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000-886 IBM Tivoli Monitoring v5.1.1 to v5.1.2 Implementation

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000-886 exam Dumps Source : IBM Tivoli Monitoring v5.1.1 to v5.1.2 Implementation

Test Code : 000-886
Test denomination : IBM Tivoli Monitoring v5.1.1 to v5.1.2 Implementation
Vendor denomination : IBM
braindumps : 152 real Questions

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IBM IBM Tivoli Monitoring v5.1.1

Tivoli are animate Monitoring features Launched by means of IBM | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

IBM is neatly customary for its developments in excessive-performance computing, eco-friendly computing, enterprise server and cloud computing alike. huge Blue doesn't look to subsist taking any breaks and, no longer long after disclosing plans for the advent of yet an extra enormously powerful and environmentally pleasant supercomputer (the Blue Waters), it has now offered yet an additional progress, this time in the locality of cloud computing features. This advancement, accepted as the Tivoli monitoring platform, will allow medium-sized corporations to extra effectively tackle as many as 500 monitored resources.

"With digital tips because the lifeblood of more agencies, even the smallest organizations or divisions harmonize with the information core's functionality mission-crucial," Al Zollar, common supervisor of IBM Tivoli, observed. "With this unique provider, IBM is offering their smartest statistics core software in which agencies opt for and pay for what they want. it subsist so convenient that they are expecting most businesses can note up for it on Monday and Have it operating by Friday. The simplicity is a fine looking addition to their provider administration portfolio."

The respective resources that the Tivoli monitoring platform can deal with are every thing from working techniques to applications and gadgets at once connected to the monitored network. The Tivoli is an on-demand service that immediately detects vim outages and bottlenecks, automatically notifying the IT supervisor and infrequently even resolving renowned considerations without the want for person involvement. The service helps Linux, AIX, HP-UX and Microsoft windows operating programs, and All Tivoli Monitoring services could subsist dedicated and preconfigured.

adventure notwithstanding the carrier will require a month-to-month payment, no software licensing is required. The set-up payment costs $6,500 and contracts may additionally cowl time intervals of ninety days to a few years. The "touchless" agent-less Tivoli Monitoring 6.2.1. (which displays devices and paraphernalia application) begins at $44 per thirty days per node, with the agent-primarily based OS and software monitoring option costing $58 per node every month.


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IBM Spectrum | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

IBM Spectrum is the manufacturer the seller gave to its storage software in 2015, when it moved six items below the Spectrum umbrella.

The six items IBM Spectrum items comprise accelerate, Scale, Virtualize, control, protect and Archive.

IBM Spectrum accelerate is obstruct storage in response to IBM's XIV storage technology. it can scale up to tens of petabytes of potential and subsist deployed on commodity servers, XIV or within the cloud. it's attainable for purchase as software or as cloud provider with IBM SoftLayer.

IBM Spectrum Scale acts as a control pane to maneuver policy-based records move. it's based on IBM's universal Parallel File device technology. it is attainable for buy as stand-on my own software, bundled on IBM hardware because the IBM Elastic Storage Server or as a cloud service.

IBM Spectrum Virtualize is storage virtualization utility formerly known as IBM SAN quantity Controller. It permits storage capability from distinctive storage systems to subsist pooled so aspects such as compression and auto tiering can also subsist unfold across All storage capability, and for management from a single location.

IBM Spectrum control is management software that runs in IBM's cloud for virtualized, cloud and utility-described storage. It offers clients with performance monitoring and skill planning for on-premises storage.

IBM Spectrum protect is a backup and restoration product based mostly formerly known as IBM Tivoli Storage manager. It may also subsist used with actual, digital or cloud storage.  It gives snapshots, multi-web site replication and catastrophe recovery administration.

IBM Spectrum Archive application turned into previously known as Linear Tape File system and allows access to IBM tape drives using a 1:1 mapping of file folders to tape drives. It eliminates the requisite for separate management utility for archival storage and amenities movement of facts between construction and archival ability.


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IBM Tivoli Monitoring v5.1.1 to v5.1.2 Implementation

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Software proactively manages availability and performance. | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

Press Release Summary:

Integrating with Tivoli OMEGAMON and IBM Tivoli System Automation for Multiplatforms v2.1, IBM Tivoli System Automation for z/OS v3.1 can inspirit optimize z/OS application availability, and automate I/O, processor, and system operations. It integrates z/OS into end-to-end automation of heterogeneous on-demand applications. Self-configuration minimizes automation implementation time with 12 add-on policies, policy import and mass update, and GDPS(TM) integration.

Original Press Release:

IBM Tivoli System Automation for z/OS V3.1 Proactively Manages Availability and Performance

At a glanceIBM Tivoli System Automation for z/OS V3.1 integrates with Tivoli OMEGAMON and IBM Tivoli System Automation for Multiplatforms V2.1 to inspirit you:Proactively manage availability and performance through performance-driven automationIntegrate z/OS into end-to-end automation of heterogeneous on require applicationsV3.1 self-configuration advances inspirit reduce automation implementation time and cost with:Twelve add-on policies including WebSphere high-availability automationPolicy import and mass updateSelf-configuration of IMS and CICS messages 1.2GDPS(TM) IntegrationV3.1 is easier to employ with:New command for touching a sysplex applicationDisplay of captured system messages and more IMS, CICS and VTAM® information

For ordering, contact:Your IBM representative, an IBM industry Partner, or IBM Americas convene Centers at 800-IBM-CALL (Reference: YE001).

OverviewIBM Tivoli® System Automation for z/OS® V3.1 can inspirit enlarge z/OS application availability, and automate I/O, processor, and system operations. IBM Tivoli System Automation for z/OS V3.1 is easier to employ than ever and can inspirit enable you to:Unite the islands of automation through integration with Tivoli OMEGAMON and IBM Tivoli System Automation for MultiplatformsReduce automation implementation time and cost through self-configuration advancesPerformance-driven automation

IBM Tivoli System Automation for z/OS helps you proactively manage availability and performance through performance-driven automation, which is integrated with IBM Tivoli OMEGAMON for CICS®, DB2®, IMS(TM), and MVS(TM).

END-to-end automation

z/OS applications can now subsist integrated into end-to-end automation of heterogeneous on require applications, provided by the unique Tivoli System Automation for Multiplatforms V2.1. This allows you to:Ease operations through a Web-based single point of control across z/OS, Linux(TM), and AIX®Increase application availability by resolving cross-platform dependenciesSelf-configuration advances with plug'n play automation modules

The plug'n play automation modules comprise groundwork and add-on policies. A collection of twelve add-on policies, based on best practices, can inspirit reduce time and trouble to create a unique or update an existing policy. unique plug'n play automation modules inspirit you to:Increase WebSphere® Application Server for z/OS V5.1 availability and ease operationsImplement a Geographically Dispersed Parallel Sysplex(TM)

Key prerequisitesIBM Tivoli System Automation for z/OS V3.1 requires IBM zSeries® hardware supporting:z/OS (5694-A01) V1.4, or laterTivoli NetView® for OS/390® (5697-B82) V1.4 or Tivoli NetView for z/OS (5697-ENV) V5.1, or later

Planned availability dateSeptember 30, 2005

Related Thomas Industry Update Thomas For Industry

GSSAPI Authentication and Kerberos v5 | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

This chapter is from the bespeak 

This section discusses the GSSAPI mechanism, in particular, Kerberos v5 and how this works in conjunction with the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software and what is involved in implementing such a solution. delight subsist watchful that this is not a trivial task.

It’s worth taking a brief gape at the relationship between the Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSSAPI) and Kerberos v5.

The GSSAPI does not actually provide security services itself. Rather, it is a framework that provides security services to callers in a generic fashion, with a scope of underlying mechanisms and technologies such as Kerberos v5. The current implementation of the GSSAPI only works with the Kerberos v5 security mechanism. The best way to contemplate about the relationship between GSSAPI and Kerberos is in the following manner: GSSAPI is a network authentication protocol abstraction that allows Kerberos credentials to subsist used in an authentication exchange. Kerberos v5 must subsist installed and running on any system on which GSSAPI-aware programs are running.

The support for the GSSAPI is made practicable in the directory server through the introduction of a unique SASL library, which is based on the Cyrus CMU implementation. Through this SASL framework, DIGEST-MD5 is supported as explained previously, and GSSAPI which implements Kerberos v5. Additional GSSAPI mechanisms finish exist. For example, GSSAPI with SPNEGO support would subsist GSS-SPNEGO. Other GSS mechanism names are based on the GSS mechanisms OID.

The Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software only supports the employ of GSSAPI on Solaris OE. There are implementations of GSSAPI for other operating systems (for example, Linux), but the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software does not employ them on platforms other than the Solaris OE.

Understanding GSSAPI

The Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSSAPI) is a criterion interface, defined by RFC 2743, that provides a generic authentication and secure messaging interface, whereby these security mechanisms can subsist plugged in. The most commonly referred to GSSAPI mechanism is the Kerberos mechanism that is based on surreptitious key cryptography.

One of the main aspects of GSSAPI is that it allows developers to add secure authentication and privacy (encryption and or integrity checking) protection to data being passed over the wire by writing to a single programming interface. This is shown in design 3-2.

03fig02.gifFigure 3-2. GSSAPI Layers

The underlying security mechanisms are loaded at the time the programs are executed, as opposed to when they are compiled and built. In practice, the most commonly used GSSAPI mechanism is Kerberos v5. The Solaris OE provides a few different flavors of Diffie-Hellman GSSAPI mechanisms, which are only useful to NIS+ applications.

What can subsist confusing is that developers might write applications that write directly to the Kerberos API, or they might write GSSAPI applications that request the Kerberos mechanism. There is a mountainous difference, and applications that talk Kerberos directly cannot communicate with those that talk GSSAPI. The wire protocols are not compatible, even though the underlying Kerberos protocol is in use. An illustration is telnet with Kerberos is a secure telnet program that authenticates a telnet user and encrypts data, including passwords exchanged over the network during the telnet session. The authentication and message protection features are provided using Kerberos. The telnet application with Kerberos only uses Kerberos, which is based on secret-key technology. However, a telnet program written to the GSSAPI interface can employ Kerberos as well as other security mechanisms supported by GSSAPI.

The Solaris OE does not deliver any libraries that provide support for third-party companies to program directly to the Kerberos API. The goal is to inspirit developers to employ the GSSAPI. Many open-source Kerberos implementations (MIT, Heimdal) allow users to write Kerberos applications directly.

On the wire, the GSSAPI is compatible with Microsoft’s SSPI and thus GSSAPI applications can communicate with Microsoft applications that employ SSPI and Kerberos.

The GSSAPI is preferred because it is a standardized API, whereas Kerberos is not. This means that the MIT Kerberos progress team might change the programming interface anytime, and any applications that exist today might not work in the future without some code modifications. Using GSSAPI avoids this problem.

Another benefit of GSSAPI is its pluggable feature, which is a mountainous benefit, especially if a developer later decides that there is a better authentication method than Kerberos, because it can easily subsist plugged into the system and the existing GSSAPI applications should subsist able to employ it without being recompiled or patched in any way.

Understanding Kerberos v5

Kerberos is a network authentication protocol designed to provide stalwart authentication for client/server applications by using secret-key cryptography. Originally developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, it is included in the Solaris OE to provide stalwart authentication for Solaris OE network applications.

In addition to providing a secure authentication protocol, Kerberos also offers the ability to add privacy support (encrypted data streams) for remote applications such as telnet, ftp, rsh, rlogin, and other common UNIX network applications. In the Solaris OE, Kerberos can also subsist used to provide stalwart authentication and privacy support for Network File Systems (NFS), allowing secure and private file sharing across the network.

Because of its widespread acceptance and implementation in other operating systems, including Windows 2000, HP-UX, and Linux, the Kerberos authentication protocol can interoperate in a heterogeneous environment, allowing users on machines running one OS to securely authenticate themselves on hosts of a different OS.

The Kerberos software is available for Solaris OE versions 2.6, 7, 8, and 9 in a separate package called the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism (SEAM) software. For Solaris 2.6 and Solaris 7 OE, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is included as portion of the Solaris effortless Access Server 3.0 (Solaris SEAS) package. For Solaris 8 OE, the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software package is available with the Solaris 8 OE Admin Pack.

For Solaris 2.6 and Solaris 7 OE, the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is freely available as portion of the Solaris effortless Access Server 3.0 package available for download from:

http://www.sun.com/software/solaris/7/ds/ds-seas.

For Solaris 8 OE systems, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is available in the Solaris 8 OE Admin Pack, available for download from:

http://www.sun.com/bigadmin/content/adminPack/index.html.

For Solaris 9 OE systems, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is already installed by default and contains the following packages listed in TABLE 3-1.

Table 3-1. Solaris 9 OE Kerberos v5 Packages

Package Name

Description

SUNWkdcr

Kerberos v5 KDC (root)

SUNWkdcu

Kerberos v5 Master KDC (user)

SUNWkrbr

Kerberos version 5 support (Root)

SUNWkrbu

Kerberos version 5 support (Usr)

SUNWkrbux

Kerberos version 5 support (Usr) (64-bit)

All of these Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software distributions are based on the MIT KRB5 Release version 1.0. The client programs in these distributions are compatible with later MIT releases (1.1, 1.2) and with other implementations that are compliant with the standard.

How Kerberos Works

The following is an overview of the Kerberos v5 authentication system. From the user’s standpoint, Kerberos v5 is mostly invisible after the Kerberos session has been started. Initializing a Kerberos session often involves no more than logging in and providing a Kerberos password.

The Kerberos system revolves around the concept of a ticket. A ticket is a set of electronic information that serves as identification for a user or a service such as the NFS service. Just as your driver’s license identifies you and indicates what driving permissions you have, so a ticket identifies you and your network access privileges. When you fulfill a Kerberos-based transaction (for example, if you employ rlogin to log in to another machine), your system transparently sends a request for a ticket to a Key Distribution Center, or KDC. The KDC accesses a database to authenticate your identity and returns a ticket that grants you leave to access the other machine. Transparently means that you finish not requisite to explicitly request a ticket.

Tickets Have inevitable attributes associated with them. For example, a ticket can subsist forwardable (which means that it can subsist used on another machine without a unique authentication process), or postdated (not convincing until a specified time). How tickets are used (for example, which users are allowed to obtain which types of tickets) is set by policies that are determined when Kerberos is installed or administered.

You will frequently discern the terms credential and ticket. In the Kerberos world, they are often used interchangeably. Technically, however, a credential is a ticket plus the session key for that session.

Initial Authentication

Kerberos authentication has two phases, an initial authentication that allows for All subsequent authentications, and the subsequent authentications themselves.

A client (a user, or a service such as NFS) begins a Kerberos session by requesting a ticket-granting ticket (TGT) from the Key Distribution heart (KDC). This request is often done automatically at login.

A ticket-granting ticket is needed to obtain other tickets for specific services. contemplate of the ticket-granting ticket as something similar to a passport. devotion a passport, the ticket-granting ticket identifies you and allows you to obtain numerous “visas,” where the “visas” (tickets) are not for queer countries, but for remote machines or network services. devotion passports and visas, the ticket-granting ticket and the other various tickets Have limited lifetimes. The dissimilarity is that Kerberized commands notice that you Have a passport and obtain the visas for you. You don’t Have to fulfill the transactions yourself.

The KDC creates a ticket-granting ticket and sends it back, in encrypted form, to the client. The client decrypts the ticket-granting ticket using the client’s password.

Now in possession of a convincing ticket-granting ticket, the client can request tickets for All sorts of network operations for as long as the ticket-granting ticket lasts. This ticket usually lasts for a few hours. Each time the client performs a unique network operation, it requests a ticket for that operation from the KDC.

Subsequent Authentications

The client requests a ticket for a particular service from the KDC by sending the KDC its ticket-granting ticket as proof of identity.

  • The KDC sends the ticket for the specific service to the client.

    For example, suppose user lucy wants to access an NFS file system that has been shared with krb5 authentication required. Since she is already authenticated (that is, she already has a ticket-granting ticket), as she attempts to access the files, the NFS client system automatically and transparently obtains a ticket from the KDC for the NFS service.

  • The client sends the ticket to the server.

    When using the NFS service, the NFS client automatically and transparently sends the ticket for the NFS service to the NFS server.

  • The server allows the client access.

    These steps bear it issue that the server doesn’t ever communicate with the KDC. The server does, though, as it registers itself with the KDC, just as the first client does.

  • Principals

    A client is identified by its principal. A principal is a unique identity to which the KDC can apportion tickets. A principal can subsist a user, such as joe, or a service, such as NFS.

    By convention, a principal denomination is divided into three parts: the primary, the instance, and the realm. A typical principal could be, for example, lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM, where:

    lucy is the primary. The primary can subsist a user name, as shown here, or a service, such as NFS. The primary can also subsist the word host, which signifies that this principal is a service principal that is set up to provide various network services.

    admin is the instance. An instance is optional in the case of user principals, but it is required for service principals. For example, if the user lucy sometimes acts as a system administrator, she can employ lucy/admin to distinguish herself from her usual user identity. Likewise, if Lucy has accounts on two different hosts, she can employ two principal names with different instances (for example, lucy/california.example.com and lucy/boston.example.com).

    Realms

    A realm is a ratiocinative network, similar to a domain, which defines a group of systems under the very master KDC. Some realms are hierarchical (one realm being a superset of the other realm). Otherwise, the realms are non-hierarchical (or direct) and the mapping between the two realms must subsist defined.

    Realms and KDC Servers

    Each realm must comprise a server that maintains the master copy of the principal database. This server is called the master KDC server. Additionally, each realm should contain at least one slave KDC server, which contains duplicate copies of the principal database. Both the master KDC server and the slave KDC server create tickets that are used to establish authentication.

    Understanding the Kerberos KDC

    The Kerberos Key Distribution heart (KDC) is a trusted server that issues Kerberos tickets to clients and servers to communicate securely. A Kerberos ticket is a obstruct of data that is presented as the user’s credentials when attempting to access a Kerberized service. A ticket contains information about the user’s identity and a temporary encryption key, All encrypted in the server’s private key. In the Kerberos environment, any entity that is defined to Have a Kerberos identity is referred to as a principal.

    A principal may subsist an entry for a particular user, host, or service (such as NFS or FTP) that is to interact with the KDC. Most commonly, the KDC server system also runs the Kerberos Administration Daemon, which handles administrative commands such as adding, deleting, and modifying principals in the Kerberos database. Typically, the KDC, the admin server, and the database are All on the very machine, but they can subsist separated if necessary. Some environments may require that multiple realms subsist configured with master KDCs and slave KDCs for each realm. The principals applied for securing each realm and KDC should subsist applied to All realms and KDCs in the network to ensure that there isn’t a single feeble link in the chain.

    One of the first steps to retract when initializing your Kerberos database is to create it using the kdb5_util command, which is located in /usr/sbin. When running this command, the user has the option of whether to create a stash file or not. The stash file is a local copy of the master key that resides on the KDC’s local disk. The master key contained in the stash file is generated from the master password that the user enters when first creating the KDC database. The stash file is used to authenticate the KDC to itself automatically before starting the kadmind and krb5kdc daemons (for example, as portion of the machine’s boot sequence).

    If a stash file is not used when the database is created, the administrator who starts up the krb5kdc process will Have to manually enter the master key (password) every time they start the process. This may look devotion a typical trade off between convenience and security, but if the leisure of the system is sufficiently hardened and protected, very Little security is lost by having the master key stored in the protected stash file. It is recommended that at least one slave KDC server subsist installed for each realm to ensure that a backup is available in the event that the master server becomes unavailable, and that slave KDC subsist configured with the very flat of security as the master.

    Currently, the Sun Kerberos v5 Mechanism utility, kdb5_util, can create three types of keys, DES-CBC-CRC, DES-CBC-MD5, and DES-CBC-RAW. DES-CBC stands for DES encryption with Cipher obstruct Chaining and the CRC, MD5, and RAW designators mention to the checksum algorithm that is used. By default, the key created will subsist DES-CBC-CRC, which is the default encryption kind for the KDC. The kind of key created is specified on the command line with the -k option (see the kdb5_util (1M) man page). select the password for your stash file very carefully, because this password can subsist used in the future to decrypt the master key and modify the database. The password may subsist up to 1024 characters long and can comprise any combination of letters, numbers, punctuation, and spaces.

    The following is an illustration of creating a stash file:

    kdc1 #/usr/sbin/kdb5_util create -r EXAMPLE.COM -s Initializing database '/var/krb5/principal' for realm 'EXAMPLE.COM' master key denomination 'K/M@EXAMPLE.COM' You will subsist prompted for the database Master Password. It is famous that you NOT FORGET this password. Enter KDC database master key: master_key Re-enter KDC database master key to verify: master_key

    Notice the employ of the -s dispute to create the stash file. The location of the stash file is in the /var/krb5. The stash file appears with the following mode and ownership settings:

    kdc1 # cd /var/krb5 kdc1 # ls -l -rw------- 1 root other 14 Apr 10 14:28 .k5.EXAMPLE.COM

    The directory used to store the stash file and the database should not subsist shared or exported.

    Secure Settings in the KDC Configuration File

    The KDC and Administration daemons both read configuration information from /etc/krb5/kdc.conf. This file contains KDC-specific parameters that govern overall behavior for the KDC and for specific realms. The parameters in the kdc.conf file are explained in detail in the kdc.conf(4) man page.

    The kdc.conf parameters portray locations of various files and ports to employ for accessing the KDC and the administration daemon. These parameters generally finish not requisite to subsist changed, and doing so does not result in any added security. However, there are some parameters that may subsist adjusted to enhance the overall security of the KDC. The following are some examples of adjustable parameters that enhance security.

  • kdc_ports – Defines the ports that the KDC will listen on to receive requests. The criterion port for Kerberos v5 is 88. 750 is included and commonly used to support older clients that noiseless employ the default port designated for Kerberos v4. Solaris OE noiseless listens on port 750 for backwards compatibility. This is not considered a security risk.

  • max_life – Defines the maximum lifetime of a ticket, and defaults to eight hours. In environments where it is desirable to Have users re-authenticate frequently and to reduce the chance of having a principal’s credentials stolen, this value should subsist lowered. The recommended value is eight hours.

  • max_renewable_life – Defines the epoch of time from when a ticket is issued that it may subsist renewed (using kinit -R). The criterion value here is 7 days. To disable renewable tickets, this value may subsist set to 0 days, 0 hrs, 0 min. The recommended value is 7d 0h 0m 0s.

  • default_principal_expiration – A Kerberos principal is any unique identity to which Kerberos can apportion a ticket. In the case of users, it is the very as the UNIX system user name. The default lifetime of any principal in the realm may subsist defined in the kdc.conf file with this option. This should subsist used only if the realm will contain temporary principals, otherwise the administrator will Have to constantly subsist renewing principals. Usually, this setting is left undefined and principals finish not expire. This is not insecure as long as the administrator is vigilant about removing principals for users that no longer requisite access to the systems.

  • supported_enctypes – The encryption types supported by the KDC may subsist defined with this option. At this time, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software only supports des-cbc-crc:normal encryption type, but in the future this may subsist used to ensure that only stalwart cryptographic ciphers are used.

  • dict_file – The location of a dictionary file containing strings that are not allowed as passwords. A principal with any password policy (see below) will not subsist able to employ words organize in this dictionary file. This is not defined by default. Using a dictionary file is a friendly way to obviate users from creating trivial passwords to protect their accounts, and thus helps avoid one of the most common weaknesses in a computer network-guessable passwords. The KDC will only check passwords against the dictionary for principals which Have a password policy association, so it is friendly exercise to Have at least one simple policy associated with All principals in the realm.

  • The Solaris OE has a default system dictionary that is used by the spell program that may also subsist used by the KDC as a dictionary of common passwords. The location of this file is: /usr/share/lib/dict/words. Other dictionaries may subsist substituted. The format is one word or phrase per line.

    The following is a Kerberos v5 /etc/krb5/kdc.conf illustration with suggested settings:

    # Copyright 1998-2002 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All rights reserved. # employ is theme to license terms. # #ident "@(#)kdc.conf 1.2 02/02/14 SMI" [kdcdefaults] kdc_ports = 88,750 [realms] ___default_realm___ = { profile = /etc/krb5/krb5.conf database_name = /var/krb5/principal admin_keytab = /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab acl_file = /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl kadmind_port = 749 max_life = 8h 0m 0s max_renewable_life = 7d 0h 0m 0s default_principal_flags = +preauth Needs touching -- dict_file = /usr/share/lib/dict/words } Access Control

    The Kerberos administration server allows for granular control of the administrative commands by employ of an access control list (ACL) file (/etc/krb5/kadm5.acl). The syntax for the ACL file allows for wildcarding of principal names so it is not necessary to list every single administrator in the ACL file. This feature should subsist used with grandiose care. The ACLs used by Kerberos allow privileges to subsist broken down into very precise functions that each administrator can perform. If a inevitable administrator only needs to subsist allowed to Have read-access to the database then that person should not subsist granted full admin privileges. Below is a list of the privileges allowed:

  • a – Allows the addition of principals or policies in the database.

  • A – Prohibits the addition of principals or policies in the database.

  • d – Allows the deletion of principals or policies in the database.

  • D – Prohibits the deletion of principals or policies in the database.

  • m – Allows the modification of principals or policies in the database.

  • M – Prohibits the modification of principals or policies in the database.

  • c – Allows the changing of passwords for principals in the database.

  • C – Prohibits the changing of passwords for principals in the database.

  • i – Allows inquiries to the database.

  • I – Prohibits inquiries to the database.

  • l – Allows the listing of principals or policies in the database.

  • L – Prohibits the listing of principals or policies in the database.

  • * – Short for All privileges (admcil).

  • x – Short for All privileges (admcil). Identical to *.

  • Adding Administrators

    After the ACLs are set up, actual administrator principals should subsist added to the system. It is strongly recommended that administrative users Have separate /admin principals to employ only when administering the system. For example, user Lucy would Have two principals in the database - lucy@REALM and lucy/admin@REALM. The /admin principal would only subsist used when administering the system, not for getting ticket-granting-tickets (TGTs) to access remote services. Using the /admin principal only for administrative purposes minimizes the chance of someone walking up to Joe’s unattended terminal and performing unauthorized administrative commands on the KDC.

    Kerberos principals may subsist differentiated by the instance portion of their principal name. In the case of user principals, the most common instance identifier is /admin. It is criterion exercise in Kerberos to differentiate user principals by defining some to subsist /admin instances and others to Have no specific instance identifier (for example, lucy/admin@REALM versus lucy@REALM). Principals with the /admin instance identifier are assumed to Have administrative privileges defined in the ACL file and should only subsist used for administrative purposes. A principal with an /admin identifier which does not match up with any entries in the ACL file will not subsist granted any administrative privileges, it will subsist treated as a non-privileged user principal. Also, user principals with the /admin identifier are given separate passwords and separate permissions from the non-admin principal for the very user.

    The following is a sample /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl file:

    # Copyright (c) 1998-2000 by Sun Microsystems, Inc. # All rights reserved. # #pragma ident "@(#)kadm5.acl 1.1 01/03/19 SMI" # lucy/admin is given full administrative privilege lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM * # # tom/admin user is allowed to query the database (d), listing principals # (l), and changing user passwords (c) # tom/admin@EXAMPLE.COM dlc

    It is highly recommended that the kadm5.acl file subsist tightly controlled and that users subsist granted only the privileges they requisite to fulfill their assigned tasks.

    Creating Host Keys

    Creating host keys for systems in the realm such as slave KDCs is performed the very way that creating user principals is performed. However, the -randkey option should always subsist used, so no one ever knows the actual key for the hosts. Host principals are almost always stored in the keytab file, to subsist used by root-owned processes that wish to act as Kerberos services for the local host. It is rarely necessary for anyone to actually know the password for a host principal because the key is stored safely in the keytab and is only accessible by root-owned processes, never by actual users.

    When creating keytab files, the keys should always subsist extracted from the KDC on the very machine where the keytab is to reside using the ktadd command from a kadmin session. If this is not feasible, retract grandiose keeping in transferring the keytab file from one machine to the next. A malicious attacker who possesses the contents of the keytab file could employ these keys from the file in order to gain access to another user or services credentials. Having the keys would then allow the attacker to impersonate whatever principal that the key represented and further compromise the security of that Kerberos realm. Some suggestions for transferring the keytab are to employ Kerberized, encrypted ftp transfers, or to employ the secure file transfer programs scp or sftp offered with the SSH package (http://www.openssh.org). Another safe method is to residence the keytab on a removable disk, and hand-deliver it to the destination.

    Hand delivery does not scale well for big installations, so using the Kerberized ftp daemon is perhaps the most convenient and secure method available.

    Using NTP to Synchronize Clocks

    All servers participating in the Kerberos realm requisite to Have their system clocks synchronized to within a configurable time restrict (default 300 seconds). The safest, most secure way to systematically synchronize the clocks on a network of Kerberos servers is by using the Network Time Protocol (NTP) service. The Solaris OE comes with an NTP client and NTP server software (SUNWntpu package). discern the ntpdate(1M) and xntpd(1M) man pages for more information on the individual commands. For more information on configuring NTP, mention to the following Sun BluePrints OnLine NTP articles:

    It is critical that the time subsist synchronized in a secure manner. A simple denial of service assault on either a client or a server would involve just skewing the time on that system to subsist outside of the configured clock skew value, which would then obviate anyone from acquiring TGTs from that system or accessing Kerberized services on that system. The default clock-skew value of five minutes is the maximum recommended value.

    The NTP infrastructure must also subsist secured, including the employ of server hardening for the NTP server and application of NTP security features. Using the Solaris Security Toolkit software (formerly known as JASS) with the secure.driver script to create a minimal system and then installing just the necessary NTP software is one such method. The Solaris Security Toolkit software is available at:

    http://www.sun.com/security/jass/

    Documentation on the Solaris Security Toolkit software is available at:

    http://www.sun.com/security/blueprints

    Establishing Password Policies

    Kerberos allows the administrator to define password policies that can subsist applied to some or All of the user principals in the realm. A password policy contains definitions for the following parameters:

  • Minimum Password Length – The number of characters in the password, for which the recommended value is 8.

  • Maximum Password Classes – The number of different character classes that must subsist used to bear up the password. Letters, numbers, and punctuation are the three classes and convincing values are 1, 2, and 3. The recommended value is 2.

  • Saved Password History – The number of previous passwords that Have been used by the principal that cannot subsist reused. The recommended value is 3.

  • Minimum Password Lifetime (seconds) – The minimum time that the password must subsist used before it can subsist changed. The recommended value is 3600 (1 hour).

  • Maximum Password Lifetime (seconds) – The maximum time that the password can subsist used before it must subsist changed. The recommended value is 7776000 (90 days).

  • These values can subsist set as a group and stored as a single policy. Different policies can subsist defined for different principals. It is recommended that the minimum password length subsist set to at least 8 and that at least 2 classes subsist required. Most people mind to select easy-to-remember and easy-to-type passwords, so it is a friendly concept to at least set up policies to inspirit slightly more difficult-to-guess passwords through the employ of these parameters. Setting the Maximum Password Lifetime value may subsist helpful in some environments, to force people to change their passwords periodically. The epoch is up to the local administrator according to the overriding corporate security policy used at that particular site. Setting the Saved Password History value combined with the Minimum Password Lifetime value prevents people from simply switching their password several times until they score back to their original or favorite password.

    The maximum password length supported is 255 characters, unlike the UNIX password database which only supports up to 8 characters. Passwords are stored in the KDC encrypted database using the KDC default encryption method, DES-CBC-CRC. In order to obviate password guessing attacks, it is recommended that users select long passwords or pass phrases. The 255 character restrict allows one to select a wee sentence or effortless to bethink phrase instead of a simple one-word password.

    It is practicable to employ a dictionary file that can subsist used to obviate users from choosing common, easy-to-guess words (see “Secure Settings in the KDC Configuration File” on page 70). The dictionary file is only used when a principal has a policy association, so it is highly recommended that at least one policy subsist in effect for All principals in the realm.

    The following is an illustration password policy creation:

    If you specify a kadmin command without specifying any options, kadmin displays the syntax (usage information) for that command. The following code box shows this, followed by an actual add_policy command with options.

    kadmin: add_policy usage: add_policy [options] policy options are: [-maxlife time] [-minlife time] [-minlength length] [-minclasses number] [-history number] kadmin: add_policy -minlife "1 hour" -maxlife "90 days" -minlength 8 -minclasses 2 -history 3 passpolicy kadmin: get_policy passpolicy Policy: passpolicy Maximum password life: 7776000 Minimum password life: 3600 Minimum password length: 8 Minimum number of password character classes: 2 Number of venerable keys kept: 3 Reference count: 0

    This illustration creates a password policy called passpolicy which enforces a maximum password lifetime of 90 days, minimum length of 8 characters, a minimum of 2 different character classes (letters, numbers, punctuation), and a password history of 3.

    To apply this policy to an existing user, modify the following:

    kadmin: modprinc -policy passpolicy lucyPrincipal "lucy@EXAMPLE.COM" modified.

    To modify the default policy that is applied to All user principals in a realm, change the following:

    kadmin: modify_policy -maxlife "90 days" -minlife "1 hour" -minlength 8 -minclasses 2 -history 3 default kadmin: get_policy default Policy: default Maximum password life: 7776000 Minimum password life: 3600 Minimum password length: 8 Minimum number of password character classes: 2 Number of venerable keys kept: 3 Reference count: 1

    The Reference count value indicates how many principals are configured to employ the policy.

    The default policy is automatically applied to All unique principals that are not given the very password as the principal denomination when they are created. Any account with a policy assigned to it is uses the dictionary (defined in the dict_file parameter in /etc/krb5/kdc.conf) to check for common passwords.

    Backing Up a KDC

    Backups of a KDC system should subsist made regularly or according to local policy. However, backups should exclude the /etc/krb5/krb5.keytab file. If the local policy requires that backups subsist done over a network, then these backups should subsist secured either through the employ of encryption or possibly by using a separate network interface that is only used for backup purposes and is not exposed to the very traffic as the non-backup network traffic. Backup storage media should always subsist kept in a secure, fireproof location.

    Monitoring the KDC

    Once the KDC is configured and running, it should subsist continually and vigilantly monitored. The Sun Kerberos v5 software KDC logs information into the /var/krb5/kdc.log file, but this location can subsist modified in the /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file, in the logging section.

    [logging] default = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log kdc = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log

    The KDC log file should Have read and write permissions for the root user only, as follows:

    -rw------ 1 root other 750 25 May 10 17:55 /var/krb5/kdc.log Kerberos Options

    The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file contains information that All Kerberos applications employ to determine what server to talk to and what realm they are participating in. Configuring the krb5.conf file is covered in the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism Software Installation Guide. also mention to the krb5.conf(4) man page for a full description of this file.

    The appdefaults section in the krb5.conf file contains parameters that control the behavior of many Kerberos client tools. Each implement may Have its own section in the appdefaults section of the krb5.conf file.

    Many of the applications that employ the appdefaults section, employ the very options; however, they might subsist set in different ways for each client application.

    Kerberos Client Applications

    The following Kerberos applications can Have their behavior modified through the user of options set in the appdefaults section of the /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file or by using various command-line arguments. These clients and their configuration settings are described below.

    kinit

    The kinit client is used by people who want to obtain a TGT from the KDC. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the following kinit options: renewable, forwardable, no_addresses, max_life, max_renewable_life and proxiable.

    telnet

    The Kerberos telnet client has many command-line arguments that control its behavior. mention to the man page for complete information. However, there are several animated security issues involving the Kerberized telnet client.

    The telnet client uses a session key even after the service ticket which it was derived from has expired. This means that the telnet session remains lively even after the ticket originally used to gain access, is no longer valid. This is insecure in a strict environment, however, the trade off between ease of employ and strict security tends to gaunt in favor of ease-of-use in this situation. It is recommended that the telnet connection subsist re-initialized periodically by disconnecting and reconnecting with a unique ticket. The overall lifetime of a ticket is defined by the KDC (/etc/krb5/kdc.conf), normally defined as eight hours.

    The telnet client allows the user to forward a copy of the credentials (TGT) used to authenticate to the remote system using the -f and -F command-line options. The -f option sends a non-forwardable copy of the local TGT to the remote system so that the user can access Kerberized NFS mounts or other local Kerberized services on that system only. The -F option sends a forwardable TGT to the remote system so that the TGT can subsist used from the remote system to gain further access to other remote Kerberos services beyond that point. The -F option is a superset of -f. If the Forwardable and or forward options are set to unsuitable in the krb5.conf file, these command-line arguments can subsist used to override those settings, thus giving individuals the control over whether and how their credentials are forwarded.

    The -x option should subsist used to eddy on encryption for the data stream. This further protects the session from eavesdroppers. If the telnet server does not support encryption, the session is closed. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the following telnet options: forward, forwardable, encrypt, and autologin. The autologin [true/false] parameter tells the client to try and attempt to log in without prompting the user for a user name. The local user denomination is passed on to the remote system in the telnet negotiations.

    rlogin and rsh

    The Kerberos rlogin and rsh clients behave much the very as their non-Kerberized equivalents. Because of this, it is recommended that if they are required to subsist included in the network files such as /etc/hosts.equiv and .rhosts that the root users directory subsist removed. The Kerberized versions Have the added benefit of using Kerberos protocol for authentication and can also employ Kerberos to protect the privacy of the session using encryption.

    Similar to telnet described previously, the rlogin and rsh clients employ a session key after the service ticket which it was derived from has expired. Thus, for maximum security, rlogin and rsh sessions should subsist re-initialized periodically. rlogin uses the -f, -F, and -x options in the very style as the telnet client. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the following rlogin options: forward, forwardable, and encrypt.

    Command-line options override configuration file settings. For example, if the rsh section in the krb5.conf file indicates encrypt false, but the -x option is used on the command line, an encrypted session is used.

    rcp

    Kerberized rcp can subsist used to transfer files securely between systems using Kerberos authentication and encryption (with the -x command-line option). It does not prompt for passwords, the user must already Have a convincing TGT before using rcp if they wish to employ the encryption feature. However, beware if the -x option is not used and no local credentials are available, the rcp session will revert to the standard, non-Kerberized (and insecure) rcp behavior. It is highly recommended that users always employ the -x option when using the Kerberized rcp client.The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the encrypt [true/false] option.

    login

    The Kerberos login program (login.krb5) is forked from a successful authentication by the Kerberized telnet daemon or the Kerberized rlogin daemon. This Kerberos login daemon is separate from the criterion Solaris OE login daemon and thus, the criterion Solaris OE features such as BSM auditing are not yet supported when using this daemon. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the krb5_get_tickets [true/false] option. If this option is set to true, then the login program will generate a unique Kerberos ticket (TGT) for the user upon proper authentication.

    ftp

    The Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism (SEAM) version of the ftp client uses the GSSAPI (RFC 2743) with Kerberos v5 as the default mechanism. This means that it uses Kerberos authentication and (optionally) encryption through the Kerberos v5 GSS mechanism. The only Kerberos-related command-line options are -f and -m. The -f option is the very as described above for telnet (there is no requisite for a -F option). -m allows the user to specify an alternative GSS mechanism if so desired, the default is to employ the kerberos_v5 mechanism.

    The protection flat used for the data transfer can subsist set using the protect command at the ftp prompt. Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software ftp supports the following protection levels:

  • Clear unprotected, unencrypted transmission

  • Safe data is integrity protected using cryptographic checksums

  • Private data is transmitted with confidentiality and integrity using encryption

  • It is recommended that users set the protection flat to private for All data transfers. The ftp client program does not support or reference the krb5.conf file to find any optional parameters. All ftp client options are passed on the command line. discern the man page for the Kerberized ftp client, ftp(1).

    In summary, adding Kerberos to a network can enlarge the overall security available to the users and administrators of that network. Remote sessions can subsist securely authenticated and encrypted, and shared disks can subsist secured and encrypted across the network. In addition, Kerberos allows the database of user and service principals to subsist managed securely from any machine which supports the SEAM software Kerberos protocol. SEAM is interoperable with other RFC 1510 compliant Kerberos implementations such as MIT Krb5 and some MS Windows 2000 lively Directory services. Adopting the practices recommended in this section further secure the SEAM software infrastructure to inspirit ensure a safer network environment.

    Implementing the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 Software and the GSSAPI Mechanism

    This section provides a high-level overview, followed by the in-depth procedures that portray the setup necessary to implement the GSSAPI mechanism and the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software. This implementation assumes a realm of EXAMPLE.COM for this purpose. The following list gives an initial high-level overview of the steps required, with the next section providing the detailed information.

  • Setup DNS on the client machine. This is an famous step because Kerberos requires DNS.

  • Install and configure the Sun ONE Directory Server version 5.2 software.

  • Check that the directory server and client both Have the SASL plug-ins installed.

  • Install and configure Kerberos v5.

  • Edit the /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file.

  • Edit the /etc/krb5/kdc.conf file.

  • Edit the /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl file.

  • Move the kerberos_v5 line so it is the first line in the /etc/gss/mech file.

  • Create unique principals using kadmin.local, which is an interactive commandline interface to the Kerberos v5 administration system.

  • Modify the rights for /etc/krb5/krb5.keytab. This access is necessary for the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software.

  • Run /usr/sbin/kinit.

  • Check that you Have a ticket with /usr/bin/klist.

  • Perform an ldapsearch, using the ldapsearch command-line implement from the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software to test and verify.

  • The sections that result fill in the details.

    Configuring a DNS Client

    To subsist a DNS client, a machine must shun the resolver. The resolver is neither a daemon nor a single program. It is a set of dynamic library routines used by applications that requisite to know machine names. The resolver’s function is to resolve users’ queries. To finish that, it queries a denomination server, which then returns either the requested information or a referral to another server. Once the resolver is configured, a machine can request DNS service from a denomination server.

    The following illustration shows you how to configure the resolv.conf(4) file in the server kdc1 in the example.com domain.

    ; ; /etc/resolv.conf file for dnsmaster ; domain example.com nameserver 192.168.0.0 nameserver 192.168.0.1

    The first line of the /etc/resolv.conf file lists the domain denomination in the form:

    domain domainname

    No spaces or tabs are permitted at the discontinuance of the domain name. bear confident that you press revert immediately after the final character of the domain name.

    The second line identifies the server itself in the form:

    nameserver IP_address

    Succeeding lines list the IP addresses of one or two slave or cache-only denomination servers that the resolver should consult to resolve queries. denomination server entries Have the form:

    nameserver IP_address

    IP_address is the IP address of a slave or cache-only DNS denomination server. The resolver queries these denomination servers in the order they are listed until it obtains the information it needs.

    For more detailed information of what the resolv.conf file does, mention to the resolv.conf(4) man page.

    To Configure Kerberos v5 (Master KDC)

    In the this procedure, the following configuration parameters are used:

  • Realm denomination = EXAMPLE.COM

  • DNS domain denomination = example.com

  • Master KDC = kdc1.example.com

  • admin principal = lucy/admin

  • Online inspirit URL = http://example:8888/ab2/coll.384.1/SEAM/@AB2PageView/6956

  • This procedure requires that DNS is running.

    Before you start this configuration process, bear a backup of the /etc/krb5 files.

  • Become superuser on the master KDC. (kdc1, in this example)

  • Edit the Kerberos configuration file (krb5.conf).

    You requisite to change the realm names and the names of the servers. discern the krb5.conf(4) man page for a full description of this file.

    kdc1 # more /etc/krb5/krb5.conf [libdefaults] default_realm = EXAMPLE.COM [realms] EXAMPLE.COM = { kdc = kdc1.example.com admin server = kdc1.example.com } [domain_realm] .example.com = EXAMPLE.COM [logging] default = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log kdc = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log [appdefaults] gkadmin = { help_url = http://example:8888/ab2/coll.384.1/SEAM/@AB2PageView/6956 }

    In this example, the lines for domain_realm, kdc, admin_server, and All domain_realm entries were changed. In addition, the line with ___slave_kdcs___ in the [realms] section was deleted and the line that defines the help_url was edited.

  • Edit the KDC configuration file (kdc.conf).

    You must change the realm name. discern the kdc.conf( 4) man page for a full description of this file.

    kdc1 # more /etc/krb5/kdc.conf [kdcdefaults] kdc_ports = 88,750 [realms] EXAMPLE.COM= { profile = /etc/krb5/krb5.conf database_name = /var/krb5/principal admin_keytab = /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab acl_file = /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl kadmind_port = 749 max_life = 8h 0m 0s max_renewable_life = 7d 0h 0m 0s requisite touching ---------> default_principal_flags = +preauth }

    In this example, only the realm denomination definition in the [realms] section is changed.

  • Create the KDC database by using the kdb5_util command.

    The kdb5_util command, which is located in /usr/sbin, creates the KDC database. When used with the -s option, this command creates a stash file that is used to authenticate the KDC to itself before the kadmind and krb5kdc daemons are started.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kdb5_util create -r EXAMPLE.COM -s Initializing database '/var/krb5/principal' for realm 'EXAMPLE.COM' master key denomination 'K/M@EXAMPLE.COM' You will subsist prompted for the database Master Password. It is famous that you NOT FORGET this password. Enter KDC database master key: key Re-enter KDC database master key to verify: key

    The -r option followed by the realm denomination is not required if the realm denomination is equivalent to the domain denomination in the server’s denomination space.

  • Edit the Kerberos access control list file (kadm5.acl).

    Once populated, the /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl file contains All principal names that are allowed to administer the KDC. The first entry that is added might gape similar to the following:

    lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM *

    This entry gives the lucy/admin principal in the EXAMPLE.COM realm the ability to modify principals or policies in the KDC. The default installation includes an asterisk (*) to match All admin principals. This default could subsist a security risk, so it is more secure to comprise a list of All of the admin principals. discern the kadm5.acl(4) man page for more information.

  • Edit the /etc/gss/mech file.

    The /etc/gss/mech file contains the GSSAPI based security mechanism names, its demur identifier (OID), and a shared library that implements the services for that mechanism under the GSSAPI. Change the following from:

    # Mechanism denomination demur Identifier Shared Library Kernel Module # diffie_hellman_640_0 1.3.6.4.1.42.2.26.2.4 dh640-0.so.1 diffie_hellman_1024_0 1.3.6.4.1.42.2.26.2.5 dh1024-0.so.1 kerberos_v5 1.2.840.113554.1.2.2 gl/mech_krb5.so gl_kmech_krb5

    To the following:

    # Mechanism denomination demur Identifier Shared Library Kernel Module # kerberos_v5 1.2.840.113554.1.2.2 gl/mech_krb5.so gl_kmech_krb5 diffie_hellman_640_0 1.3.6.4.1.42.2.26.2.4 dh640-0.so.1 diffie_hellman_1024_0 1.3.6.4.1.42.2.26.2.5 dh1024-0.so.1
  • Run the kadmin.local command to create principals.

    You can add as many admin principals as you need. But you must add at least one admin principal to complete the KDC configuration process. In the following example, lucy/admin is added as the principal.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kadmin.local kadmin.local: addprinc lucy/admin Enter password for principal "lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM": Re-enter password for principal "lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM": Principal "lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM" created. kadmin.local:
  • Create a keytab file for the kadmind service.

    The following command sequence creates a special keytab file with principal entries for lucy and tom. These principals are needed for the kadmind service. In addition, you can optionally add NFS service principals, host principals, LDAP principals, and so on.

    When the principal instance is a host name, the fully qualified domain denomination (FQDN) must subsist entered in lowercase letters, regardless of the case of the domain denomination in the /etc/resolv.conf file.

    kadmin.local: ktadd -k /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab kadmin/kdc1.example.com Entry for principal kadmin/kdc1.example.com with kvno 3, encryption kind DES-CBC-CRC added to keytab WRFILE:/etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab. kadmin.local: ktadd -k /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab changepw/kdc1.example.com Entry for principal changepw/kdc1.example.com with kvno 3, encryption kind DES-CBC-CRC added to keytab WRFILE:/etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab. kadmin.local:

    Once you Have added All of the required principals, you can exit from kadmin.local as follows:

    kadmin.local: quit
  • Start the Kerberos daemons as shown:

    kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc start kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc.master start

    Note

    You stop the Kerberos daemons by running the following commands:

    kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc stop kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc.master stop
  • Add principals by using the SEAM Administration Tool.

    To finish this, you must log on with one of the admin principal names that you created earlier in this procedure. However, the following command-line illustration is shown for simplicity.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kadmin -p lucy/admin Enter password: kws_admin_password kadmin:
  • Create the master KDC host principal which is used by Kerberized applications such as klist and kprop.

    kadmin: addprinc -randkey host/kdc1.example.com Principal "host/kdc1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM" created. kadmin:
  • (Optional) Create the master KDC root principal which is used for authenticated NFS mounting.

    kadmin: addprinc root/kdc1.example.com Enter password for principal root/kdc1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM: password Re-enter password for principal root/kdc1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM: password Principal "root/kdc1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM" created. kadmin:
  • Add the master KDC’s host principal to the master KDC’s keytab file which allows this principal to subsist used automatically.

    kadmin: ktadd host/kdc1.example.com kadmin: Entry for principal host/kdc1.example.com with ->kvno 3, encryption kind DES-CBC-CRC added to keytab ->WRFILE:/etc/krb5/krb5.keytab kadmin:

    Once you Have added All of the required principals, you can exit from kadmin as follows:

    kadmin: quit
  • Run the kinit command to obtain and cache an initial ticket-granting ticket (credential) for the principal.

    This ticket is used for authentication by the Kerberos v5 system. kinit only needs to subsist shun by the client at this time. If the Sun ONE directory server were a Kerberos client also, this step would requisite to subsist done for the server. However, you may want to employ this to verify that Kerberos is up and running.

    kdclient # /usr/bin/kinit root/kdclient.example.com Password for root/kdclient.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM: passwd
  • Check and verify that you Have a ticket with the klist command.

    The klist command reports if there is a keytab file and displays the principals. If the results present that there is no keytab file or that there is no NFS service principal, you requisite to verify the completion of All of the previous steps.

    # klist -k Keytab name: FILE:/etc/krb5/krb5.keytab KVNO Principal ---- ------------------------------------------------------------------ 3 nfs/host.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM

    The illustration given here assumes a single domain. The KDC may reside on the very machine as the Sun ONE directory server for testing purposes, but there are security considerations to retract into account on where the KDCs reside.

  • With regards to the configuration of Kerberos v5 in conjunction with the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software, you are finished with the Kerberos v5 part. It’s now time to gape at what is required to subsist configured on the Sun ONE directory server side.

    Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 GSSAPI Configuration

    As previously discussed, the Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSSAPI), is criterion interface that enables you to employ a security mechanism such as Kerberos v5 to authenticate clients. The server uses the GSSAPI to actually validate the identity of a particular user. Once this user is validated, it’s up to the SASL mechanism to apply the GSSAPI mapping rules to obtain a DN that is the bind DN for All operations during the connection.

    The first item discussed is the unique identity mapping functionality.

    The identity mapping service is required to map the credentials of another protocol, such as SASL DIGEST-MD5 and GSSAPI to a DN in the directory server. As you will discern in the following example, the identity mapping feature uses the entries in the cn=identity mapping, cn=config configuration branch, whereby each protocol is defined and whereby each protocol must fulfill the identity mapping. For more information on the identity mapping feature, mention to the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 Documents.

    To fulfill the GSSAPI Configuration for the Sun ONE Directory Server Software
  • Check and verify, by retrieving the rootDSE entry, that the GSSAPI is returned as one of the supported SASL Mechanisms.

    Example of using ldapsearch to retrieve the rootDSE and score the supported SASL mechanisms:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -b "" -s groundwork "(objectclass=*)" supportedSASLMechanisms supportedSASLMechanisms=EXTERNAL supportedSASLMechanisms=GSSAPI supportedSASLMechanisms=DIGEST-MD5
  • Verify that the GSSAPI mechanism is enabled.

    By default, the GSSAPI mechanism is enabled.

    Example of using ldapsearch to verify that the GSSAPI SASL mechanism is enabled:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -D"cn=Directory Manager" -w password -b "cn=SASL, cn=security,cn= config" "(objectclass=*)" # # Should return # cn=SASL, cn=security, cn=config objectClass=top objectClass=nsContainer objectClass=dsSaslConfig cn=SASL dsSaslPluginsPath=/var/Sun/mps/lib/sasl dsSaslPluginsEnable=DIGEST-MD5 dsSaslPluginsEnable=GSSAPI
  • Create and add the GSSAPI identity-mapping.ldif.

    Add the LDIF shown below to the Sun ONE Directory Server so that it contains the amend suffix for your directory server.

    You requisite to finish this because by default, no GSSAPI mappings are defined in the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software.

    Example of a GSSAPI identity mapping LDIF file:

    # dn: cn=GSSAPI,cn=identity mapping,cn=config objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: top cn: GSSAPI dn: cn=default,cn=GSSAPI,cn=identity mapping,cn=config objectclass: dsIdentityMapping objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: top cn: default dsMappedDN: uid=${Principal},ou=people,dc=example,dc=com dn: cn=same_realm,cn=GSSAPI,cn=identity mapping,cn=config objectclass: dsIdentityMapping objectclass: dsPatternMatching objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: top cn: same_realm dsMatching-pattern: ${Principal} dsMatching-regexp: (.*)@example.com dsMappedDN: uid=$1,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com

    It is famous to bear employ of the ${Principal} variable, because it is the only input you Have from SASL in the case of GSSAPI. Either you requisite to build a dn using the ${Principal} variable or you requisite to fulfill pattern matching to discern if you can apply a particular mapping. A principal corresponds to the identity of a user in Kerberos.

    You can find an illustration GSSAPI LDIF mappings files in ServerRoot/slapdserver/ldif/identityMapping_Examples.ldif.

    The following is an illustration using ldapmodify to finish this:

    $./ldapmodify -a -c -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -D "cn=Directory Manager" -w password -f identity-mapping.ldif -e /var/tmp/ldif.rejects 2> /var/tmp/ldapmodify.log
  • Perform a test using ldapsearch.

    To fulfill this test, kind the following ldapsearch command as shown below, and reply the prompt with the kinit value you previously defined.

    Example of using ldapsearch to test the GSSAPI mechanism:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -o mech=GSSAPI -o authzid="root/hostname.domainname@EXAMPLE.COM" -b "" -s groundwork "(objectclass=*)"

    The output that is returned should subsist the very as without the -o option.

    If you finish not employ the -h hostname option, the GSS code ends up looking for a localhost.domainname Kerberos ticket, and an mistake occurs.



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