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000-633 expostulate Oriented Analysis and Design - allotment 1

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000-633 exam Dumps Source : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - allotment 1

Test Code : 000-633
Test appellation : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - allotment 1
Vendor appellation : IBM
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IBM expostulate Oriented Analysis and

Object-Oriented analysis and Design | true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

This chapter is from the publication 

evaluation emphasizes an investigation of the difficulty and necessities, in position of an answer. for instance, if a unique on-line trading device is preferred, how will or not it's used? What are its features?

"evaluation" is a great term, most suitable qualified, as in necessities analysis (an investigation of the requirements) or object-oriented evaluation (an investigation of the domain objects).

Design emphasizes a conceptual solution (in utility and hardware) that fulfills the requirements, in position of its implementation. as an example, an outline of a database schema and software objects. Design ideas frequently exclude low-stage or "obtrusive" particulars—glaring to the intended buyers. sooner or later, designs will also be implemented, and the implementation (akin to code) expresses the actual and comprehensive realized design.

As with analysis, the term is most useful certified, as in object-oriented design or database design.

advantageous evaluation and design were summarized in the phrase achieve the arrogate thing (evaluation), and achieve the element prerogative (design).

An method to Assessing and evaluating Object-Oriented evaluation strategies | true Questions and Pass4sure dumps


An method to Assessing and comparing Object-Oriented evaluation strategies

Many object-oriented evaluation (OOA) strategies are now accessible for employ in device evaluation. The methods gain many mediocre essential features. for instance, they build analysis models for techniques and provide an analysis system for pile these models. despite the fact, the details of the facets may also be described in a different route on account of the diverse goals of analyzing programs with expostulate orientation. The details ought to be assessed with a purpose to bear in intellect the facets accurately in the system, or the points exigency to be compared precisely in diverse strategies. this text gifts a framework as a device for assessing the particulars of the timehonored fundamental aspects in particular person OOA methods, and explores the dependency of the points.

Many object-oriented evaluation (OOA) methods are actually purchasable for analyzing and modeling a device with objects. My colleagues and that i gain used some of them in case reports 1, 2 and also analyzed a pair of OOA strategies in detail to locate how they inspirit OOA. Their analysis create that each one of those OOA strategies gain seven an identical yardstick features: evaluation models, modeling ideas, primary principles, analysis strategies, evaluation procedures, requirement sources, and evaluation deliverables. These aspects exist with based relationships; that's, a feature may additionally depend on different aspects (see Fig. 1). outright of those fundamental facets pilot the ordinary end of OOA strategies: to construct the article evaluation model for a gadget through an evaluation manner.

however, the methods might also define these essential facets with discrete particulars, as they are looking to build their own evaluation models for a system. as an example, the article Modeling technique (OMT) three defines the analysis for a gadget model with three wee models (object, dynamic, and useful models). The Coad/Yourdon formulation 4 and the Wirfs-Brock components 5 outline just one mannequin for a equipment. yet another instance is that OMT three defines a category with attributes while the Wirfs-Brock formula four defines a class without attributes. hence, to occupy note the region of expertise of an OOA system and its precise ameliorations from other OOA methods, they must find out how the method defines particulars of the facets and also how the facets depend on each and every other. in addition, they may silent find out to what extent the similarities and differences between OOA methods are true, in preference to merely obvious, once they compare the methods in response to their elements.

Some comparative experiences of OO strategies were executed (e.g., Arnold et al., 6 de Champeaux and Faure, 7 Fowler, 8 and Monarchi and Puhr 9 ) during the past primarily based upon aspects corresponding to these outlined. youngsters, the studios or researchers reserve microscopic emphasis on examining the details of the features and the relationships between the elements in particular person OOA strategies. they gain created a framework that contains a group of commonplace basic aspects of OOA strategies and assesses the features with a based structure, in order that an OOA formulation will also be realized, analyzed, and assessed in the course of the particulars of its features.

THE FRAMEWORKThe framework used for assessing the general simple points and their dependencies in individual OOA strategies is proven in determine 2. in the diagram, each rectangular container represents a function; each and every solid line represents a elegant relationship between two elements; and each arrow represents a probable requirement aid of analysis.

The typical elementary features covered by the framework are specified as follows:

  • The basic precept: simple legal guidelines of analysis.
  • The evaluation model: a view and representation of a equipment. different types of models could be built through a route to symbolize discrete views and elements of the device one after the other. A model is defined at the side of a set of modeling ideas. each modeling notion is an summary theory at the back of the company of evaluation; that's, it abstracts and specifies a particular piece of the gadget.
  • The Notation: a set of diagrammatic or textual symbols used to symbolize a model.
  • the strategy of OOA: a technique for using the process of analysis.
  • The source of Requirement: the particulars of an analyzed device.
  • The manner of OOA: a method of constructing the model step by step. each step may silent provide guidelines and criteria for pile the redress mannequin as it should be.
  • The Deliverable of analysis: the product generated through evaluation.
  • as an instance, table 1 indicates the primary elements of OMT three recognized the employ of the framework.

    The framework additionally hyperlinks the facets by route of their based relationships (represented through solid lines). as an instance, the notation is topic upon the modeling ideas to be able to characterize them. The system of OOA is topic upon the mannequin, as the procedure has to construct the model and the deliverable includes the model. The technique of OOA depends on the method of OOA since it is pushed by means of a tactic of OOA , as an example, a data-pushed tactic creates the system to model objects and their attributes first, and a method-pushed tactic drives the process to mannequin objects and their operations first. Such elegant relationships between the facets can parade how the details of a characteristic may affect the particulars of an additional feature.

    THE procedure OF ASSESSING OOA methods the usage of THE FRAMEWORKWe illustrate a process of the usage of the framework to investigate an OOA method in determine 3. each container in the diagram shows a step of the method. The sturdy arrows characterize the order of the steps. The dashed arrows symbolize the feature flows between the steps and the framework. In each and every step, a group of guidance is provided in accordance with the framework, which explores and assesses the particulars—corresponding to definitions—of the essential features of the OOA formulation. The answers are create in line with the tasks throughout the evaluation.

    In prerogative here section, they clarify particulars of each and every step in the technique. OOA methods numbered from 1–10 (see desk 2) are assessed as examples of the usage of the framework throughout the process.

    determine simple concepts.

  • Which basic concepts does the OOA formulation employ for OOA? How are they described?

    Many OOA methods books interpolate and clarify the primary principles employed by using the methods. You must be privy to the definition or meaning of each principle in every OOA components, as a precept could be termed otherwise or a time term may appellation just a few ideas with different meanings in diverse OOA methods. as an instance, table three lists the simple principles employed by the ten OOA methods.

    The terms exhibit that some principles corresponding to abstraction are employed by a pair of formula and others corresponding to region are simplest employed via one. despite the fact, the meanings of the ideas command which time term represents the equal thing and which does not. as an example:

  • The abstraction principle refers to several types of abstraction within the strategies (see Step 2).
  • The encapsulation principle also skill counsel hiding in the methods apart from with the Wirfs-Brock formulation and HOOD: Encapsulation capability the separation of exterior facets of an expostulate from its inner ones, and simplest exterior features may also be seen through other objects. both methods outline "encapsulation" and "advice hiding" otherwise: Encapsulation skill the combination of the statistics and the operations that gain an effect on statistics in objects, and counsel hiding skill to conceal the interior details of an expostulate from different objects.
  • The inheritance precept has the equal which means within the nine strategies that employ it. (HOOD doesn't employ this principle.)
  • the size precept within the Coad/Yourdon formulation is akin to the domain precept in Syntropy: Scale is a precept that courses a reader through a huge model by using partitioning it into smaller components. region is a means of dividing a paraphernalia description, notwithstanding now not of gadget execution, into smaller parts, i.e., subsystem descriptions.
  • Why does the formula choose to employ such principles?

    distinctive OOA strategies may additionally determine to compose employ of diverse simple concepts for distinctive factors. as an instance, the Wirfs-Brock formula analyzes the useful connections as opposed to the facts relationships between objects. OMT focuses on the expostulate constitution but not on the messages flowing between objects. therefore, the principle "emphasis on expostulate constitution" is used by OMT and the principle "verbal exchange with messages" is used with the aid of the Wirfs-Brock formulation. Answering this query helps occupy into account the goals of the formulation more exactly and deeply.

  • Object-Oriented evaluation And Design — Introduction (part 1) | true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    The theory Of Object-Orientation

    Object-orientation is what’s called a programming paradigm. It’s no longer a language itself but a set of concepts that is supported by using many languages.

    if you aren’t yardstick with the ideas of object-orientation, you may occupy a glance at the myth of Object-Oriented Programming.

    If every microscopic thing they achieve in these languages is object-oriented, it capacity, we're oriented or concentrated round objects.

    Now in an object-oriented language, this one great application will instead be split up apart into self contained objects, well-nigh dote having a number of mini-courses, each expostulate representing a special a allotment of the software.

    and every expostulate consists of its personal data and its own logic, and they communicate between themselves.

    These objects aren’t random. They signify the manner you talk and believe concerning the difficulty you try to lucid up on your prerogative existence.

    They characterize things dote personnel, images, bank debts, spaceships, asteroids, video section, audio data, or something exists to your software.

    Object-Oriented evaluation And Design (OOAD)

    It’s a structured method for inspecting, designing a gadget with the aid of making employ of the article-oriented ideas, and advance a collection of graphical gadget models prerogative through the evolution lifestyles cycle of the application.

    OOAD within the SDLC

    The software life cycle is customarily divided up into levels going from summary descriptions of the problem to designs then to code and testing and finally to deployment.

    The earliest tiers of this method are evaluation (requirements) and design.

    The stout contrast between analysis and design is often described as “what Vs how”.

    In evaluation builders labor with clients and domain experts to outline what the system is meant to do. Implementation particulars are reputed to be mostly or absolutely ignored at this phase.

    The end of the analysis side is to create a mannequin of the system regardless of constraints reminiscent of acceptable technology. here's customarily done by route of employ situations and summary definition of probably the most crucial objects using conceptual model.

    The design side refines the evaluation model and applies the vital expertise and different implementation constrains.

    It specializes in describing the objects, their attributes, conduct, and interactions. The design mannequin may silent gain outright of the details required in order that programmers can reserve in obligate the design in code.

    They’re highest trait conducted in an iterative and incremental utility methodologies. So, the actions of OOAD and the developed fashions aren’t achieved as soon as, they are able to revisit and refine these steps invariably.

    Object-Oriented evaluation

    within the object-oriented analysis, we …

  • Elicit requirements: outline what does the application deserve to do, and what’s the issue the software making an attempt to resolve.
  • Specify requirements: portray the requirements, constantly, the usage of employ circumstances (and situations) or user reviews.
  • Conceptual model: identify the essential objects, refine them, and define their relationships and behavior and draw them in an light diagram.
  • We’re no longer going to cover the primary two activities, simply the eventual one. These are already defined in element in requirements Engineering.

    Object-Oriented Design

    The analysis side identifies the objects, their relationship, and habits the usage of the conceptual mannequin (an abstract definition for the objects).

    whereas in design phase, they portray these objects (by means of developing type diagram from conceptual diagram — continually mapping conceptual mannequin to classification diagram), their attributes, habits, and interactions.

    besides applying the utility design concepts and patterns which could be lined in later tutorials.

    The enter for object-oriented design is supplied by using the output of object-oriented analysis. but, evaluation and design can also occur in parallel, and the outcomes of 1 pastime will also be used by route of the other.

    in the object-oriented design, we …

  • Describe the courses and their relationships the employ of type diagram.
  • Describe the interplay between the objects using sequence diagram.
  • follow utility design concepts and design patterns.
  • a class diagram gives a visual representation of the courses you want. And here is where you net to be in fact particular about object-oriented ideas dote inheritance and polymorphism.

    Describing the interactions between these objects allows you to better bear in intellect the tasks of the diverse objects, the behaviors they deserve to have.

    — other diagrams

    there are many other diagrams they will employ to model the gadget from distinctive perspectives; interactions between objects, constitution of the device, or the conduct of the device and the route it responds to routine.

    It’s at outright times about determining the redress diagram for the redress want. you should definitely understand which diagrams may be constructive when brooding about or discussing a circumstance that isn’t clear.

    device modeling and the discrete fashions they are able to employ can be discussed subsequent.

    device Modeling

    gadget modeling is the manner of establishing fashions of the equipment, with each and every mannequin representing a special views of that device.

    probably the most critical element a few paraphernalia model is that it leaves out element; It’s an summary illustration of the gadget.

    The models are usually in response to graphical notation, which is almost always based on the notations within the Unified Modeling Language (UML). other fashions of the system dote mathematical mannequin; a circumstantial paraphernalia description.

    fashions are used outright the route through the analysis method to support to elicit the necessities, during the design technique to portray the paraphernalia to engineers, and after implementation to document the gadget constitution and operation.

    diverse views

    We can also develop a model to delineate the system from discrete perspectives.

  • external, where you model the context or the environment of the device.
  • interplay, where you model the interplay between add-ons of a device, or between a device and different methods.
  • Structural, where you model the corporation of the device, or the constitution of the statistics being processed via the equipment.
  • Behavioral, the position you mannequin the dynamic behavior of the device and the route it respond to movements.
  • Unified Modeling Language (UML)

    The unified modeling language revolve into the regular modeling language for object-oriented modeling. It has many diagrams, youngsters, the most diagrams which are conventional are:

  • Use case diagram: It indicates the interaction between a paraphernalia and it’s environment (users or programs) within a selected circumstance.
  • category diagram: It suggests the discrete objects, their relationship, their behaviors, and attributes.
  • Sequence diagram: It indicates the interactions between the diverse objects in the equipment, and between actors and the objects in a gadget.
  • State computer diagram: It indicates how the paraphernalia reply to external and internal routine.
  • exercise diagram: It indicates the flux of the statistics between the procedures in the system.
  • which you could achieve diagramming labor on paper or on a whiteboard, at the least in the preparatory levels of a assignment. but there are some diagramming tools with a view to assist you to draw these UML diagrams.

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    Object Oriented Analysis and Design - allotment 1

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    Object-Oriented Analysis and Design (Part 1) | true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Who does this thing? Does it gain any benefit? If I achieve this, will my boss contemplate that I am wasting my time or making excuses to not work? gain these thoughts ever near to your intellect when you were desperate to properly design your next software?

    It is also practicable that you gain tried designing some piece of software before, but you create that it was too just time-consuming and it had no benefits. But throughout your career, you might gain had these recurring thoughts that you should learn more about design patterns, mastering MVC, and designing something reusable, modular, and light to read.

    In this multi-part article series, I will cover the basics about how you can properly design your next software even if you gain failed eventual time.

    What Will You Learn?
  • Why your eventual design attempt failed
  • How to wield your manager/boss when you wanted to design
  • How to succeed in designing
  • The software evolution process
  • What is object-oriented analysis?
  • What is object-oriented design?
  • What are design patterns?
  • And anything in between that is confusing you
  • What Will You Not Learn?
  • You will not learn the syntax of Java, C#, or C++
  • You will not learn the contrast between functions and variables
  • You will not be overwhelmed with a list of design patterns
  • You will not learn object-oriented programming here
  • "What?" you might instruct after reading the eventual line. "No expostulate oriented programming? Then why am I wasting my time here?" This post is about object-oriented design, but not programming. They outright know about object-oriented programming, i.e., how to write a class in C#.

    As one quote says, “Knowing how to hold a hammer does not compose you an architect.” True? Similarly, learning Java programming will not compose you a apt software engineer (or software programmer or developer or software architect).


    During the initial years of my undergraduate programs, I thought designing was the very as writing an algorithm because I did not study object-oriented programming. Later, when I learned about object-oriented programming, I thought someone could conquer the world if they just learned everything that is there in 1,000 pages of a Deitel and Deitel book.

    object oriented programming book

    But that was not the case. I could not write a program without tearing my hair apart. I also noticed that if I opened my program again after six months, it looked dote such a mystery that even Sherlock Holmes could not decipher it.

    Then, in my fourth semester, I learned about object-oriented analysis and design as a subject. But unfortunately, the focus was on UML modeling. I thought that UML was a detached thing — you just generate some diagrams and hand them over to developers and they will near up with code using your designs (which will compose you proud).

    But there was even an option in the UML modeling appliance that their class was using at that time to automatically generate the code from your UML class diagrams. What a beauty, I thought. I could design using UML models and then generate the code, compile it, ship it to a customer, and net flush dote Bill Gates. Awesome.


    Afterward, reality set in. I was never able to generate designs that were modular, light to extend, and light to understand (The code generated from these tools was never compiled, since it only generated stubs). Then, a term of chaos began.

    Later in my undergraduate study, I learned subjects related to software engineering, software architecture, software process models and software project management. But I was unable to felicitous outright things together until very late.

    Still, I survey people struggling with these concepts, unable to felicitous things together. They are overwhelmed with the unstructured data available to them. One key to comprehending outright this information is to involve yourself in a project. The only output for that project should be a software that your users can use.

    In this post, I will share some basic object-oriented analysis and design principles, practices, and some of my experiences that you can employ in your next project.

    Introduction to Software evolution Process Models

    We outright employ some process or steps to develop software. The simplest process model that I employ is just writing 6 lines on the back of a piece of paper and muster them feature list. Then, I open Visual Studio and start writing code. That's it. It's a process model I used during my college years.

    I wrote my first commercial software (which had 1 user, who abandoned it later) using Visual Basic 6.0 in my second year of college using this process model.

    There are many software evolution process models that I gain studied and applied throughout many projects.

    One process model (which is scolded by many authorities) is waterfall, which uses the process of gathering requirements, analysis, design, implementation, and testing.

    The problem with the waterfall process model is that you achieve outright the things in the very exact sequence as written above. First, outright the requirements are collected from the customers. A team analyzes requirements, then documents and prepares specifications for the design team. The design team then develops the design using the specification and hands over the design to the implementation team. The implementation team writes code with respect to the design. Finally, test team tests the software against the specifications.

    software process model

    Everything is done sequentially, and a lot of time is spent (months and even years) before the final product is shipped to the customer. Statistics command us that when a product is shipped to the customer using waterfall process models, a huge number of customers rejected it = because it did not meet their requirements.

    You may gain heard the phrase, “The customer is always right.” This truly applies to software development. If the customer does not dote the final product, then outright the trouble (months and years) is wasted.

    To cater to this problem, there is another philosophy — iterative and evolutionary development. Based on this philosophy, there are many software evolution process models. Some examples are Scrum, extreme programming(XP), and Rational Unified Process. They are the Agile evolution processes.

    The concept of iterative evolution is simple. Software evolution is organized into a sequence of wee projects called iterations. Each iteration has its analysis, design, implementation, and testing. At the conclude of each iteration, the customer input is taken. If a customer did not agree, then the loss is minimal (usually weeks) as compared to waterfall process model.

    Now you understand the basic contrast between iterative and sequential process models. Many organizations now employ iterative evolution process models, as the notion is to minimize blow (months vs. weeks).

    Why I exigency to Understand Process Models

    For a long time, I believed that designing software was something dote that: I design everything in the beginning and then, using this design, start coding. Then, once it compiles, I handed over the running software to the conclude user.

    It turns out that this is not the best approach. You will gain to change your design strategy, which evolves over time. Therefore, the incremental and evolutionary process model is considerable to understand. Flawless design is a myth. After subsequent iterations, one may realize that his or her initial design sucks.

    Another point is that one should not design for outright the requirements at the beginning. compose a circumstantial design map for the iteration you're currently working on.

    Therefore, the key takeaway is that you should employ an iterative evolution process where the complete design is not done at the start of the project. Similarly, whatever you design will not consummate and will be changed or evolved during the lifecycle of the project.

    This ends the first article of this four-part series. In this article, I discussed the instant of process models in object-oriented design. I also mentioned the common misconception attached to UML.

    In allotment 2, you will learn the following

  • Difference between process and methodology

  • 2 most considerable object-oriented design principles that everyone should know

  • 1 edge of OOP that every developer would adore to gain in his or her code

  • To learn more about expostulate oriented programming visit here.

    Object-oriented design patterns in the kernel, allotment 1 | true questions and Pass4sure dumps

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    June 1, 2011

    This article was contributed by Neil Brown

    Despite the fact that the Linux Kernel is mostly written in C, it makes broad employ of some techniques from the domain of object-oriented programming. Developers wanting to employ these object-oriented techniques receive microscopic support or guidance from the language and so are left to fend for themselves. As is often the case, this is a double-edged sword. The developer has enough flexibility to achieve really detached things, and equally the flexibility to achieve really stupid things, and it isn't always lucid at first glance which is which, or more accurately: where on the spectrum a particular approach sits.

    Instead of looking to the language to provide guidance, a software engineer must glance to established practice to find out what works well and what is best avoided. Interpreting established practice is not always as light as one might dote and the effort, once made, is worth preserving. To preserve that trouble on your author's part, this article brings another installment in an occasional sequence on Linux Kernel Design Patterns and attempts to set out - with examples - the design patterns in the Linux Kernel which effect an object-oriented style of programming.

    Rather than providing a brief introduction to the object-oriented style, tempting though that is, they will assume the reader has a basic learning of objects, classes, methods, inheritance, and similar terms. For those as yet unfamiliar with these, there are plenty of resources to be create elsewhere on the web.

    Over two weeks they will glance for patterns in just two areas: method dispatch and data inheritance. Despite their evident simplicity they lead to some flush veins for investigation. This first article will focus on method dispatch.

    Method Dispatch

    The great variety of styles of inheritance and rules for its usage in languages today seems to intimate that there is no uniform understanding of what "object-oriented" really means. The term is a bit dote "love": everyone thinks they know what it means but when you net down to details people can find they gain very different ideas. While what it means to be "oriented" might not be clear, what they carry weight by an "object" does appear to be uniformly agreed upon. It is simply an abstraction comprising both status and behavior. An expostulate is dote a record (Pascal) or struct (C), except that some of the names of members refer to functions which act on the other fields in the object. These role members are sometimes referred to a "methods".

    The most obvious route to implement objects in C is to declare a "struct" where some fields are pointers to functions which occupy a pointer to the struct itself as their first argument. The calling convention for method "foo" in expostulate "bar" would simply be: bar->foo(bar, ...args); While this pattern is used in the Linux kernel it is not the predominant pattern so they will leave discussion of it until a microscopic later.

    As methods (unlike state) are not normally changed on a per-object basis, a more common and only slightly less obvious approach is to collect outright the methods for a particular class of objects into a part structure, sometimes known as a "virtual role table" or vtable. The expostulate then has a sole pointer to this table rather than a part pointer for each method, and consequently uses less memory.

    This then leads to their first pattern - a sheer vtable being a structure which contains only role pointers where the first argument of each is a pointer to some other structure (the expostulate type) which itself contains a pointer to this vtable. Some simple examples of this in the Linux kernel are the file_lock_operations structure which contains two role pointers each of which occupy a pointer to a struct file_lock, and the seq_operations vtable which contains four role pointers which each operate on a struct seq_file. These two examples parade an obvious naming pattern - the structure holding a vtable is named for the structure holding the expostulate (possibly abbreviated) followed by "_operations". While this pattern is common it is by no means universal. Around the time of 2.6.39 there are approximately 30 "*_operations" structures along with well over 100 "*_ops" structures, most if not outright of which are vtables of some sort. There are also several structs such as struct mdk_personality which are essentially vtables but achieve not gain particularly helpful names.

    Among these nearly 200 vtable structures there is plenty of variability and so plenty of scope to glance for enthralling patterns. In particular they can glance for common variations from the "pure vtable" pattern described above and determine how these variations contribute to their understanding of expostulate employ in Linux.

    NULL role pointers

    The first observation is that some role pointers in some vtables are allowed to be NULL. Clearly trying to muster such a role would be futile, so the code that calls into these methods generally contains an express test for the pointer being NULL. There are a few different reasons for these NULL pointers. Probably easiest to warrant is the incremental evolution reason. Because of the route vtable structures are initialized, adding a unique role pointer to the structure definition causes outright existing table declarations to initialise that pointer to NULL. Thus it is practicable to add a caller of the unique method before any instance supports that method, and gain it check for NULL and perform a default behavior. Then as incremental evolution continues those vtable instances which exigency it can net non-default methods.

    A recent sample is consign 77af1b2641faf4 adding set_voltage_time_sel() to struct regulator_ops which acts on struct regulator_dev. Subsequent consign 42ab616afe8844 defines that method for a particular device. This is simply the most recent sample of a very common theme.

    Another common judgement is that certain methods are not particularly meaningful in certain cases so the calling code simply tests for NULL and returns an arrogate mistake when found. There are multiple examples of this in the virtual filesystem (VFS) layer. For instance, the create() role in inode_operations is only meaningful if the inode in question is a directory. So inode_operations structures for non-directories typically gain NULL for the create() role (and many others) and the calling code in vfs_create() checks for NULL and returns -EACCES.

    A final judgement that vtables sometimes hold NULL is that an element of functionality might be being transitioned from one interface to another. A apt sample of this is the ioctl() operation in file_operations. In 2.6.11, a unique method, unlocked_ioctl() was added which was called without the stout kernel lock held. In 2.6.36, when outright drivers and filesystems had been converted to employ unlocked_ioctl(), the original ioctl() was finally removed. During this transition a file system would typically define only one of two, leaving the other defaulting to NULL.

    A slightly more subtle sample of this is read() and aio_read(), also in file_operations, and the corresponding write() and aio_write(). aio_read() was introduced to support asynchronous IO, and if it is provided the regular synchronous read() is not needed (it is effected using do_sync_read() which calls the aio_read() method). In this case there appears to be no end of ever removing read() - it will remain for cases where async IO is not relevant such as special filesystems dote procfs and sysfs. So it is silent the case that only one of each pair exigency be defined by a filesystem, but it is not simply a transition, it is a long-term state.

    Though there appear to be several different reasons for a NULL role pointer, almost every case is an sample of one simple pattern - that of providing a default implementation for the method. In the "incremental development" examples and the non-meaningful method case, this is fairly straightforward. e.g. the default for inode->create() is simply to revert an error. In the interface transition case it is only slightly less obvious. The default for unlocked_ioctl() would be to occupy the kernel lock and then muster the ioctl() method. The default for read() is exactly do_sync_read() and some filesystems such as ext3 actually provide this value explicitly rather than using "NULL" to argue a default.

    With that in mind, a microscopic reflection suggests that if the true goal is to provide a default, then maybe the best approach would be to explicitly give a default rather than using the circuitous route of using a default of NULL and interpreting it specially.

    While NULL is certainly the easiest value to provide as a default - as the C yardstick assures us that uninitialized members of a structure achieve net set to NULL - it is not very much harder to set a more meaningful default. I am indebted to LWN reader wahern for the observation that C99 allows fields in a structure to be initialized multiple times with only the final value taking effect and that this allows light setting of default values such as by following the simple model:

    #define FOO_DEFAULTS .bar = default_bar, .baz = default_baz struct foo_operations my_foo = { FOO_DEFAULTS, .bar = my_bar, };

    This will declare my_foo with a predefined default value for baz and a localized value for bar. Thus for the wee cost of defining a few "default" functions and including a "_DEFAULTS" entry to each declaration, the default value for any domain can easily be chosen when the domain is first created, and automatically included in every employ of the structure.

    Not only are meaningful defaults light to implement, they can lead to a more efficient implementation. In those cases where the role pointer actually is NULL it is probably faster to test and arm rather than to compose an roundabout role call. However the NULL case is very often the exception rather than the rule, and optimizing for an exception is not timehonored practice. In the more common case when the role pointer is not NULL, the test for NULL is simply a blow of code space and a blow of execution time. If they disallow NULLs they can compose outright muster sites a microscopic bit smaller and simpler.

    In general, any testing performed by the caller before calling a method can be seen as an instance of the "mid-layer mistake" discussed in a previous article. It shows that the mid-layer is making assumptions about the behavior of the lower flush driver rather than simply giving the driver liberty to behave in whatever route is most suitable. This may not always be an expensive mistake, but it is silent best avoided where possible. Nevertheless there is a lucid pattern in the Linux kernel that pointers in vtables can sometimes be NULLable, typically though not always to enable a transition, and the muster sites should in these cases test for NULL before proceeding with the call.

    The observant reader will gain noticed a hole in the above logic denouncing the employ NULL pointers for defaults. In the case where the default is the common case and where performance is paramount, the reasoning does not hold and a NULL pointer could well be justified. Naturally the Linux kernel provides an sample of such a case for their examination.

    One of the data structures used by the VFS for caching filesystem information is the "dentry". A "dentry" represents a appellation in the filesystem, and so each "dentry" has a parent, being the directory containing it, and an "inode" representing the named file. The dentry is part from the inode because a sole file can gain multiple names (so an "inode" can gain multiple "dentry"s). There is a dentry_operations vtable with a number of operations including, for example, "d_compare" which will compare two names and "d_hash" which will generate a hash for the appellation to pilot the storage of the "dentry" in a hash table. Most filesystems achieve not exigency this flexibility. They handle names as uninterpreted strings of bytes so the default compare and hash functions are the common case. A few filesystems define these to wield case-insensitive names but that is not the norm.

    Further, filename lookup is a common operation in Linux and so optimizing it is a priority. Thus these two operations materialize to be apt candidates where a test for NULL and an inlined default operation might be appropriate. What they find though is that when such an optimization is warranted it is not by itself enough. The code that calls d_compare() and d_hash() (and a pair of other dentry operations) does not test these functions for NULL directly. Rather they require that a few flag bits (DCACHE_OP_HASH, DCACHE_OP_COMPARE) in the "dentry" are set up to argue whether the common default should be used, or whether the role should be called. As the flag domain is likely to be in cache anyway, and the dentry_operations structure will often be not needed at all, this avoids a reminiscence fetch in a chafed´ path.

    So they find that the one case where using a NULL role pointer to argue a default could be justified, it is not actually used; instead, a different, more efficient, mechanism is used to argue that the default method is requested.

    Members other than role pointers

    While most vtable-like structures in the kernel hold exclusively role pointers, there are a significant minority that gain non-function-pointer fields. Many of these materialize on the surface quite whimsical and a few closer inspections intimate that some of them result of destitute design or bit-rot and their removal would only ameliorate the code.

    There is one exception to the "functions only" pattern that occurs repeatedly and provides true value, and so is worth exploring. This pattern is seen in its most general configuration in struct mdk_personality which provides operations for a particular software RAID level. In particular this structure contains an "owner", a "name", and a "list". The "owner" is the module that provides the implementation. The "name" is a simple identifier: some vtables gain string names, some gain numeric names, and it is often called something different dote "version", "family", "drvname", or "level". But conceptually it is silent a name. In the present sample there are two names, a string and a numeric "level".

    The "list", while allotment of the very functionality, is less common. The mdk_personality structure has a struct list_head, as does struct ts_ops. struct file_system_type has a simple pointer to the next struct file_system_type. The underlying notion here is that for any particular implementation of an interface (or "final" definition of a class) to be usable, it must be registered in some route so that it can be found. Further, once it has been create it must be practicable to ensure that the module holding the implementation is not removed while it is in use.

    There appear to be nearly as many styles of registration against an interface in Linux as there are interfaces to register against, so finding sturdy patterns there would be a difficult task. However it is fairly common for a "vtable" to be treated as the primary wield on a particular implementation of an interface and to gain an "owner" pointer which can be used to net a reference on the module which provides the implementation.

    So the pattern they find here is that a structure of role pointers used as a "vtable" for expostulate method dispatch should normally hold only role pointers. Exceptions require lucid justification. A common exception allows a module pointer and practicable other fields such as a appellation and a list pointer. These fields are used to support the registration protocol for the particular interface. When there is no list pointer it is very likely that the entire vtable will be treated as read-only. In this case the vtable will often be declared as a const structure and so could even be stored in read-only memory.

    Combining Methods for different objects

    A final common aberration from the "pure vtable" pattern that they survey in the Linux kernel occurs when the first argument to the role is not always the very expostulate type. In a sheer vtable which is referenced by a pointer in a particular data structure, the first argument of each role is exactly that data structure. What judgement could there be for deviating from that pattern? It turns out that there are few, some more enthralling than others.

    The simplest and least enthralling explanation is that, for no evident reason, the target data structure is listed elsewhere in the argument list. For sample outright functions in struct fb_ops occupy a struct fb_info. While in 18 cases that structure is the first argument, in five cases it is the last. There is nothing obviously wrong with this option and it is unlikely to confuse developers. It is only a problem for data miners dote your author who exigency to filter it out as an extraneous pattern.

    A slight aberration on this pattern is seen in struct rfkill_ops where two functions occupy a struct rkfill but the third - set_block() - takes a void *data. Further investigation shows that this opaque data is exactly that which is stored in rfkill->data, so set_block() could easily be defined to occupy a struct rfkill and simply to ensue the ->data link itself. This aberration is sufficiently non-obvious that it could conceivably confuse developers as well as data miners and so should be avoided.

    The next aberration in seen for sample in platform_suspend_ops, oprofile_operations, security_operations and a few others. These occupy an odd assortment of arguments with no obvious pattern. However these are really very different sorts of vtable structures in that the expostulate they belong to are singletons. There is only one lively platform, only one profiler, only one security policy. Thus the "object" on which these operations act is allotment of the global status and so does not exigency to be included in the arguments of any functions.

    Having filtered these two patterns out as not being very enthralling they are left with two that achieve serve to command us something about expostulate employ in the kernel.

    quota_format_ops and export_operations are two different operations structures that operate on a variety of different data structures. In each case the evident primary expostulate (e.g. a struct super_block or a struct dentry) already has a vtable structure dedicated to it (such as super_operations or dentry_operations) and these unique structures add unique operations. In each case the unique operations configuration a cohesive unit providing a related set of functionality - whether supporting disk quotas or NFS export. They don't outright act on the very expostulate simply because the functionality in question depends on a variety of objects.

    The best term from the language of object-oriented programming for this is probably the "mixin". Though the felicitous may not be consummate - depending on what your exact understanding of mixin is - the notion of bringing in a collection of functionality without using strict hierarchical inheritance is very near to the purpose of quota_format_ops and export_operations.

    Once they know to be on the lookout for mixins dote these they can find quite a few more examples. The pattern to be alert for is not the one that led us here - an operations structure that operates on a variety of different objects - but rather the one they create where the functions in an "operations" structure operate on objects that already gain their own "operations" structure. When an expostulate has a great number of operations that are relevant and these operations naturally group into subsets, it makes a lot of sense to divide them into part vtable-like structures. There are several examples of this in the networking code where for instance both tcp_congestion_ops and inet_connection_sock_af_ops operate (primarily) on a struct sock, which itself has already got a wee set of dedicated operations.

    So the pattern of a "mixin" - at least as defined as a set of operations which apply to one or more objects without being the primary operations for those objects - is a pattern that is often create in the kernel and appears to be quite valuable in allowing better modularization of code.

    The eventual pattern which explains non-uniform role targets is probably the most interesting, particularly in its contrast to the obvious application of object-oriented programming style. Examples of this pattern abound with ata_port_operations, tty_operations, nfs_rpc_ops and atmdev_ops outright appearing as useful examples. However they will focus primarily on some examples from the filesystem layer, particularly super_operations and inode_operations.

    There is a sturdy hierarchy of objects in the implementation of a filesystem where the filesystem - represented by a "super_block" - has a number of files (struct inode) which may gain a number of names or links (struct dentry). Further each file might store data in the page cache (struct address_space) which comprises a number of individual pages (struct page). There is a sense in which outright of these different objects belong to the filesystem as a whole. If a page needs to be loaded with data from a file, the filesystem knows how to achieve that, and it is probably the very mechanism for every page in every file. Where it isn't always the same, the filesystem knows that too. So they could conceivably store every operation on every one of these objects in the struct super_block, as it represents the filesystem and could know what to achieve in each case.

    In practice that extreme is not really helpful. It is quite likely that while there are similarities between the storage of a regular file and a directory, there are also considerable differences and being able to encode those differences in part vtables can be helpful. Sometimes wee symbolic links are stored directly in the inode while larger links are stored dote the contents of a regular file. Having different readlink() operations for the two cases can compose the code a lot more readable.

    While the extreme of every operation attached to the one central structure is not ideal, it is equally prerogative that the opposite extreme is not yardstick either. The struct page in Linux does not gain a vtable pointer at outright - in allotment because they want to retain the structure as wee as practicable because it is so populous. Rather the address_space_operations structure contains the operations that act on a page. Similarly the super_operations structure contains some operations that apply to inodes, and inode_operations contains some operations that apply to dentries.

    It is clearly practicable to gain operations structures attached to a parent of the target expostulate - providing the target holds a reference to the parent, which it normally does - though it is not quite so lucid that it is always beneficial. In the case of struct page which avoids having a vtable pointer altogether the profit is clear. In the case of struct inode which has its own vtable pointer, the profit of having some operations (such as destroy_inode() or write_inode()) attached to the super_block is less clear.

    As there are several vtable structures where any given role pointer could be stored, the actual option is in many cases microscopic more than historical accident. Certainly the proliferation of struct dentry operations in inode_operations seems to be largely due to the fact that some of them used to act directly on the inode, but changes in the VFS eventually required this to change. For sample in 2.1.78-pre1, each of link(), readlink(), followlink() (and some others which are now defunct) were changed from taking a struct inode to occupy a struct dentry instead. This set the scene for "dentry" operations to be in inode_operations, so when setattr and getattr were added for 2.3.48, it probably seemed completely natural to embrace them in inode_operations despite the fact that they acted primarily on a dentry.

    Possibly they could simplify things by getting rid of dentry_operations altogether. Some operations that act on dentries are already in inode_operations and super_operations - why not creep them outright there? While dentries are not as populous as struct page there are silent a lot of them and removing the "d_op" domain could save 5% of the reminiscence used by that structure (on x86-64).

    With two exceptions, every lively filesystem only has a sole dentry operations structure in effect. Some filesystem implementations dote "vfat" define two - e.g. one with case-sensitive matching and one with case-insensitive matching - but there is only one lively per super-block. So it would appear that the operations in dentry_operations could be moved to super_operations, or at least accessed through "s_d_op". The two exceptions are ceph and procfs. These filesystems employ different d_revalidate() operations in different parts of the filesystem and - in the case of procfs - different d_release() operations. The necessary distinctions could easily be made in per-superblock versions of these operations. achieve these cases warrant the 5% space cost? Arguably not.

    Directly embedded role pointers

    Finally it is arrogate to reflect on the alternate pattern mentioned at the start, where role pointers are stored directly in the expostulate rather than in a part vtable structure. This pattern can be seen in struct request_queue which has nine role pointers, struct efi which has ten role pointers, and struct sock which has six role pointers.

    The cost of embedded pointers is obviously space. When vtables are used, there is only one copy of the vtable and multiple copies of an expostulate (in most cases) so if more than one role pointer is needed, a vtable would save space. The cost of a vtable is an extra reminiscence reference, though cache might reduce much of this cost in some cases. A vtable also has a cost of flexibility. When each expostulate needs exactly the very set of operations a vtable is good, but if there is a exigency to individually tailor some of the operations for each object, then embedded role pointer can provide that flexibility. This is illustrated quite nicely by the remark with "zoom_video" in struct pcmcia_socket

    /* Zoom video behaviour is so chip specific its not worth adding this to _ops */

    So where objects are not very populous, where the list of role pointers is small, and where multiple mixins are needed, embedded role pointers are used instead of a part vtable.

    Method Dispatch Summary

    If they combine outright the pattern elements that they gain create in Linux they find that:

    Method pointers that operate on a particular type of expostulate are normally collected in a vtable associated directly with that object, though they can also appear:

  • In a mixin vtable that collects related functionality which may be selectable independently of the basis type of the object.
  • In the vtable for a "parent" expostulate when doing so avoids the exigency for a vtable pointer in a populous object
  • Directly in the expostulate when there are few method pointers, or they exigency to be individually tailored to the particular object.
  • These vtables rarely hold anything other than role pointers, though fields needed to register the expostulate class can be appropriate. Allowing these role pointers to be NULL is a common but not necessarily yardstick technique for handling defaults.

    So in exploring the Linux Kernel code they gain create that even though it is not written in an object-oriented language, it certainly contains objects, classes (represented as vtables), and even mixins. It also contains concepts not normally create in object-oriented languages such as delegating expostulate methods to a "parent" object.

    Hopefully understanding these different patterns and the reasons for choosing between them can lead to more uniform application of the patterns across the kernel, and hence compose it easier for a newcomer to understand which pattern is being followed. In the second allotment of their examination of expostulate oriented patterns they will explore the various ways that data inheritance is achieved in the Linux kernel and dispute the strengths and weaknesses of each approach so as to survey where each is most appropriate.

    (Log in to post comments)

    Java and Object-Oriented Programming | true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the bespeak 

    Many seasoned Java developers will scoff at the fact that this section even exists in this book. It is here for two very considerable reasons. The first is that I continually dash across Java applications built with a procedural mind-set. The fact that you know Java doesn't carry weight that you gain the skill to transform that learning into well-designed object-oriented systems. As both an instructor and consultant, I survey many data-processing shops send COBOL and/or Visual Basic developers to a three-day class on UML and a five-day class on Java and anticipate miracles. Case in point: I was recently asked to review a Java application to assess its design architecture and create that it had only two classes—SystemController and ScreenController—which contained over 70,000 lines of Java code.

    The second judgement for the emphasis on how the language maps to object-oriented principles is that people dote language comparisons and how they stack up to their counterparts. To appease those that live and die by language comparisons, let's reserve Java under the scrutiny of what constitutes an object-oriented language.

    No definitive definition of what makes a language object-oriented is globally accepted. However, a common set of criteria I personally find useful is that the language must support the following:

  • Classes
  • Complex types (Java reference types)
  • Message passing
  • Encapsulation
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism
  • These are discussed in the next subsections.

    Java and Classes

    Java allows classes to be defined. There are no stray functions floating around in Java. A class is a static template that contains the defined structure (attributes) and behavior (operations) of a real-world entity in the application domain. At runtime, the class is instantiated, or brought to life, as an expostulate born in the image of that class. In my seminars, when several folks unique to the expostulate world are in attendance, I often employ the analogy of a cookie cutter. The cookie cutter is merely the template used to stamp out what will become individually decorated and unique cookies. The cookie cutter is the class; the unique blue, green, and yellow gingerbread man is the expostulate (which I confidence supports a champ operation).

    Java exposes the class to potential outside users through its public interface. A public interface consists of the signatures of the public operations supported by the class. A signature is the operation appellation and its input parameter types (the revert type, if any, is not allotment of the operation's signature).

    Good programming practice encourages developers to declare outright attributes as private and allow access to them only via operations. As with most other languages, however, this is not enforced in Java. device 2-1 outlines the concept of a class and its interface.

    FIGURE 2-1 Public interface of a class

    The device uses a common eggshell metaphor to portray the concept of the class's interface, as well as encapsulation. The internal details of the class are hidden from the outside via a well-defined interface. In this case, only four operations are exposed in the classes interface (Operation_A, B, C, and D). The other attributes and operations are protected from the outside world. Actually, to the outside world, it's as if they don't even exist.

    Suppose you want to create an Order class in Java that has three attributes—orderNumber, orderDate, and orderTotal—and two operations—calcTotalValue() and getInfo(). The class definition could glance dote this:

    /** * Listing 1 * This is the Order class for the Java/UML book */ package com.jacksonreed; import java.util.*; public class Order { private Date orderDate; private long orderNumber; private long orderTotal; public Order() { } public boolean getInfo() { revert true; } public long calcTotalValue() { revert 0; } public Date getOrderDate() { revert orderDate; } public void setOrderDate(Date aOrderDate) { orderDate = aOrderDate; } public long getOrderNumber() { revert orderNumber; } public void setOrderNumber(long aOrderNumber) { orderNumber = aOrderNumber; } public long getOrderTotal() { revert orderTotal; } public void setOrderTotal(long aOrderTotal) { orderTotal = aOrderTotal; } public static void main(String[] args) { Order order = unique Order(); System.out.println("instantiated Order"); System.out.println(order.getClass().getName()); System.out.println(order.calcTotalValue()); try { Thread.currentThread().sleep(5*1000); } catch(InterruptedException e) {} } }

    A few things are notable about the first bit of Java code presented in this book. Notice that each of the three attributes has a net and a set operation to allow for the retrieval and setting of the Order object's properties. Although doing so is not required, it is common practice to provide these accessor-type operations for outright attributes defined in a class. In addition, if the Order class ever wanted to be a JavaBean, it would gain to gain "getters and setters" defined in this way.

    Some of the method code in the main() operation does a few things of note. Of interest is that a try obstruct exists at the conclude of the operation that puts the current thread to sleep for a bit. This is to allow the console parade to freeze so that you can survey the results.

    If you type in this class and then compile it and execute it in your favorite evolution appliance or from the command prompt with

    javac //* to compile it java order //* to dash it

    you should net results that glance dote this:

    instantiated Order com.jacksonreed.Order 0


    Going forward, I vow you will survey no code samples with class, operation, or impute names of foo, bar, or foobar.

    More on Java and Classes

    A class can also gain what are called class-level operations and attributes. Java supports these with the static keyword. This keyword would proceed prerogative after the visibility (public, private, protected) component of the operation or attribute. Static operations and attributes are needed to invoke either a service of the class before any true instances of that class are instantiated or a service that doesn't directly apply to any of the instances. The classic sample of a static operation is the Java constructor. The constructor is what is called when an expostulate is created with the unique keyword. Perhaps a more business-focused sample is an operation that retrieves a list of Customer instances based on particular search criteria.

    A class-level impute can be used to store information that outright instances of that class may access. This impute might be, for example, a import of the number of objects currently instantiated or a property about Customer that outright instances might exigency to reference.

    Java and intricate Types (Java Reference Types)

    A intricate type, which in Java is called a reference type, allows variables typed as something other than primitive types (e.g., int and boolean) to be declared. In Java, these are called reference types. In object-oriented systems, variables that are "of" a particular class, such as Order, Customer, or Invoice, must be defined. Taken a step further, Order could consist of other class instances, such as OrderHeader and OrderLine.

    In Java, you can define different variables that are references to runtime objects of a particular class type:

    Public Order myOrder; Public Customer myCustomer; Public Invoice myInvoice;

    Such variables can then be used to store actual expostulate instances and subsequently to serve as recipients of messages sent by other objects. In the previous code fragment, the variable myOrder is an instance of Order. After the myOrder expostulate is created, a message can be sent to it and myOrder will respond, provided that the operation is supported by myOrder's interface.

    Java and Message Passing

    Central to any object-oriented language is the skill to pass messages between objects. In later chapters you will survey that labor is done in a system only by objects that collaborate (by sending messages) to accomplish a goal (which is specified in a use-case) of the system.

    Java doesn't allow stray functions floating around that are not attached to a class. In fact, Java demands this. Unfortunately, as my previous myth suggested, just saying that a language requires everything to be packaged in classes doesn't carry weight that the class design will be robust, let solitary correct.

    Java supports message passing, which is central to the employ of Java's object-oriented features. The format closely resembles the syntax of other languages, such as C++ and Visual Basic. In the following code fragment, assume that a variable called myCustomer, of type Customer, is defined and that an operation called calcTotalValue() is defined for Customer. Then the calcTotalValue() message being sent to the myCustomer expostulate in Java would glance dote this:


    Many developers feel that, in any other structured language, this is just a fancy route of calling a procedure. Calling a procedure and sending a message are similar in that, once invoked, both a procedure and a message implement a set of well-defined steps. However, a message differs in two ways:

  • There is a designated receiver, the object. Procedures gain no designated receiver.

  • The interpretation of the message—that is, the how-to code (called the method) used to respond to the message—can vary with different receivers. This point will become more considerable later in the chapter, when polymorphism is reviewed.

  • The concepts presented in this bespeak depend heavily on classes and the messaging that takes position between their instances, or objects.

    Java and Encapsulation

    Recall that a class exposes itself to the outside world via its public interface and that this should be done through exposure to operations only, and not attributes. Java supports encapsulation via its skill to declare both attributes and operations as public, private, or protected. In UML this is called visibility.

    Using the code from the previous Order example, suppose you want to set the value of the orderDate attribute. In this case, you should achieve so with an operation. An operation that gets or sets values is usually called a getter or a setter, respectively, and collectively such operations are called accessors. The local copy of the order date, orderDate, is declared private. (Actually, outright attributes of a class should be declared private or protected, so that they are accessible only via operations exposed as public to the outside world.)

    Encapsulation provides some powerful capabilities. To the outside world, the design can cover how it derives its impute values. If the orderTotal impute is stored in the Order object, the corresponding net operation defined previously looks dote this:

    public long getOrderTotal() { revert orderTotal; }

    This snippet of code would be invoked if the following code were executed by an interested client:

    private long localTotal; private Order localOrder; localOrder = unique Order(); localTotal = localOrder.getOrderTotal()

    However, suppose the impute orderTotal isn't kept as a local value of the Order class, but rather is derived via another mechanism (perhaps messaging to its OrderLine objects). If Order contains OrderLine objects (declared as a Vector or ArrayList of OrderLine objects called myOrderLines) and OrderLine knows how to obtain its line totals via the message getOrderLineTotal(), then the corresponding net operation for orderTotal within Order will glance dote this:

    public long getOrderTotal() { long totalAmount=0; for (int i=0; i < myOrderLines.length; i++) { totalAmount = totalAmount + myOrderLines[i].getOrderLineTotal(); } revert totalAmount; }

    This code cycles through the myOrderLines collection, which contains outright the Orderline objects related to the Order object, sending the getOrderLineTotal() message to each of Order's OrderLine objects. The getOrderTotal() operation will be invoked if the following code is executed by an interested client:

    long localTotal; Order myOrder; myOrder = unique Order(); localTotal = localOrder.getOrderTotal()

    Notice that the "client" code didn't change. To the outside world, the class silent has an orderTotal attribute. However, you gain hidden, or encapsulated, just how the value was obtained. This encapsulation allows the class's interface to remain the very (hey, I gain an orderTotal that you can interrogate me about), while the class retains the flexibility to change its implementation in the future (sorry, how they achieve business has changed and now they must derive orderTotal dote this). This benevolent of resiliency is one of the compelling business reasons to employ an object-oriented programming language in general.

    Java and Inheritance

    The inclusion of inheritance is often the most cited judgement for granting a language object-oriented status. There are two kinds of inheritance: interface and implementation. As they shall see, Java is one of the few languages that makes a lucid distinction between the two.

    Interface inheritance (Figure 2-2) declares that a class that is inheriting an interface will be responsible for implementing outright of the method code of each operation defined in that interface. Only the signatures of the interface are inherited; there is no method or how-to code.

    FIGURE 2-2 Interface inheritance

    Implementation inheritance (Figure 2-3) declares that a class that is inheriting an interface may, at its option, employ the method code implementation already established for the interface. Alternatively, it may choose to implement its own version of the interface. In addition, the class inheriting the interface may extend that interface by adding its own operations and attributes.

    FIGURE 2-3 Implementation inheritance

    Each type of inheritance should be scrutinized and used in the arrogate setting. Interface inheritance is best used under the following conditions:

  • The basis class presents a generic facility, such as a table lookup, or a derivation of system-specific information, such as operating-system semantics or unique algorithms.

  • The number of operations is small.

  • The basis class has few, if any, attributes.

  • Classes realizing or implementing the interface are diverse, with microscopic or no common code.

  • Implementation inheritance is best used under the following conditions:

  • The class in question is a domain class that is of primary interest to the application (i.e., not a utility or controller class).

  • The implementation is complex, with a great number of operations.

  • Many attributes and operations are common across specialized implementations of the basis class.

  • Some practitioners contend that implementation inheritance leads to a symptom called the breakable basis class problem. Chiefly, this term refers to the fact that over time, what were once common code and attributes in the superclass may not abide common as the business evolves. The result is that many, if not all, of the subclasses, override the behavior of the superclass. Worse yet, the subclasses may find themselves overriding the superclass, doing their own work, and then invoking the very operation again on the superclass. These practitioners espouse the idea of using only interface inheritance. Particularly with the advent of Java and its raising of the interface to a first-class type, the concept and usage of interface-based programming gain gained tremendous momentum.

    As this bespeak evolves, keeping in intellect the pointers mentioned here when deciding between the two types of inheritance will be helpful. Examples of both constructs will be presented in the theme project that extends throughout this book.

    Implementation Inheritance

    Java supports implementation inheritance with the extends keyword. A class wanting to occupy edge of implementation inheritance simply adds an extendsClassName statement to its class definition. To continue the previous example, suppose you gain two different types of orders, both warranting their own subclasses: Commercial and Retail. You would silent gain an Order class (which isn't instantiated directly and which is called abstract). The previous fragment showed the code for the Order class. Following is the code for the Commercial class.

    package com.jacksonreed; public class Commercial extends Order { public Commercial() { } /* Unique Commercial code goes here */ }

    Implementation inheritance allows the Commercial class to utilize outright attributes and operations defined in Order. This will be done automatically by the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) in conjunction with the language environment. In addition, implementation inheritance has the skill to override and/or extend any of Order's behavior. Commercial may also add completely unique behavior if it so chooses.

    Interface Inheritance

    Java supports interface inheritance with the implements keyword. A class wanting to realize a given interface (actually being responsible for the method code) simply adds an implements InterfaceName statement. However, unlike extension of one class by another class, implementation of an interface by a class requires that the interface be specifically defined as an interface beforehand.

    Looking again at the previous sample with Order, let's assume that this system will hold many classes—some built in this release, and some built in future releases—that exigency the skill to expense themselves. remember from earlier in this chapter that one of the indicators of using interface inheritance is the situation in which there is microscopic or no common code but the functional intent of the classes is the same. This pricing functionality includes three services: the abilities to compute tax, to compute an extended price, and to compute a total price. Let's muster the operations for these services calcExtendedPrice(), calcTax(), and calcTotalPrice(), respectively, and allocate them to a Java interface called IPrice. Sometimes interface names are prefixed with the letter I to distinguish them from other classes:

    package com.jacksonreed; interface IPrice { long calcExtendedPrice(); long calcTax(); long calcTotalPrice(); }

    Notice that the interface contains only operation signatures; it has no implementation code. It is up to other classes to implement the actual behavior of the operations. For the Order class to implement, or realize, the IPrice interface, it must embrace the implements keyword followed by the interface name:

    public class Order implements IPrice { }

    If you try to implement an interface without providing implementations for outright of its operations, your class will not compile. Even if you don't want to implement any method code for some of the operations, you silent must gain the operations defined in your class.

    One very powerful aspect of interface inheritance is that a class can implement many interfaces at the very time. For example, Order could implement the IPrice interface and perhaps a search interface called ISearch. However, a Java class may extend from only one other class.

    Java and Polymorphism

    Polymorphism is one of those $50 words that dazzles the uninformed and sounds really impressive. In fact, polymorphism is one of the most powerful features of any object-oriented language.

    Roget's II: The unique Thesaurus cross-references the term polymorphism to the main entry of variety. That will achieve for starters. Variety is the key to polymorphism. The Latin root for polymorphism means simply "many forms." Polymorphism applies to operations in the object-oriented context. So by combining these two thoughts, you could instruct that operations are polymorphic if they are identical (not just in appellation but also in signatures) but present variety in their implementations.

    Polymorphism is the skill of two different classes each to gain an operation that has the very signature, while having two very different forms of method code for the operation. Note that to occupy edge of polymorphism, either an interface inheritance or an implementation inheritance relationship must be involved.

    In languages such as COBOL and FORTRAN, defining a routine to have the very appellation as another routine will occasions a compile error. In object-oriented languages such as Java and C++, several classes might gain an operation with the very signature. Such duplication is in fact encouraged because of the power and flexibility it brings to the design.

    As mentioned previously, the implements and extends keywords let the application occupy edge of polymorphism. As they shall see, the sample project presented later in this bespeak is an order system for a company called Remulak Productions. Remulak sells musical equipment, as well as other types of products. There will be a Product class, as well as Guitar, SheetMusic, and Supplies classes.

    Suppose, then, that differences exist in the fundamental algorithms used to determine the best time to reorder each type of product (called the economic order quantity, or EOQ). I don't want to let too much out of the bag at this point, but there will be an implementation inheritance relationship created with Product as the progenitor class (or superclass) and the other three classes as its descendants (or subclasses). The scenario that follows uses implementation inheritance with a polymorphic example. Note that interface inheritance would yield the very benefits and be implemented in the very fashion.

    To facilitate extensibility and be able to add unique products in the future in a sort of plug-and-play fashion, they can compose calcEOQ() polymorphic. To achieve this in Java, Product would define calcEOQ() as abstract, thereby informing any inheriting subclass that it must provide the implementation. A key concept behind polymorphism is this: A class implementing an interface or inheriting from an progenitor class can be treated as an instance of that progenitor class. In the case of a Java interface, the interface itself is a cogent type.

    For example, assume that a collection of Product objects is defined as a property of the Inventory class. Inventory will support an operation, getAverageEOQ(), that needs to compute the mediocre economic order quantity for outright products the company sells. To achieve this requires that they iterate over the collection of Product objects called myProducts to net each object's unique economic order quantity individually, with the goal of getting an average:

    public long getAverageEOQ() { long totalAmount=0; for (int i=0; i < myProducts.length; i++) { totalAmount = totalAmount + myProducts[i].calcEOQ(); } revert totalAmount / myProducts.length; }

    But wait! First of all, how can Inventory gain a collection of Product objects when the Product class is abstract (no instances were ever created on their own)? remember the maxim from earlier: Any class implementing an interface or extending from an progenitor class can be treated as an instance of that interface or extended class. A Guitar "is a" Product, SheetMusic "is a" Product, and Supplies "is a" Product. So anywhere you reference Guitar, SheetMusic, or Supplies, you can substitute Product.

    Resident in the array myProducts within the Inventory class are individual concrete Guitar, SheetMusic, and Supplies objects. Java figures out dynamically which expostulate should net its own unique calcEOQ() message. The beauty of this construct is that later, if you add a unique type of Product—say, Organ—it will be totally transparent to the Inventory class. That class will silent gain a collection of Product types, but it will gain four different ones instead of three, each of which will gain its own unique implementation of the calcEOQ() operation.

    This is polymorphism at its best. At runtime, the class related to the expostulate in question will be identified and the redress "variety" of the operation will be invoked. Polymorphism provides powerful extensibility features to the application by letting future unknown classes implement a predictable and well-conceived interface without affecting how other classes deal with that interface.

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