the authenticity of the travel experience—by enabling local experiences that provide a sense of self and sense of place, hotel brands that are perceived as being authentic—original, genuine, and sincere—can generate higher brand loyalty. Thus, while it’s difficult to compete with homesharing in terms of experiential authenticity, brand authenticity is a pillar on which hotels can build a stalwart foundation for loyal brand relationships. This is particularly distinguished because while Airbnb promotes experiential authenticity as a key judgement to use the brand, most travelers watch to stay with the brand for much more functional requirements, such as space and expense (Chen & Xie, 2017; Dogru & Pekin, 2017)
There is no one definition for or manifestation of an “authentic” brand. It’s a perception, a feeling that consumers maintain about what you stand for. An unquestionable brand has at its core the brand promise, an unquestionable value proposition that gives consumers a raison d’etre for associating with the brand. However, what an unquestionable brand does require is effectual storytelling. A brand is perceived to breathe authentic, if it has an unquestionable memoir that feeds it. Brand stories can near from many sources: a brand’s values, personality, heritage, uniqueness, or its quest and purpose. What is distinguished is telling compelling and coherent stories across the brand’s various touchpoints to engage consumers at a visceral, emotional level. Taking off industry blinders, and looking for inspiration outside the hotel industry, is critical. Tom’s Shoes is an excellent case of leveraging its quest—One for One—in creating a compelling brand story. As another example, in an industry typically focused on the in-store, “physical” experience, Burberry has set the gold measure for authentic, digitally-led and emotive storytelling, by looking within and leveraging over 150 years of history (Watch the YouTube Video here). In this vein, they reason that Fairfield Inn and Suites’ revert to “where it total began”—the Marriott family’s Fairfield Farm in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia— to craft the brand experience of the future, from a design and communications standpoint, is an excellent case of leveraging authenticity and crafting a compelling brand vow (Ting, 2017b).
Another persuasion that lies at the heat of the brand vow is what they muster the experiential value proposition, or EVP. For the longest time, hotel marketers maintain relied on the guest elbowroom as the primary source of value for the guest. But reason about the last time you traveled. Was it the prospect of the hotel elbowroom that got you excited about your trip? Or was it everything that the hotel enables you to attain – the experience outside the guestroom? From experiencing know-how and music in the lobby to its proximity to the must-do craft beer garden, hotel marketers must realize that it’s the complete package—what’s inside and outside the room—that customers use as cues for making their determination to choose an accommodation. They muster this proposition offered by the hotel—what’s inside and outside the guest room, enclosed within an experience of hospitableness and a connection to humanity—its EVP. They present the EVP in motif 1. The EVP mirrors the value paradigm of the modern traveler, something that must breathe reflected in the hotel brand’s sales, marketing and pricing and revenue management efforts. Thinking about a brand through the lens of the EVP paradigm has the power to re-orient the customer’s mindset from one of price-shopping to experience-shopping.
Figure 1. The Experiential Value Proposition Framework
How does a hotel marketer apply the EVP paradigm? Its application can open up many avenues. Hotels can start by rethinking the design of their primary digital channels, led by the website by adding more rich, vivid content that goes beyond the guestroom, in order to better integrate aspects of the wider hotel and local experience. The measure Hotels serves as an excellent case (http://www.standardhotels.com/) Its website feels more devotion a local lifestyle and culture magazine than a digital media property “selling” a hotel room. The website’s wealthy images and stories draw the visitor into wanting to learn more about what the brand has to offer. While not every hotel can or would want to Go the measure way, since the brand has its own separate voice and personality, there is a case to breathe made for going beyond static images of beds in guestrooms, which watch to blend into one indistinguishable total after a point, particularly on OTA websites. When was the last time the image of a hotel bed excited you to want to stay there? Yet, when you peer at the imagery set aside out by most hotels, this is what marketers still focus on.
Placing an stress on humanity and providing a sense of hospitableness can furthermore enhance a brand’s EVP. Instead of technology replacing the human connection, the industry needs to peer for ways in which technology can actually free up employees so that they can disburse their time crafting more personal and unique experiences, delighting guests instead of performing routine transactions. Moreover, if the human connection is what people hunt out when traveling with Airbnb, why is it that hotel confirmation emails still Get sent out by automated systems that highlight the “facelessness” of the hotel entity. Why not use that as an chance to truly welcome the guest; a simple paw such as a welcome letter from the GM with his/her photo, or that of an employee who is “assigned” as “your personal host” during your stay can Go a long course in emulating the human connection that the sharing economy enables.
The design of the hotel’s public spaces can breathe used to enhance the guest’s experience of “communitas”. Ian Schrager would harmonize (Schaal, 2017). After all, with much of Airbnb’s supply being dominated by investor units that provide tiny or no host contact, what better an chance for hotel brands to exhibit that they are the original connectors of human beings? Sheraton has been judicious in incorporating some of these communal elements into its brand makeover by introducing productivity tables and studio spaces and a day-time coffee bar that transforms into a bar at night. In terms of another design element, Airbnb’s attractiveness to family and group travelers can breathe offset by offering connecting and/or multiple rooms for one price, with other experience value-adds thrown in (as with the Marriott family elbowroom connecting rooms package.
Finally, the role of the loyalty program cannot breathe emphasized enough. Loyalty programs must trudge beyond programmatic levels to being able to leverage data from guest history, gregarious media, and other marketing data sources, powered by predictive analytics, to personalize and individualize the guest experience of the brand. In an age of instant gratification, the loyalty program has to breathe gamified to unlock value-adds and tender creative bundling.
At the even of the hotel company, beyond the individual brand, the hotel industry has started participating in the home sharing traffic and is increasingly looking to integrate these platform traffic models. For example, while Accor purchased Onefinestay, Marriott has teamed up with Hostmaker to create Tribute Portfolio Homes, a partnership that was recently expanded to four European cities (Fox, 2018). From an organic brand progress standpoint, Accor’s newest Jo & Joe brand mimics the sharing economy within the confines of a traditional hotel space. Other, more innovative and bold ways of integrating the sharing economy ethos into a hotel could embrace offering an “Airbnb floor”, an antithesis to the club floor, one that would not tender housekeeping and other hotel services and thus breathe offered at a lower price. With hotel brands becoming “branded marketplaces” for accommodation and not just hotel rooms, perhaps there is merit in listing hotel rooms on alternative accommodation platforms. HomeAway is already adding hotels to its platform through the Expedia Affiliate Network, while Airbnb is making a propel for bed-and-breakfasts and boutique hotels. Homesharing providers hope that by adding these options to their listings, they will fulfill their goal of being “for everyone”, while allowing independent and boutique hotels to reap the benefits of branded distribution at a lower cost than traditional OTA brands.
In sum, hotels must adopt a sales, marketing, and revenue management approach that is both strategic and tactical.
At a strategic level, hotel brands requisite to re-think their story, and how they portray and fulfill their authenticity and brand promises. At a tactical level, it’s the experience and value beyond the guestroom that must breathe factored into what is presented to current and potential guests, what they are charged for it, and how it is leverage to create “memorable memories” that lead to higher net promotor scores and brand loyalty. They present a graphical summary of the past, present, and future of Airbnb vs. hotels in motif 2.
Figure 2. Summarizing the past, present and future of Airbnb vs. hotels
PDF Version Available HereReferences Chen, Y., & Xie, K. (2017). Consumer valuation of Airbnb listings: a hedonic pricing approach. International Journal of concurrent Hospitality Management, 29(9), 2405–2424. http://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-10-2016-0606 Dogru, T., Mody, M., & Suess, C. (2018). Adding evidence to the debate: Quantifying Airbnb’s disruptive repercussion on ten key hotel markets. Dogru, T., & Pekin, O. (2017). What attain guests value most in Airbnb accommodations? An application of the hedonic pricing approach. Boston Hospitality Review. Dolnicar, S. (2018). Unique Features of Peer-to-Peer Accommodation Networks. In S. Dolnicar (Ed.), Peer-to-Peer Accommodation Networks: Pushing the boundaries (pp. 1–14). Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers Ltd. Farronato, C., & Fradkin, A. (2018). The Welfare Effects of Peer Entry in the Accommodation Market: The Case of Airbnb. Fox, J. (2018). Marriott expands homesharing program in Europe. Hotel Management. Retrieved from https://www.hotelmanagement.net/own/marriott-expands-homesharing-program-to-3-european-cities Hajibaba, H., & Dolnicar, S. (2017). Regulatory Reactions Around the World. In S. Dolnicar (Ed.), Peer-to-Peer Accommodation Networks: Pushing the boundaries (pp. 120–136). Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers Ltd. Lane, J., & Woodworth, M. (2016). The Sharing Economy Checks In: An Analysis of Airbnb in the United States. Retrieved from http://www.cbrehotels.com/EN/Research/Pages/An-Analysis-of-Airbnb-in-the-United-States.aspx Mody, M. A., Suess, C., & Lehto, X. (2017). The accommodation experiencescape: a comparative assessment of hotels and Airbnb. International Journal of concurrent Hospitality Management, 29(9), 2377–2404. http://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-09-2016-0501 Mody, M., & Hanks, L. (2018). Parallel pathways to brand loyalty: Mapping the consequences of unquestionable consumption experiences for hotels and Airbnb. Mody, M., Suess, C., & Dogru, T. (2018). Not in my backyard? Is the anti-Airbnb discourse truly warranted? Annals of Tourism Research. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2018.05.004 Mody, M., Suess, C., & Lehto, X. (2018). Going back to its roots : Can hospitableness provide hotels competitive edge over the sharing economy ? International Journal of Hospitality Management. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2018.05.017 Nieuwland, S., & van Melik, R. (2018). Regulating Airbnb: how cities deal with perceived negative externalities of short-term rentals. Current Issues in Tourism, 0(0), 1–15. http://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2018.1504899 Schaal, D. (2017). Ian Schrager Calls Out Hotel Industry’s Airbnb Strategy as Misguided. Skift. Retrieved from https://skift.com/2017/12/08/ian-schrager-calls-out-hotel-industrys-airbnb-strategy-as-misguided/ Ting, D. (2017a). Airbnb Growth memoir Has a Plot Twist — A Saturation Point. Skift. Retrieved from https://skift.com/2017/11/15/airbnb-growth-story-has-a-plot-twist-a-saturation-point/ Ting, D. (2017b). Marriott and option purloin Varied Approaches to Reviving Classic Midscale Brands. Skift. Zaleski, O. (2018). Airbnb and Niido to Open as Many as 14 Home-Sharing Apartment Complexes by 2020. Retrieved from https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-08-14/airbnb-and-niido-to-open-as-many-as-14-home-sharing-apartment-complexes-by-2020 Makarand Mody, Ph.D. has a varied industry background. He has worked with Hyatt Hotels Corporation in Mumbai as a Trainer and as a character Analyst with India’s erstwhile premier airline, Kingfisher Airlines. His most recent experience has been in the market research industry, where he worked as a qualitative research specialist with India’s leading provider of market research and insights, IMRB International. Makarand’s research is based on different aspects of marketing and consumer deportment within the hospitality and tourism industries. He is published in leading journals in the field, including the International Journal of concurrent Hospitality Management, Tourism Management Perspectives, Tourism Analysis and the International Journal of Tourism Anthropology. His toil involves the extensive use of inter and cross-disciplinary perspectives to understand hospitality and tourism phenomena. Makarand furthermore serves as reviewer for several leading journals in the field. In descend 2015, he joined the faculty at the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration (SHA). He received his Ph.D. in Hospitality Management from Purdue University, and furthermore holds a Master’s degree from the University of Strathclyde in Scotland. Monica Gomez is a graduate student in the School of Hospitality Administration at Boston University. She received her Bachelor’s degree in Tourism, Recreation, and Sport Management from the University of Florida and has held previous internship positions in hotel operations and event management. She is a member of the Hospitality Sales and Marketing International Association and is interested in hotel revenue management.
By Christian E. Hardigree, J.D.
Today’s hospitality conversations are rife with dialogue about sustainability, initiatives ranging from linen reuse programs, to donating toiletries, to auto dimming lights, to food sourcing, etc. Hospitality practitioners’ quest to define the ROI (return on investment) is often at foiled by a concept that includes intangible metrics and differing definitions of what “sustainability” really means. The oft-used “Triple Bottom Line – People, Planet, Profit” embodies the commonly agreed upon themes of sustainability, which embrace ensuring a vigorous environment, improving economic prosperity, and implementing gregarious justice initiatives that ensure the well-being and character of life for current and future generations.
Companies struggle to determine what role they play in advancing and addressing gregarious and global challenges while enhancing their brand, ensuring consumer loyalty, and expanding their market share. Many companies evaluate and refine their efforts for engaged brand activism, particularly through marketing, which they poise with efforts to implement higher standards for suppliers, better equality among workers, and withhold pricing competitive – falling in line with the common categories of most corporate gregarious responsibility efforts: 1) environmental efforts; 2) philanthropy; 3) ethical labor practices; and 4) volunteering.The “Arms Race” of Corporate gregarious Responsibility Reporting
For many companies, particularly in hospitality, corporate gregarious responsibility (CSR) reporting has emerged as a key traffic approach to articulate the benefits to the company’s stakeholders through strategic initiatives. According to the Governance and Accountability Institute, sustainability reporting by S&P 500 companies increased from 19% in 2011 to 85% in 2017.[i]
Companies now value the marketing value of CSR reporting, particularly as a mechanism to attract and retain customers. Increased societal pressure for greater regulation and transparency, coupled with research showing that consumers demonstrate a preference toward companies they perceive are more responsible, maintain resulted in a recent “arms race” with companies are making operational decisions that are more tightly linked to ethical values, environmental stewardship, and respect for the human equity. They want to ensure those efforts are known to their stockholders, investors, and the public.
While many CSR disclosures are currently intentional in the United States, there are increasing requirements mandated by various statutes. Such mandates, commonplace in the European Union, are increasingly required in the United States. In particular, there is growing market exact for a more liable and transparent corporate supply chain. Current statutory requirements ambit from the Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases rule for large emitters of greenhouse gases to the California Transparency in Supply Chains Act of 2010 to ensure that large retailers and manufacturers provide consumers with information regarding their efforts to eradicate slavery and human trafficking from their supply chains.[ii] The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, which impacted virtually every section of the US fiscal services industry furthermore includes provisions for certain reporting on their exercise of due diligence in the source and chain of custody of certain minerals that are associated with armed conflicts in and around the Democratic Republic of the Congo, minerals that are associated with the manufacturing of devices such as cell phones, computers, and digital cameras.[iii] Most recently, the European Union’s sweeping Global Data Protection Regulations (GDPR) went into result May 25, 2018. Intended to give EU citizens greater control of their own, widely-define personal data, GDPR has far reaching implications for any company doing traffic with citizens of the EU. For the hospitality industry, recent processes are required to breathe implemented to protect things devotion IP addresses and cookie data, similar to the protections currently provided to ensure privacy for addresses and gregarious security numbers. In the three months prior to GDPR going into effect, it was estimated that 79% of companies were unprepared.[iv] The mandatory disclosure landscape is changing fast, and hospitality is challenged to withhold up.Not total Changes Are Mandated
As consumers are holding corporations accountable for effecting gregarious change in their traffic practices and beliefs, ultimately impacting the bottom line, companies refine their sustainability initiatives as a result of public advocacy, stockholder proposals, or consumer feedback. A 2017 study by Cone Communications illustrated some key elements, including:[v]
To illustrate, on February 6, 2018, in a commitment associated with improved packaging in betterment of the planet, Dunkin’ Donuts announced it would aspect out the use of polystyrene foam cups by 2020 and replace them with double-walled paper cups, estimated to maintain a net repercussion of eliminating over a billion cups annually from the fritter stream.[vi] This was on the heels of McDonald’s announcing in January that it would aspect out the use of foam packaging in total global markets by the cessation of 2018.[vii] Straws and stirrers beget up over 7% of plastic create in the environment, an issue initially addressed (and banished) by George McKerrow, co-founder of the restaurant chain Ted’s Montana Grill, that has gained widespread attention as consumers are reminded that they use 500 million straws a day, a custom that widely impacts wildlife and the oceans.[viii] Just this month, Bon Appétit announced they were banning plastic straws from their over 1000 café locations in 33 states.[ix] As cities devotion Miami and Malibu maintain banned separate use straws (and in Malibu, banned total separate use plastic utensils and stirrers), they find some municipalities are forcing hospitality businesses to incorporate sustainable practices.Avoid Greenwashing
As hospitality companies hunt to out-promote each other, they would breathe well-advised to avoid greenwashing – today’s version of “snake oil”, more akin to “eco-fraud” – when a company holds itself out as more environmentally friendly than it actually is in practice. Clearly consumer preferences demonstrate an increasing trend for purchasing products and services that are sustainable – for their repercussion on the environment, in how they are manufactured, and/or how the workers are treated. Between 2009 and 2010, the number of “greener” products increased by 73%.[x] In order to capitalize on this trend, many brands are trying to competitively out-do each other with their eco-credentials – exaggerating their claims, or at times, completely manufacturing them. In legalese, greenwashing may amount to deceptive marketing, misrepresentation, and/or fraud.
In the “sins” of greenwashing, hospitality entities would breathe judicious to avoid vague, over-reaching, or unverifiable assertions. Hotels increasingly encourage their guests to embrace green practices – shut off lights, reuse towels, avoid changing the linen as frequently, etc. Research by faculty at Washington state University create that a perceived ulterior motive of a hotels’ environmental claims evoked consumer skepticism, which negatively influenced consumer’s goal to participate in the linen reuse program, as well as negatively effecting the consumers’ goal to revisit the hotel.[xi] At a time when as many as 79% of travelers harmonize that eco-friendly practices is an distinguished factor in their option of lodging, companies risk losing valuable iterate customers if their motives are self-serving. As a result, to avoid the negative aspects, hoteliers are cautioned to install comprehensive green programs, train their staff to implement practices, and ensure their green claims are accurate and not overreaching, perhaps through third party certification.For Goodness Sakes, Don’t Greenwash the Food
Greenwashing is of particular concern in today’s environment, particularly in the context of food. For example, in 2016, organic food sales jumped 8.4%, to over $43 billion, while overall food sales only increased 0.6%.[xii] Similarly, organic non-food items jumped 88% to $3.9 billion in sales. As restaurants and hotels are asked questions by their customers about the source of their products, facilities requisite to breathe awake of the claims they are making to ensure they are not overreaching or deceptive, as greenwashing has become the “flavor of the month” in consumer class litigation. Claims challenging products advertised as “natural” are the most frequent suits encountered.
While no definition of “natural” is provided by the FDA, food products in the US labeled as “natural” beget up roughly $40 billion in sales, and are growing by an tolerable of 6.6% annually. According to Food Navigator, there were 20 food labeling class actions pending in federal court in 2008 – a number that rose to 425 by 2016. Cases that specifically focus on “natural” claims increased by 22% from 2016 to 2017, notably with suits against common Mills’ Nature Valley bars and Dr. Pepper Snapple’s Mott’s Apple Sauce. Of particular note is that three quarters of federal court food class actions are in four states: California (36%), recent York (22%), Florida (12%), and Illinois (7%).[xiii] Many of the suits are rooted in claims that items such as lofty fructose corn syrup, lofty maltose corn syrup, soy flour, soy lecithin, and GMA yellow corn flour, as well as synthetically derived vitamins, are not “natural”, and thus such claims are fraudulent.[xiv] Overreaching statements can breathe a source of eroding consumer confidence, destroying customer loyalty, and/or litigation.Conclusion
Sustainability initiatives will continue to breathe an imperative section of a hospitality entities’ brand, evaluated by total stakeholders. In order to ensure consumer confidence, it is imperative that those initiatives breathe unquestionable in their implementation, supported by third party verification, and in alignment with the legal requirements of the jurisdiction. In doing so, their efforts in supporting the three E’s – environment, economic, and equity – their industry will collectively ascend in to better the future for ourselves and for future generations.
PDF Version Available HereReferences [i] Retrieved May 30, 2018 from https://www.ga-institute.com/press-releases/article/flash-report-85-of-sp-500-indexR-companies-publish-sustainability-reports-in-2017.html [ii] 40 CFR section 9; and California Civil Code §1714.43 [iii] https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-111publ203/pdf/PLAW-111publ203.pdf [iv] Retrieved April 6, 2018 from https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbestechcouncil/2018/03/27/u-s-businesses-cant-hide-from-gdpr/#33b76ef052c8 [v] Retrieved April 6, 2018 from http://www.conecomm.com/research-blog/2017-csr-study [vi] Retrieved April 16, 2018 from https://news.dunkindonuts.com/news/dunkin-donuts-to-eliminate-foam-cups-worldwide-in-2020 [vii] Retrieved April 16, 2018 from https://www.bizjournals.com/chicago/news/2018/01/10/mcdonalds-phasing-out-foam-packaging-this-year.html [viii] Retrieved May 30, 2018 from https://www.forbes.com/sites/megykarydes/2018/05/23/the-future-of-take-out-exhibit-how-we-can-eliminate-packaging-waste/#37a1213c7580 [ix] Retrieved May 31, 2018 from https://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2018/05/31/615580695/last-straw-for-plastic-straws-cities-restaurants-move-to-toss-these-sippers [x] Retrieved April 6, 2018 contour http://sinsofgreenwashing.com/index5349.pdf [xi] Rahman, I., Park, J., & Geng-qing Chi, C. (2015). “Consequences of “greenwashing”: Consumers’ reactions to hotels’ green initiatives”, International Journal of concurrent Hospitality Management, Vol. 27 Issue: 6, pp.1054-1081, https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-04-2014-0202 [xii] Retrieved May 31, 2018 from https://www.foodbusinessnews.net/articles/9394-u-s-organic-food-sales-jump-more-than-8 [xiii] Retrieved May 31, 2018 from http://www.instituteforlegalreform.com/uploads/sites/1/TheFoodCourtPaper_Pages.pdf [xiv] Examples embrace Janney et al. v. common Mills, 3:12-cv-03919, U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California; Rojas v. common Mills, Inc. 3:12-cv-05099, U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California; Bohac v. common Mills, Inc., 3:12-cv-05280, U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California; Van Atta v. common Mills, 1:12-cv-02815, U.S. District Court for the District of Colorado
As Founding Director and Professor of the Michael A. Leven School of Culinary Sustainability and Hospitality at Kennesaw state University, Dr. Hardigree oversees the Bachelor of Science degree program which houses over 260 majors and services over 1500 students enrolled in classes each semester. Addressing both “sustainability on the plate” as well as “sustainability beyond the plate” in terms of water, fritter and energy efficiencies, this highly pertinent management program provides a competitive edge and discernible point of differentiation as the epicenter for teaching, research and best practices in sustainable culinary and hospitality management. The flexibility of the program’s curriculum allows students to emphasize careers in beverage management, event planning, specialized cuisines, and the hotel industry. Christian conducts research and presents nationally at industry conferences as related to her areas of expertise, including food safety, risk management, sustainability, workplace violence and employment/management issues. She is a national expert on bed bug litigation, speaking across the country on the subject. After obtaining her B.S., cum laude, from the William F. Harrah College of Hotel Administration at UNLV, Christian obtained her Juris Doctorate from the Walter F. George School of Law at Mercer University, focusing on employment discrimination, arbitration/mediation, and labor management relations. She is of counsel with the law difficult of Parnell & Associates. Christian serves on a variety of committees and advisory boards, including the ConServe Sustainability Advisory Council for the National Restaurant Association, the KSU Brian Jordan center for Excellence and Professional progress at LakePoint Sporting Community, and formerly on the Women in Lodging Advisory Council for the American Hotel & Lodging Association.
By Martin Zsarnoczky
Digitalization is among the most distinguished changes in their rapidly evolving world. Digital innovations and technological novelties are engines of progress and exhibit their repercussion everywhere, especially in the field of manufacturing, ICT and other service industries. Given the fact that tourism is based on the cooperation between a wide ambit of services and products, the benefits of the digital revolution in the sector are quite obvious.
Our living environment is a combination of online and offline spaces that co-exist together, defining their everyday habitat. In tourism, the special use of spaces has always been a unique feature of the industry, and as of today, the spaces of the digital world maintain become section of it. The rapid progress of the digital world brings novel and innovative solutions into the digital tourism spaces by the day. Peer-to-peer communication is outstandingly distinguished in the technological environment of tourism. This character of communication, together with the spreading of smart devices maintain revolutionized scheduling, administration and finances, and furthermore opened recent horizons for the introduction of innovative sales and marketing technologies in the total tourism industry. As a result of the digital revolution, the international progress trends in tourism maintain opened the course for novel solutions devotion cloud-based booking sites or information and experience sharing via digital platforms.
In line with the recent trends of travelling, there is a dynamically growing exact for special tailor-made offers beyond mass tourism, as conscious consumers anticipate personalized solutions that reply their individual needs. As of today, the vast majority of tourism market stakeholders maintain access to particular information on their consumers and can closely succeed and track consumer deportment and its changes. These novel systems of personalized products and services are available thanks to various elastic follow-up techniques devotion CRM client databases. The cloud-based CRM client database systems – ones that create offers by analyzing previous sales records and demographic data – maintain evolved rapidly. As of today, they can analyze huge datasets by mammoth data analysis and scaling methods in a cost effectual and anonymous way, searching for significant event points. Although mammoth data research is based on working with large samples, it is the most efficient system to betray individual personal preferences (Stadler, 2015).How did sharing economy pave the course to personalized tourism services?
In previous decades, the results of digital progress maintain opened the door for the true life implementation of shared economy theories. It was almost ten years ago that Chris Anderson (2009) introduced his pricing theory in digitalization, basically suggesting giving away products for free, based on the principle of shared goods and resources. Although at the time Anderson’s theory was considered as a technological solution, the principle of digital sharing maintain induced grave gregarious changes as well. One of the most distinguished positive messages of shared economy is the maximum use of resource capacities for the purpose of gregarious well-being (Sundararajan, 2014). gregarious well-being is furthermore a key priority in tourism, because a well-managed tourism industry brings profit not only for the traffic operators but furthermore for the local communities.
In the sharing economy model, the stakeholders – who are furthermore consumers at the identical time – tender their excess capacities for collective use in order to maximize the exploitation of their goods and resources. These economic processes consist of so-called hybrid transactions with maximum capacity use (Hyde, 2007), for both commercial and gregarious purposes. An distinguished drive in the evolution of collaborative consumption theory was the realization of the fact that using or possessing the identical consumer goods can result in different advantages. The core constituent of the model is that sellers tender their excess capacities, while the consumers in requisite use them in revert for payment. In the sharing economy (based on the aforementioned primary idea), more and more industrial, commercial and service providers tender innovative solutions.
The principle of sharing is not a recent persuasion in the tourism industry. In the case of some accommodation services, seasonal expense reduction has always been a practice. Hostels and youth hotels maintain always been common – these facilities are often used as dormitories throughout the academic year and lease their rooms for backpackers in the summer season, when the students are away. Of course, these seasonal options would not maintain been enough for creating a recent market sector; the dawn of the recent traffic era was marked with the emergence of wide platform solutions devotion Airbnb, Booking.com, Agoda, etc.
In the strategy of digital platform tourism businesses, consumers are considered as partners in the traffic activities. This shared operation can breathe best defined as a postmodern traffic model. Although the involved persuasion of postmodernism is quite difficult to describe, its main characteristics – shared participation and the subjective passion of each contributor – can lead closer to understand the phenomenon. It is pellucid that postmodernism will change some processes of the classic market laws in the near future. While “shared experience” has become a key marketing term for selling goods and services, specialized offers inevitably lead to a market fragmentation that will result in the fragmentation of users as well. In a disintegrated market, consumers will behave differently in fragmented times and spaces, paving the course for personalized services and tailor-made solutions. At the identical time, individualism has become the key characteristics of the younger generations (McCrindle et al., 2009); a phenomenon that will maintain to breathe taken into account whilst creating traffic strategies. Due to the emergence of individualism, more and more puerile people are trying to create something unique that can serve the long-term capitalize of the community. Their drive for creating businesses based on their own ideas and experience accounts for the increasing popularity of start-up businesses. These aspects of uniqueness, community thinking and experience-centered approach hold a huge chance for the future of the tourism industry.The Future: AI, VR/AR, Blockchain
While looking through their photos, tourists usually maintain a positive experience remembering their travels, experiences and the destination they had visited. Some specialized digital technologies can tender this assumed positive experience in a searchable and changeable form. With regards to true life objects, their connections and relations, there is only a limited amount of information available in a format that could breathe handled by computers. The main problem is that computers requisite adequate coding solutions created by synthetic intelligence to breathe able to store, handle and organize information. The methods of coding for tourism experience purposes affect the speed, efficiency and knowledge/experience-based computing abilities of today’s computers.
According to the forecasts of product progress strategies in various industries, almost total of their everyday objects and equipment will breathe accessible through the internet in the future. As a result, total devices that are capable of two-way communication will belong in the framework of IoT (Internet of Things). The devices of the future, unlike the devices of today, will communicate in a bidirectional way, where robust safe data handling, personalized differentiation and adequate determination management will breathe section of the user experience. As a result of the continuous data collection during the use of these devices, total pertinent information will eventually cessation up in a final centralized system at the top of the dataset.
Previously, tourism used to breathe an industry based on personal relations and connections, where the trends – and therefore travelers’ decisions – were set out by a limited number of large international tourism and travel enterprises. As a result of the digital revolution, the transparency of “hidden markets” had been revealed and numerous other factors maintain to breathe taken into account (Fig.1.).
The early progress of ICT resulted not only in the better capacity utilization of airlines, but furthermore on the compatibility of the prices; and soon, the emergence of the discount airlines had led to the innovation of the total industry and forced out efficiency in total segments. The novel travel recommendation sites (Expedia, Orbitz, Kayak, etc.) were created with the point to beget travelers’ decisions easier; however at the identical time, a lot of tourism service providers who could not withhold up with the recent challenges were forced out of the market. Although the recent trends devotion travel packages (including car rental) or taking into account the reviews of previous travelers (Lonely Planet) were from many aspects opposite to the former traffic models, the rapidly increasing popularity of online offers required quick and user-friendly tourism product progress from the industry.
The technological progress cannot breathe stopped; however, with adequate flexibility and openness, tourism businesses can prepare for the upcoming challenges. In the tourism of the future, the recent consumers will bring forth recent priorities and recent demands. As a revolutionary approach, the members of the IoP (Internet of People) community tender their free time in order to reach joint IT/industrial goals, where frameworks are created in line with the preferences of other people, for a yet not specified consumer segment (Miranda et al., 2015). Beyond innovative technologies, total recent spaces maintain opened in tourism, completely different from the accustomed destinations. University researchers maintain been carried out to study the possibilities of online tourism spaces and their opportunities for the tourism and hospitality industry. In virtual reality, with a special “glass”, the user can peer into an optional tourism space, from which the true world is completely shut out. The Augmented reality is a different technological solution, where digital elements are projected into a true life space.
The newest technological developments and the innovation in the use of living spaces are total connected to the alternative payment options that can breathe used in tourism as well. The emergence of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies has led to the creation of a novel payment system. The Blockchain payment system is a shared database, which records a continuously growing list of data blocks, preventing any counterfeiting or alteration of the data. One obscure consist of a list of transactions and the results of computations made by the stored programs. For example, if a customer buys some cryptocurrency or any other benevolent of currency, and then transfers it to anywhere in the world to another partner, who exchanges it instantly, both partners can avoid any loss caused by exchange rate fluctuations; furthermore, the total transaction takes only minutes instead of the accustomed pair of traffic days. This solution can express a revolutionary innovative payment option for everyone in the tourism industry.
The applicability of the blockchain system is independent from currency rates. In the case of cryptocurrencies, it is not the exchange rate that really matters – instead, the actual value of the currency lies in the safety of the blockchain technology and in the authentic, transparent, unalterable and decentralized recording system (Pilkington, 2016). This payment system offers a recent even of encryption safety and intervention-free operation, and the data handled in the system cannot breathe modified in any way. Another huge capitalize of the system is that the transactions are realized without any intermediate agents, thus eliminating any additional transaction costs. By the time of the “maturity” of blockchain payment solutions, today’s large service intermediators devotion Airbnb, Booking.com, Agora, etc. are foreseen to lose some of their market positions, as consumers and service providers will probably deal with their transactions directly.Will synthetic Food breathe the next meal on the table?
With the worldwide population boom, the exact for food is furthermore increasing. To fullfil this growing requisite for food, the extension of agricultural areas is required for food material production, and at the identical time, adequate land management is needed for animal husbandry. The greatest challenge of sustainable agriculture lies in the fact that the agricultural areas can only breathe further expanded at the expense of forested lands. In addition, the current changes in the environment has furthermore led to the subside of fishing possibilities, another difficulty in the availability of food materials.
The decreasing resources of food materials will compel the food production industry to re-think their former concepts. recent technologies devotion 3D food printers can even bring the quick food era to an end. The novel inventions of food production and food engineering – devotion artificially flavored drinks, chocolates and dairy products – maintain been on the market of more than a decade now, and so far, they maintain not had a negative result on the common flavor of consumers.
In the concept of 3D food printing, popular sweets and delicacies are synthesized by a layered printing technology, using the various pre-mixed powders, flavorings, fixers and oils that are stored in the “toners” of the printer. These synthetic foods are already available: specialized franchise restaurants devotion the Food Ink chain tender a wide variety of printed meals for consumers who are inquisitive about the future of gastronomy. It is furthermore likely that with the next generation of the food printers, they will breathe able to calibrate the nutritional values and energy content of the meals.
The 3D food printing technology is not only distinguished for HoReCa businesses, but holds a distinguished chance for the health industry, too, especially in the field of special diets and medication. Using 3D food printing for these purposes can multiply cost-effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability, thus supporting the food industry and hospitality and tourism businesses alike.
The option of personalized 3D food printing is just one of the innovative technological solutions in the tourism and hospitality industry. The Henn-na Hotel  in Huis Ten Bosch, Japan is the first hotel in the world, where customers are served exclusively by robots. At another Asian location in China, there are 24/7 cafés that succeed the no-staff traffic model of Amazon Go. As for the restaurant market, the Chinese food brand Wufangzhai has recently opened the first unmanned restaurant in Hangzhou, capital city of east China’s Zhejiang Province.
The question is: how long will it purloin until food production and consumption will requisite no human resources at all?Summary
For innovative enterprises, the efficiency of interactivity is of key second for the success of their business. The rapid progress of ICT solutions has brought immense changes in the tourism industry. Previously, consumers’ determination making was mainly affected by the industrial environment. The era of digital tourism spaces – preceded by theme parks and thematic destinations – started with the emergence of information websites; however, this targeted information flow used to breathe one-directional with narrow choices. In today’s digital era, the recent generation of commercial activities purloin residence in VR or AR spaces, and the instant analysis of the customer’s reactions and deportment support the enhancement of their buying willingness. The traditional determination making processes are gradually being replaced with personalized offers, further increasing the second of AI.
With the progress of shared economy, greater stress is set aside on gregarious well-being, as user experience slowly becomes more distinguished than ownership. This recent approach is furthermore expressed in novel forms of payment, which can seriously subside the profits of intermediate activities. The recent trends attain not seem to breathe problematic in the tourism industry, mostly because in this sector, the exact costs and incomes are not clearly visible yet. On the other hand, the character progress of the 3D printing technology holds a distinguished chance for the tourism and hospitality sector. The progress of digitalization has finally reached a even where it can truly support the cost-effectiveness and sustainability of industrial food production, paving the course to the future of tourism and hospitality businesses.
PDF Version Available HereReferences Anderson, C. (2009). Free: The Future of a Radical Price. Hyperion, recent York. Hyde, L. (2007). The Gift: Creativity and the Artist in the Modern World. recent York: Random House Inc. McCrindle, M. – Wolfinger, E. (2009). The ABC of XYZ: Understanding the Global Generations, University of recent South Wales Press, Sidney. pp. 1-22. Miranda, J. – Mäkitalo, N. – Garcia-Alonso, J. – Beroccal, J. – Mikkonen, T. – Canal, C. – Murillo, M. J. (2015) From the Internet of Things to the Internet of People. IEEE Internet Computing, 19 (2): 40-47. Stadler, G. (2015). mammoth data – tömeges adatelemzés gyorsan. HTE Medianet 2015, Kecskemét. LLX. pp. 44-48 Pilkington, M. (2016). Blockchain technology: priciples and applications. Research Handbook on Digital Transformation. Edward Elgar Publishing, Northampton, MA. pp. 225-253. Sundararajan, A. (2014). Peer-to-Peer Businesses and the Sharing (Collaborative) Economy: Overview, Economic Effects and Regulatory Issues. NYU center for Urban Science and Progress, recent York. Zsarnoczky, M. (2017a). How does synthetic Intelligence affect the Tourism Industry? Vadyba Journal of Management 31 (2): 85-90. Zsarnoczky, M. (2017b). The future of sustainable bucolic tourism development: the impacts of climate change. Annals of the Polish Association of Agricultural and Agribusiness Economists. XIX. (3): 337-344. Martin Zsarnoczky, Ph.D. has several years of experience in the huge tourism and hospitality industry. He has worked with P&O Princess Cruises, Intercontinental and Marriott Hotels in Budapest. Between 2005 and 2015, he was the founder, developer and CEO of Casa de la Musica Hostel and Event’s Hall, one of the largest multifunctional private tourism & hospitality businesses in Budapest downtown. He holds a BSc degree in Tourism and Hospitality from the Budapest traffic School, and graduated at MSc/Med even as Teacher of Economics in Tourism and Hospitality. During his studies, he had spent short a term mobility era at Utwente University in the Netherlands, and later earned his Ph.D. in Regional Sciences at Szent Istvan University. At the moment, he is still very vigorous as an entrepreneur and is actively involved in community development. He is furthermore a board member of the Budapest Chamber of Commerce and Industry, and works as a mentor for the puerile Entrepreneurs Association Hungary. With regards to his academic career, he is a full time helper professor at the Institute of Marketing and Media at the Tourism Department of Corvinus University of Budapest.
By Leora Lanz and Namrata Sridhar
In the Winter 2018 edition of the Boston Hospitality Review, they brought forth suggestions for the 10 Best Practices for Organic Visibility —ways to better search results through organic search, or attain not cost the company a monetary investment. Rather, these rankings were based on elements such as keywords, location, and mobile friendliness. Suggestions for improving a company’s organic search embrace utilization of backlinks, hyperlinks between websites, and content enhancement in relation to local listings such as ensuring quick website load speed, lofty character imagery, and conspicuous links to gregarious media channels.
This second installation of a two-part train will converse to the topic of search engine functionalities as a result of paid queries. For independent or smaller companies, this brief but powerful set of tips obtained from industry experts can enable a traffic to become more “searchable” for optimal revert on investment.Search Engine Marketing (SEM) Best Practices: 1. Understand the Paid Media Landscape:
According to the Associate Director for Organic Search and Content Strategy at Boston-based Connelly Partners, Dan Hurley, the most distinguished section of SEM is to comprehend the paid media landscape. It is censorious to know who one’s competitors truly are and understand how they are marketing, from a tactical standpoint.1 It is furthermore distinguished to research the types of ad campaign structures that are surfacing in the category of interest, on both desktop and mobile devices. Then one must adopt those that emerge effectual and fit traffic goals appropriately. For restaurants and hotel-related queries, “this strategy is especially pertinent because these searches generally transmute very quickly; mobile searchers will likely patronize a restaurant within a few hours.”
In order to breathe the most efficient with a company’s paid advertisements, Todd Philie, president of Southcoast Marketing Group in Wareham, MA, furthermore encourages companies to determine how consumers are searching for them on the Internet. For example, “utilize the query search tool via the Google AdWords™ platform to determine what terms and phrases are used to reach your own site and then display your ads.”
Additionally, Kym Parker, associate search marketing director at Connelly Partners, emphasizes the second of using the company’s brand to ensure a stalwart search presence. By utilizing paid search bids, a hotel or restaurant can breathe the first result a web surfer sees when conducting a search.2
“Sometimes, competitors will bid on your brand terms – which means that if someone searches for your company name, for example, the competitor could exhibit up ahead of you in the search results,” Parker notes. “You can avert this by ‘protecting’ your brand terms. Always breathe bidding on them, at least a tiny bit, to ensure that you maintain a better haphazard of staying on top of the results when someone searches your appellation and other brand terms.”2: use of Google AdWords™:
The major player in the world wide web is Google, which has created various platforms to optimize searching. Using keywords, Google users can pay to promote their advertisements for a set budget. This Google functionality allows a company (hotel or restaurant) to understand how it ranks in comparison to direct competitors.
Also withhold ‘negative keywords’ in mind, adds Philie. “Negative terms generally means terms that you are not specifically telling AdWords™ that you attain not want to emerge in specific results for other searches. For example, suppose you are marketing a seafood restaurant that does not tender steak on its menu. You want to bid on the phrase ‘best restaurant in Boston’ but you attain not want to fritter money on clicks from customers who want steak. You might set ‘steak’ and ‘steakhouse’ as negative terms so that if someone searched ‘best steak restaurants in Boston” you attain not exhibit up in that search.
The Google AdWords™ functionality furthermore offers companies the haphazard to enhance the listing. An incredibly important, yet often overlooked, input is the “click to call” functionality and its presence on a mobile site, furthermore known as the muster extension. “These additional factual details, known as “ad extensions” furthermore embrace location, information from different pages on your website, and even testimonial reviews,” adds Seth Cargiuolo, director of communication strategy at Chestnut Hill, MA-based D50 Media. “Making use of ad extensions is essential because it helps the customer learn more about the traffic with a quick glance pre-click, and can back differentiate a hotel or restaurant (or any product) against its competitors.” Ad extensions furthermore multiply the visual footprint of an ad, which can propel competitors’ ads and organic listings down the page and out of view, particularly on mobile devices.
For marketers just starting to utilize SEM and Search Engine Optimization (SEO), Google AdWords™ furthermore offers free tutorials and trainings. Zachary Azar, D50 Media’s senior manager of paid search notes, “These tutorials provide clients with the chance to Get the most out of the program and create effectual campaigns.”
To properly manage an effectual AdWords campaign, Google Analytics can breathe a helpful tool as it reveals which content on a website is most useful and intriguing to customers. This will back in the creation of resonating ad copy and can furthermore breathe a guide for aligning keyword selection and website copy to multiply the “Quality Score” of an ad campaign.
However, Philie furthermore cautions individuals not to breathe completely reliant on Google’s suggestions for keywords. “Often times, these keywords are pluralized and can judgement companies to disburse more or not breathe as effective.” He warns companies to choose how to set aside their key words “out there” when bidding. Companies must choose best matched keywords for their ads and choose between “exact match,” “phrase match,” “broad search” and “modified broad search” – total of which will yield varied returns. Campaigns should utilize a poise of total match types, but should “skew more heavily towards exact and phrase, utilizing broad match only for keyword prospecting and expansion opportunities.”3. Always Start with Non-Paid Efforts or SEO
When optimizing a company’s searches, Cargiuolo and Azar insinuate the first thing that the company should focus on is actually the SEO. First and foremost, it is distinguished to ensure that a website is user- and mobile-friendly. Another distinguished factor is a quick load speed. “Google has create that sites that purloin longer than three seconds to load lose 40% of their traffic, and for mobile traffic, that jumps to 53%,” reports Azar. This is distinguished for paid search as well; Cargiuolo adds, “It’d breathe depraved enough for a user to abandon your page when it’s an organic search – but now imagine if you’d paid for that click and those dollars were totally wasted.”
In order to reduce the load speed, it is distinguished to not maintain “big” images—think kilobytes, not megabytes. Web copy should breathe concise and “bandwidth-hogging” scripts and plugins minimized. “Additionally, given that over half of web traffic is on mobile devices, ensure that pdfs (which you want to avoid anyway) peer acceptable on a smart phone too,” Cargiuolo says.
Kristin Metzler, Print and Web Marketing Coordinator of Frasca Design Group, furthermore echoes that mastery of SEO is the first step in a successful digital marketing campaign. Websites built with a stalwart attention to keywords and content will minimize spending on pay-per-click campaigns.4. Don’t disburse on Paid Search if You Can’t Afford It
Hurley cautions that one requisite not disburse money on advertising to Get traffic. Because so much information is provided in the search results, there may not breathe any clicks on your page during the search process. Companies should never set aside any money into paid search, display advertising or paid gregarious that the company cannot afford to lose.3
Cargiuolo emphasizes that when a company starts advertising, it should not anticipate an immediate return,4 which is oftentimes an assumption that businesses make. Initially, many may not breathe chummy with the bidding process; keywords; or how to build, optimize, and manage an effectual campaign. breathe cautious not to disburse money needed for other resources. Start late and disburse time learning before committing mammoth budgets.
One final word of caution: There are easily incurred expenses that can near from paid search marketing, such as additional costs from agencies that purloin a portion of a monthly budget. Being conscious of your daily budget is censorious in avoiding overspending.
When taking the steps to build a search campaign, it is censorious to attain research and trudge slowly at the beginning. Understand how the market is reflected in consumer searches and what keywords are being utilized. Before jumping into methods that require payment, a company should ensure that its website is optimized for searches and never disburse more than what can breathe budgeted, as it will purloin time to remark a revert on investment.
As Cargiuolo reminds, businesses must bethink that Google serves the user first. Thus as the marketer, one must reason as a user would when pile a paid search campaign. People near to Google with questions. The marketer that best answers the user’s questions, both pre-click and post-click, is going to breathe one that is most successful.
PDF Version Available Here1 Inc. Staff. “How to Conduct Competitive Research.” Inc. Magazine. May 2010 2 Ratcliff, Christopher. “What is PPC and Why attain You requisite it?” Econsultancy. 13 November 2013. 3 Kumar, A.J. “SEO vs PPC: Knowing Which is Better for Your Website.” Entrepreneur. Editorial. 21 May 2012 4 Steimle, Josh. “How Long Does SEO purloin to Start Working?” Editorial. Forbes. 7 February 2015. Namrata Sridhar is a marketing communications coordinator at LHL Communications and a rising senior at Boston University’s School of Hospitality Administration (BU SHA). She has furthermore previously worked in marketing communications capacities at RealFood Consulting where she helped design an internal marketing device to rebrand their company. Namrata furthermore serves as the President of the Student Government of BU SHA. She is an vigorous member of the National Society of Minorities in Hospitality, the American Hotel and Lodging Association, and the Hospitality Sales and Marketing Association International. Leora Halpern Lanz, ISHC, is principal of LHL Communications, a hospitality-focused marketing communications, branding, and media relations advisory. She is furthermore a full time faculty member at Boston University’s School of Hospitality Administration (SHA), teaching advanced strategic marketing and digital marketing for hospitality at the undergraduate and graduate levels. She was named among the Top 25 Minds in Hotel Marketing for 2016 by the Hospitality Sales & Marketing Association International and was named 2017 Professor of the Year by the student government of SHA.
By Sarah AndersenAfter completing the senior capstone Hospitality Leadership course at Boston University, I had the haphazard to reflect on the class topics and apply the teachings to my personal life. The course explored several different levels of leadership, from the head of a major corporation role to developing self-leadership. I scholarly the second of a mission, vision, and values in an organization, better understood the components of change management, and worked with a group throughout the semester to develop my teamwork skills. I was able to critically analyze concepts and models presented in leadership literature as well as better my own leadership skills. I then interviewed three prominent leaders in hospitality and create connections between their industry insights and my leadership class discussions. Dan Donahue, President of Saunders Hotel Group, Len Wolman, Chairman and CEO of Waterford Hotel Group, and Geoff Ballotti, President and CEO of Wyndham Hotel Group kindly shared their experiences and explained their personal values and company’s culture, revealing the five keys to successful leadership.
“Leadership is the capacity totranslate vision into reality.”
-Warren G. BennisEstablishing Shared Beliefs, Values, and Goals
When an organization wants to achieve its goals, it needs a vision. Effective leadership starts with the aptitude to recognize and silhouette those goals and inspire others to follow. Leaders paint a picture of how that vision will affect the company as a whole, as well as each individual. A leader’s aptitude to articulate that vision into a mission statement corresponds to the vigorous implementation of goals and the company’s bottom line success. A productive vision goes beyond a written organizational mission statement, but instead permeates throughout total levels of a company and manifests into actions and beliefs. John P. Kotter, author of traffic Leadership, writes, “A vision says something that helps clarify the direction in which an organization wants to trudge [and] is relatively smooth to communicate, appealing to customers, stockholders, and employees.”1 It is therefore up to hospitality leaders to set and clearly communicate a vision, and to inspire those around them to participate and implement it.
A vision does not belong only to a leader. It must breathe a shared vision that attracts everyone to sustain lofty levels of motivation and withstand challenges. According to The Leadership Challenge, by James M. Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner, leaders can envision the future by imagining the possibilities and finding a common purpose.2 In addition, leaders must spark a sense of sense and purpose in those around them. Dan Donahue agrees that, “My job, as someone who has the vision, is to Get you inspired and committed to sharing that vision and sharing that creativity to the point where you maintain buy-in.”
After seven years of rigorous research, a landmark study of the observations from more than 100 CEOs and over 8,000 employees create that “leaders who were pellucid about their values delivered as much as five times greater returns for their organizations as did leaders of decrepit character.”3
So how attain illustrious CEOs and successful leaders in their industry shape the parameters for success through a shared vision for a future? How attain they empower and inspire those around them to beget decisions and toil towards their goals?
Balancing Accountability and Autonomy
When asked what his core values were, Len Wolman responded, “First and foremost, their organization has been built on integrity and transparency. They maintain four core values that they live by on a daily basis which are to (1) to wow the customer, (2) to continuously improve, (3) to breathe a passionate and committed team, and (4) to participate and sustain their bottom line success.”
Dan Donahue, established that, “Our values are simple. Their values are people. They allow them the flexibility and latitude to attain their jobs under the guide of taking confidence of the guest, but furthermore taking confidence of themselves as well.” To strengthen others, exemplary leaders multiply people’s faith in their aptitude to beget a difference. They trudge from being in control to giving over control. Developing associates into leaders and enhancing self-determination creates a culture of empowerment and confidence. Geoff Ballotti agrees that, “In terms of motivating others, it is letting them beget decisions. It’s not micromanaging, but rather letting them near up with the solutions.”
Geoff Ballotti continues, “Our core value statement is three words, ‘Count On Me,’ which is total about accountability. It is about people being able to breathe counted on at any time, for any issue, any question, any decision, and any support that their owners, franchisees, and associates need. It is built on the principal of integrity in terms of taking personal responsibility for your actions.” Accountability is distinguished because it results in an extremely efficient and productive team. According to the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, accountability in the workplace is linked to higher performance and increases in commitment to toil and employee morale.4
Dan Donahue, states, “A vision has to breathe fluid. To Get to an achievable goal and vision, whether short term or long term, you requisite to breathe present, you requisite to understand that if you want it to breathe successful you requisite to breathe there, you requisite to breathe accountable to it, and you requisite to breathe accountable to the people that want to participate that.” When accountability becomes embedded into culture, company’s are able to set meaningful goals, develop team buy-in, build confidence through support and encouragement, and celebrate successes together. Accountability is about creating a culture where people value responsibility. When associates understand that accountability involves a certain degree of autonomy, mutual respect develops between total levels of an organization.
Mr. Ballotti adds, “The third leg of their values is total about respect. Respecting everyone everywhere both on their ownership side and the community side.” When leaders develop mutual respect, associates are more likely to toil harder to accomplish shared goals. Harvard traffic Review examined employee needs and determined through a query of more than 19,000 workers that most employees crave renewal, value, focus and purpose.5 feeling a sense of value and respect can instill an employee with self-confidence and motivation. Len Wolman adds that, “I’ve been in the industry for many years, I was educated in the industry and then worked my course up through the industry, so I’m fortunate in that I maintain the perspective of having worked in various positions. So I maintain empathy, understanding, and respect for each position. Everyone needs to breathe treated with mutual respect and understanding.”
Modeling by Example
An distinguished section of being an effectual leader is educating others on what the organization stands for and why it matters. When leaders sincerely express a commitment to their core values, they’re furthermore making a commitment on behalf of the entire organization. Therefore, leaders must beget confident there is collective agreement on the shared values amongst everyone they lead.So how attain leaders become a role model for what the organization stands for?
The reply is pretty simple. They set the case for others to follow. Holding others accountable to values and standards means leaders must live the values themselves. Dan Donahue responds, “I would never ask an employee to attain something I wouldn’t attain myself.” Len Wolman agrees adding, “You always want to set an case and never want to anticipate anyone to attain anything that you wouldn’t attain yourself.” Researcher on behavioral integrity demonstrates that the alignment between a leader’s words and actions has a powerful repercussion on how much constituents confidence the leader and on their subsequent performance levels.6 distinguished leaders effectively translate goal into reality by acting on the values they teach and the things they direct to those around them.Showing Vulnerability and Visibility
Confidence is an distinguished skill to possess as a leader. However, having vulnerability as a leader is just as essential to recognize and appreciate. Every leader has vulnerability, but great leaders have the self-awareness to recognize this fact and feel comfortable expressing their weaknesses. Showing vulnerability is a relatable trait and Geoff Ballotti finds that, “The greatest leaders I know out there are very comfortable talking about their weaknesses, about what it is that they requisite to toil on, to better upon, and to attain better.” effectual leaders invest the thinking, the time, the energy and are prepared for the vulnerability of connecting with others.So how attain these leaders win trust, inspire, and build bonds with those they lead?
Great leaders inspire their associates and guests by genuinely connecting to them through a consistent presence and visibility. Visibility as a leader not only includes having a physical presence, but furthermore aligning everyone to the purpose behind their shared vision through natural conversations and casual exchanges on a daily basis. When asked how he communicates company goals and the overall vision, Dan Donahue replied, “If you maintain a presence, it happens organically. It doesn’t requisite to breathe contrived.” The purpose of this sincere visibility is not about the requisite to “check on employees,” but rather an honest crave to interact with associates in order to gauge motivation and learn if employees requisite support or help. Mr. Wolman agrees that, “It is censorious to operate with an open door policy and listen to everyone’s perspective and ideas, particularly the people who are executing the day to day functions, and I reason you’ve got to breathe constantly evaluating that.”
Mr. Ballotti adds, “I furthermore reason showing empathy is key and the best course distinguished leaders attain that is through the know-how of storytelling when they’re up in front of their associate foundation or leadership team, being able to flaunt stories that connect and engage and inspire and motivate in terms of the culture your want to set and want to build.” Storytelling is a powerful course to participate knowledge, propel information at people or tow them into a company’s vision and mission by reinforcing the intent behind unquestionable leadership. According to Edgar Schein, Professor Emeritus at the MIT Sloan School of Management, “[Stories] furthermore strengthen the framework and the second of an organization’s culture by establishing norms and values.”7 salubrious stories compel, persuade, and unify others around the leaders’ vision.Creativity Breads Adaptability
“Hospitality isn’t about a product on the shelf. Hospitality is about creating something that changes day to day, hour to hour, or minute by minute.” – Dan Donahue
IBM’s 2010 Global CEO Study, which surveyed more than 1,500 CEOs from 60 countries and 33 industries worldwide, concluded that creativity is the most distinguished leadership character for success in business, outweighing competencies such as integrity and global thinking.8 Geoff Ballotti agrees that, “Creativity is critical, especially in the traffic that we’re in. We’re trying to redefine and reposition their brand from a creative standpoint in terms of experience.” What defines one brand from another and what makes one brand more successful than another is the creativity that it delivers as well as the experience it delivers to its guests. Understanding how to generate distinguished ideas is a crucial leadership trait in hospitality’s innovation-driven industry. Successful leaders create an environment where associates can contribute their fantasy and insight, which is censorious because most innovations draw upon the contributions of many.
Today’s traffic environment is unpredictable, changeable and increasingly complex. Therefore, the aptitude to create something that is both innovative and applicable is on the top of leader’s minds. Mr. Donahue states, “Nothing in their traffic can breathe or should breathe cookie cutter. It’s about curating an experience for each person who spends to breathe with you.” Len Wolman adds, “If you’re not creative and open to change in todays world with the disruptors that exist in their industry, particularly with technology, you will not breathe successful. You requisite to breathe creative in terms of staying ahead, staying current and relevant, and Get managing the costs associated with change in a course that your organization can still breathe successful and profitable.”
In an industry of constant change, distinguished hospitality leaders requisite to capitalize on the opportunities that are ripe for the present context and device for the likely future state. Change requires creating a recent system, which demands effectual leadership. It is crucial that leaders first own how difficult it can breathe to drive others outside of their console zones and propel for change. When asked how he responds to change, Len Wolman replied, “A crucial constituent is feedback. They Get daily feedback that is current and relevant, whether it breathe Trip Advisor, direct contact with their guests, or direct contact with their associates. They requisite to listen to it, they requisite to respond to it, and they requisite to adjust to the things that people are looking for whether it breathe the consumer or the toil environment.” Those who create recent initiatives, programing, design, and brand essence are the ones who succeed. By supporting creativity and commanding change, leaders can multiply workplace satisfaction and build driven teams that craft original, valuable ideas.Figure 1: Interview Questions
It has been made pellucid through the interview process of these three prominent industry leaders that establishing shared values, balancing accountability with autonomy, modeling by example, showing vulnerability through visibility, and having a creative mindset that is open to change are total essential factors to being a successful leader. The common theme amongst total these traits and elements to successful leadership, however, is each leader’s dependence and confidence for their associates. At one point during the interview, Mr. Ballotti pointed out that, “Great leaders are those who encompass themselves with distinguished people…who are brighter, and smarter, and more diverse in thought than they are. And who are able to build a team that knows how to support and confidence each other.” It is pellucid that effectual leadership boils down to a leaders aptitude to unlock the full potential in those around them. Len Wolman adds that it “We purloin confidence of their associates so that they purloin confidence of their guests, which keeps the guests coming back and is the judgement they are in business.“ Dan Donahue furthermore notes, “You maintain to realize each individual employee’s needs. beget a connection with your employees every separate day.” total salubrious leaders were once followers themselves and maintain scholarly to establish and foster confidence over time. A actual leader passes commend and shares the blame, lifting up those around them.9 Without followers, distinguished leaders cannot lead.
PDF Version Available HereSarah R. Andersen is a senior at Boston University’s School of Hospitality Administration. Her areas of interest embrace integrated marketing communications and true estate development. Beyond her studies in hospitality, she is a member of the BU Women’s Lacrosse team. She plans to continue her studies at Boston University after graduating with her bachelor’s degree by enrolling in the School of Hospitality’s Master of Management in Hospitality program. References
By Juan Lesmes and Leora Lanz
It wasn’t that long ago when digital marketing surfaced as necessary practice for the hospitality industry. As time moved forward, hotel marketing departments established roles to manage the digital positioning and visibility of the property. Thus, they witnessed hospitality brands which were ‘present’ on gregarious media outlets, adopting paid search as a permanent component of their marketing amalgamate and abiding by well-known website best practices. They advert to this era as aspect I of the Hospitality Digital Marketing Revolution.
Phase II quickly blossomed, and hotels realized that the competition to penetrate the digital space was stalwart and arduous. Brands started focusing on and investing in the internet user-experience (UX), negotiating partnerships with online travel agencies (OTAs), understanding the landscape of search engine result pages (SERPs), separating high-value budgets exclusively for search engine marketing (SEM), and delving into the intricacies of search engine optimization (SEO) for their own websites. gregarious media served as a competitive edge and quickly escalated as paramount for marketing, branding, reputation management, and organic visibility. Paid search, via Google AdWords platform, is not to breathe confused with the organic approaches particular here.
As they delve into 2018, aspect III emerges clearly. OTAs dominate and in some instances monopolize Google searches with first page results. Consequently, hotels are realizing that digital marketing efforts should breathe shifted from a haphazard online presence to one that is strategic – one that capitalizes on each micro-moment of the guest travel planning journey (most of which, if not all, occurs on the web). As gregarious media forces Instagram and Facebook solidify their roles as prominent search engines, paid ‘posts’ within users’ ‘feeds’ continue to convey the power of personalized sponsored content.
With a myriad of stakeholders now involved in the simple act of searching for hotel rooms, is it a battle worth fighting? The reply is absolutely. But before addressing the how, it is crucial to identify and differentiate the digital marketing scope of branded and non-branded hotels. Branded hotels, especially those flagged with hospitality powerhouses, capitalize from a more powerful domain authority coming from the parent chain, making it easier for them to rank higher on the SERPs. purloin Marriott.com/hotel vs. hotelname.com for example. Domain authority is the overall power of the domain appellation considering traffic size, popularity, and number of links to the site (backlinks). It is furthermore a top ranking factor for Google.
Branded hotels furthermore watch to maintain significant budgets to disburse on Pay-Per-Click (PPC) and paid search, ensuring top first page visibility for valuable destination and branded queries. In addition, branded hotels maintain wider access to digital partnerships, including listings, local directories, event sponsorships, travel influencers, and online features – total of which provide authoritative backlinks to the hotel’s site, further contributing to its domain authority.
Because independent and small-scale hotels rarely capitalize from domain authority, maintaining and monitoring digital marketing best practices to boost Google rankings should breathe a requirement, not merely a recommendation. Digital marketing practices command their own dedicated efforts. Yet online marketing should breathe well-equipped with its own strategy and utilize expertise in the nuances and intricacies of hotels, restaurants, leisure activities, and attractions – overall, hospitality.
The question then becomes, how can hotels strive for visibility in this Wild West of a digital landscape, particularly if they are competing against each other, the OTAs, and a powerful sharing economy?1. Execute a Carefully Crafted Keyword Strategy
Optimizing for search queries, furthermore known as keywords, is perhaps the core of any digital marketing tactic aiming to build visibility – both organic and paid. Identifying those keywords with the highest search volume, such as ‘Miami hotels,’ is the intuitive process. Presence on Google’s first page for lofty search-volume keywords requires a robust SEM budget, an ongoing and long-term SEO strategy, or both. This puts independent and small-scale properties, which often attain not maintain the necessary budget and fundamental team, at a notable disadvantage.
However, niche keywords present a different scenario. These queries are typically ’long-tail’ sense they accommodate more than four words. Though niche keywords attain not maintain the highest search popularities, it is much easier to actually capture their search volume, which then results in higher click-through rates (CTR). Hotels can leverage niche keywords by identifying their unique amenities and value propositions, and turning them into valuable keywords. For example, ‘Miami hotels with a rooftop bar,’ ‘Miami hotels with free breakfast’ and ‘Miami hotels with nightclubs’ are terms to utilize as they leverage a more specific travel goal that easily turns into conversions (booked business). It is crucial to reason as the customer would.
Some independent hotels, because of the virtue of their uniqueness and often niche-market, can maintain the upper hand in this situation. A property which positions itself as a turn for health and well-being could therefore pursue niche terms such as ‘wellness resorts’ and ‘fitness getaways.’ The key is to identify the brand’s top performing unique selling propositions (USPs) and translate them into humanized search queries, total while keeping the guests’ travel planning journeys in mind.
Finding a balanced amalgamate of both high-search volume terms and niche queries secures strategic keywords. Nevertheless, actually optimizing for them by ensuring they are naturally or comfortably present throughout the website’s titles, content, metadata and bidding efforts furthermore back secure a carefully crafted keyword strategy.2. Optimize for Local Search
Our termed “Phase II” furthermore set aside the spotlight on search engine traffic directories such as Google My traffic and Bing Places for Business. In aspect III, hotel listings on these directories is no longer a recommendation, it is a necessity. Optimizing for local search entails driving the visibility of a property’s traffic listing via a two-part process:
3. Attain and Maintain a Star Rating on Google
One of the key components of local search results is the Star Rating associated with a traffic listing. In fact, star reviews on SERPs are an effectual course for hotels to multiply digital visibility by standing out from the competition. Star ratings back multiply the site’s CTR and provide an influential benchmark for online reputation management (ORM). Once an exclusive ascribe for paid results, star ratings now furthermore emerge on organic results through Google’s ‘Rich Snippets.’ These snippets are a contour of structured data which Google extracts from multiple websites and presents it as a ‘preview’ in search results, furthermore known as Google’s erudition Graph.
Therefore, obtaining and retaining star ratings involves safeguarding reviews on trusted and authoritative review sites. Google then aggregates this rating data and displays an tolerable star rating. Hotels (restaurants, attractions, etc.) should encourage satisfied guests to submit reviews to their booking channel (i.e. Expedia) because they are by default ‘trusted’ sites. However, they should furthermore encourage reviews for their own Google My traffic listing in an attempt to multiply the hotel’s chances of being featured on local search results.
It is distinguished to clarify that there is a technical component to obtaining a Google star rating. Codes set aside onto the website to back search engines revert more informative results to users. Hotels requisite to ensure that their web developers furthermore embrace star rating information within the markup code.4. Enhance Content on Local Listings
A hotel’s content for its local listings should breathe strategically optimized. Whether it is in Foursquare, CitySearch, or any other listing, valuable keywords should breathe incorporated throughout the copy – including local search ‘near’ queries such as ‘hotel in Miami near Brickell’. If the brand image is prankish and tongue-in-cheek, the content on local listings should furthermore reflect that. Some listings even allow for a featured message. Rather than a generic ‘Welcome!’ hotels can use this space to promote current offers or highlight special amenities (complimentary champagne, sunset yoga, free breakfast).
Other content elements such as images should breathe of the highest quality, showcasing provocative yet realistic visuals of the property’s exterior, interior, and overall ambiance. Links to total the property’s gregarious media channels should breathe present in the listings, which allows the user to access other hotel assets including brand personality and online reputation.5. Optimize for Voice Search
With increasing utilization of smart personal assistants such as Alexa and Google Home, voice search is a prime topic of conversion within the digital marketing realm. In order to breathe visible in results derived from these devices, hotels requisite to ensure they are optimizing their site and keyword strategy for voice search too. Since users are more likely to use longer natural queries via voice, employing niche, long-tail keywords is an effectual system to optimize for this trend.
Long-tail keywords are fruitless without the pertinent content on a hotel or restaurant’s website. Hotels requisite to maintain specific landing pages that parallel the niche keywords. If a hotel seeks ‘Hotels in Miami with rooftop pools’—a keyword likely used by the voice search user—it must emerge in the pertinent landing page.
Incorporating questions and answers within the site, perhaps via the ever-popular Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) page, is another effectual course to accommodate voice search. With this strategy, hotels can provide answers not only about the property itself, but furthermore about their destination and local attractions as a result of quick detection by voice-activated devices.
It is distinguished to note that recently, numerous hotel properties and companies maintain been contacted by law firms representing travel consumers with disabilities. These law firms report that websites are not abiding by accessibility guidelines in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). If a guest is unable to use a hotel website to find information or beget a reservation, hotels can in fact breathe fined. Today hotel websites must enable these assistive technologies to allow travel consumers with disabilities to Get the information they requisite and complete any necessary transactions.6. Adopt a ‘Mobile First’ Mantra
Much has been said about Google’s ‘mobile first’ index. This means Google will start to rank its search results based on the mobile version of the content, even in desktop search listings. If one thing is certain, websites requisite to breathe optimized to breathe mobile-friendly (responsive). Hotels requisite to ensure they launch a fully-responsive website that serves users of any device the identical consistent content. The more ‘mobile-friendly’ a site’s user experience is, including factors such as typography, navigation map, and website design, the higher the site will rank on Google’s search.7. Leverage Google Hotel Ads
Google Hotel expense Ads (HPA) showcases a hotel’s real-time (dynamic) rates on Google search across total devices. Users will remark the hotel’s ad when they are actively looking to book a elbowroom in the area. However, the hotel only pays when the ad generates a click or a booking.
Google has recently introduced a unique call-to-action (CTA) button for booking hotels in its search results. A keyword can trigger a ‘BOOK A ROOM’ button to appear. Clicking this will activate a sub-menu to browse total enlisted HPAs for the hotel, which includes booking direct and via OTAs.
This feature, which furthermore appears in Mobile and Maps, demonstrates Google’s determination to grow its expense Ads service. The increased exposure provides more incentive for hotels to capitalize on this contour of pay-per-click in order to promote direct bookings.8. multiply Backlinks, Actively
A backlink is as simple as a hyperlink to a website from another website. Yet, it carries a lot of weight when it comes to a hotel’s organic digital visibility. Each backlink tells the search engine that a hotel website has a ‘vote’ from another entity, which in revert builds credibility and domain authority. Branded hotels maintain the upper hand here since the company usually has a corporate parent site that a plethora of other websites will link to (such as Marriott.com or IHG.com).
There are technicalities to backlinks, including the character of the backlink determined by elements such as anchor text and link context. These technical factors play a role in the algorithm the search engine uses to determine the value of a backlink. In theory, the more character backlinks a hotel website has, the more chances to rank higher on search engines.
Actively pursuing pertinent backlinks should breathe imperative for hotels to obtain first page ‘real-estate’. Obtaining links from local directories, current hotel vendors, editorial publications, and .EDU and .GOV sites should breathe the gateway for enhancing the site’s link equity. However, to continuously grow the number of backlinks, hotels requisite to breathe generating quality, shareable content that interlinks with gregarious media initiatives.9. bethink Optimal gregarious Media = (Quality + Authenticity) x Engagement
Much has been contemplated about what comprises a successful gregarious media strategy. Although there is no ultimate recipe for the perfect gregarious media post, three factors that boost performance are quality, authenticity, and engagement. Optimal gregarious Media = (Quality + Authenticity) x Engagement. Each piece of content maximizes visibility, both organic and paid. When posts are unquestionable and of lofty quality, users are more likely to relate and validate them. When posts are authentic, of lofty quality, and facilitate some character of user engagement, the content becomes shareable.
When content generates more likes, followers, and overall visibility it establishes an influential ranking factor. Therefore, search engines watch to rank higher those brands that maintain a robust organic gregarious media foundation (not paid or ‘spammy’ followers). This is why it is distinguished for hotels to intertwine their gregarious media strategy with their SEO efforts by creating quality, authentic, and engaging content that increases overall digital exposure.10. deem the Technicalities of SEO
Technical SEO is a science of its own and deserves its own team of specialists, budget, and time. Technical SEO means optimizing a website so search engines can successfully crawl and index its content. It lays a powerful foundation to give a hotel’s website the best haphazard it can to rank higher for pertinent keywords. Technical factors embrace site speed, removing unnecessary tags, cleansing duplicate metadata, adding tags to images, and implementing proper redirects to maximize the site’s link equity. Whether there is a one-man team or a staff of professionals continually optimizing the website, there are tools to back provide the technical support.
Hotels, restaurants, museums, attractions, and leisure activities total requisite to assertively compete online to grab the attention of potential guests. Those who watch to the organic visibility maintain a notable competitive. This and integrated paid search campaigns that mutually support organic search strategies will back secure first page visibility. Overall, while the requisite to upkeep search engines’ potent algorithms and ranking methodologies will always remain, an understanding of the process will back smaller or independent hospitality businesses prick through the clutter in today’s complicated digital landscape.
PDF Version Available HereJuan Lesmes is a digital marketing strategist specializing in SEO at HEBS Digital the leading hospitality technology, full-service digital marketing and website design firm. A 2017 graduate of Boston University’s School of Hospitality Administration (SHA), Juan’s previous experience includes toil at hospitality marketing advisory LHL Communications, The Ritz London, and Lets Get Weddy in London. Since his time at SHA, Juan has been recognized as a thought leader in hospitality marketing, with vigorous contributions to the Boston Hospitality Review, HotelOnline and HospitalityNet. Leora Halpern Lanz, ISHC, is principal of LHL Communications, a hospitality-focused marketing communications, branding, and media relations advisory. She is furthermore full time faculty at Boston University’s School of Hospitality Administration (SHA), teaching advanced strategic marketing and digital marketing for hospitality at the undergraduate and graduate levels. She was named among the Top 25 Minds in Hotel Marketing for 2016 by the Hospitality Sales & Marketing Association International and was named 2017 Professor of the Year by the student government of SHA.
By Nick Cohen
The year is 2001, and the world is still recovering from the tragedy of September 11th. The travel industry is in a downward spiral as fears of flying and terrorism ripple across the United States and beyond, and hotels maintain lost significant occupancy due to a subside in demand.
Simultaneously, a fledgling technology is emerging which will eventually purloin edge of the internet explosion, as well as hotel management’s desperation to fill rooms. It will reshape their industry forever, and this platform now commonly referred to as Online Travel Agencies, or OTAs, will allow hotels to easily sell their rooms on the internet through recent consumer facing websites such as Expedia, Travelocity and Orbitz.
Fast forward to 2017. The OTA’s maintain gained the majority of market participate for online reservations, and digital platforms devotion Booking.com and Ctrip.com maintain loyal member volumes that far surpass brand websites. In many cases, the OTA companies are valued well beyond traditional hotel brands (as of May 2017, Priceline Group has a market capitalization of nearly USD 92 Billion). They maintain furthermore helped to create a recent concept as they grew in popularity and scale over the last number of years, and it was the precedent of transparency. Pricing that was once hidden to the everyday user, could now breathe exposed to the total world, publicly, with a few clicks online. As OTA channels grew enormously with time, so did the access to true time rates and availability for virtually every hotel around the world.
With this concept in mind, from the OTA’s they maintain seen the rapid expansion of ‘meta search’ channels. These are one-stop expense comparison platforms where a customer can view a expense for a separate hotel elbowroom across multiple websites (without having to browse those websites one-by-one). Sites within this category embrace Kayak, Trivago, TripAdvisor, Qunar and Google, and they are total working to simplify the travel research process for consumers.
With the OTA channels continuing to grow through massive marketing efforts and superior technology, and with meta search sites following their lead, a relatively recent challenge has emerged for hoteliers. It represents a very involved dynamic between one of the most traditional ways to sell a hotel room, and one of the most modern ways to sell a hotel room. This once again total comes back to the concept of expense transparency. Wholesale has been a core traffic driver in hotels for many years, helping properties build foundation traffic through private negotiated rates and partnerships. Historically, these wholesalers would sell their inventory offline to their own private networks of contacts. Even though the pricing would typically breathe lower than publicly available RACK rates, it was a reliable foundation of occupancy for hotels to build off of.
As technology has become more sophisticated with Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) readily available, they maintain seen the rapid growth of wholesale rates being sold publicly, online, through some of the powerful meta search channels mentioned above. This means that wholesalers are selling discounted rates, which directly undercut brand websites and OTAs, to anyone who has access to the internet. Beyond just meta search, some OTA websites are now even positioning themselves as ‘online marketplaces,’ where they too will sell wholesale inventory directly instead of the inventory provided by the hotels. To remain competitive and multiply market share, online channels want to sell the lowest expense possible, even if it means reducing their own margins by selling a cheaper elbowroom to the customer.
You would reason that hoteliers would want to fix this problem immediately. Online wholesale traffic undercuts channels which are much more profitable such as their direct brand website. This issue however is multi-layered and is not smooth to remedy for the following key reasons:Hotels still want wholesale business!
Hotels still maintain stalwart relationships with a number of wholesale partners, mammoth and small, and they confidence on these partnerships to generate foundation business. Turning off these channels would potentially express the loss of significant revenues, at least in the short term. Although wholesale channels can undercut other websites when sold online, they furthermore still generate incremental traffic when sold offline through the traditional methodFinding the source of total traffic online can breathe very difficult
When wholesale rates appears online, it’s generally very difficult to know which wholesaler specifically is providing that inventory. The wholesale partners themselves don’t generally sell rooms through their own websites, but sell their rates through wholesale aggregation channels such as Amoma.com. It’s channels devotion Amoma who then sell the rates online through their own interface, and promote their rates through larger meta search intermediaries such as Trivago and TripAdvisor. Generally the only course to find the actual source is to beget a test booking online, and then track how that reservation comes into the hotel’s central reservation system (each reservation is typically flagged with an inventory source). Many hotels are reluctant to attain this since a booking requires use of a credit card and sometimes even pre-payment, and then cancellation of that test booking is not always smooth to do. The test booking process is both cumbersome to manage at scale, and is furthermore financially risky for a hotel if those booking cannot breathe cancelled.Employee incentives are at stake
Within hotel sales departments, team members are still incentivized to drive wholesale volume, regardless of where that volume is being sold (offline or online). Wholesale partners generally don’t provide specifics on how they are selling their inventory, and as long as elbowroom allotments are sold, the liable sales team members are satisfied. This is creating an unavoidable rift between the direction of some sales leaders with the revenue management and digital strategy teams.So what’s next?
Hotel companies are dealing with this situation in a variety of ways. Some are cutting off wholesale altogether since they simply can’t control where their inventory is ending up. Others are maintaining the partnerships, but are working to trudge away from static elbowroom allotments and over to dynamic pricing and availability where the hotels maintain more control over the inventory they dispatch to the wholesalers. This is a major problem facing the industry that very much remains unsolved.
If they purloin ourselves back to the 2001, expense transparency was a challenge for hoteliers. Properties simply didn’t maintain direct access to a large enough segment of customers, therefore traditional partnerships devotion wholesale was an absolute necessity. With the growth of the OTAs though, and the emergence of recent technologies such as meta search, that access is no longer an issue. The world is accessible for each hotel with a few quick key strokes on a computer. It is now only a matter of time until hoteliers beget one of the following decisions:
PDF Version Available HereNick Cohen is based in Hong Kong and leads digital strategy for Hyatt Hotels in Asia Pacific. He oversees online marketing efforts for total Hyatt brands and properties across the region, and manages a variety of e-Commerce and digital platform projects to back multiply online revenues for the company. Prior to joining Hyatt, Nick held senior e-Commerce and digital marketing roles at Langham Hospitality Group, Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group and Sabre Hospitality Solutions. Earlier in his career, working on-property for various hotels he developed extensive erudition in operations, along with Sales & Marketing and Revenue Management expertise. Nick furthermore holds a graduate diploma in Hotel and Tourism traffic Management from Boston University. Sources:
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Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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