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Test Code : 000-633
Test title : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - fragment 1
Vendor title : IBM
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Object Oriented Analysis and Design - fragment 1 exam

Object-oriented design patterns within the kernel, fragment 1 | 000-633 existent Questions and VCE rehearse Test

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June 1, 2011

this text became contributed by Neil Brown

however that the Linux Kernel is generally written in C, it makes wide utilize of some thoughts from the realm of object-oriented programming. developers desperate to utilize these object-oriented options receive minute succor or assistance from the language and so are left to fend for themselves. As is commonly the case, here's a double-edged sword. The developer has ample flexibility to sequel in fact frosty issues, and equally the flexibility to sequel basically dense issues, and it is rarely at total times clear at first glance which is which, or greater precisely: where on the spectrum a specific fashion sits.

instead of trying to the language to supply assistance, a software engineer ought to look to subject supervene to ascertain what works neatly and what's most efficient avoided. interpreting subject rehearse isn't total the time as handy as one could enjoy and the effort, as soon as made, is worth protecting. To preserve that exertion in your creator's half, this text brings yet another installment in an occasional collection on Linux Kernel Design Patterns and attempts to set out - with examples - the design patterns within the Linux Kernel which repercussion an object-oriented style of programming.

as opposed to providing a brief introduction to the article-oriented fashion, tempting though it really is, they are able to assume the reader has a simple advantage of objects, courses, methods, inheritance, and identical phrases. For those as yet unfamiliar with these, there are loads of resources to breathe discovered somewhere else on the web.

Over two weeks they can hunt patterns in just two areas: formula dispatch and information inheritance. despite their unpretentious simplicity they lead to some affluent veins for investigation. this primary article will focal point on formulation dispatch.

formulation Dispatch

The gigantic variety of styles of inheritance and guidelines for its usage in languages today looks to hint that there is not any uniform realizing of what "object-oriented" definitely potential. The term is a bit enjoy "love": total and sundry thinks they know what it potential however if you secure down to particulars individuals can ascertain they stand very distinct ideas. while what it potential to breathe "oriented" might no longer breathe clear, what they hint with the aid of an "object" does emerge to breathe uniformly agreed upon. it's conveniently an abstraction comprising both state and habits. An expostulate is enjoy a record (Pascal) or struct (C), apart from that some of the names of contributors contend with features which act on the different fields within the object. These duty participants are every now and then talked about a "strategies".

the most evident option to enforce objects in C is to declare a "struct" the set some fields are tips to services which prefer a pointer to the struct itself as their first argument. The calling conference for system "foo" in expostulate "bar" would readily be: bar->foo(bar, ...args); while this pattern is used in the Linux kernel it is not the predominant pattern so they can depart discussion of it except a minute later.

As strategies (in contrast to state) aren't at total times modified on a per-object foundation, a greater typical and simplest just a minute less obtrusive approach is to bring together total the methods for a specific classification of objects into a divorce structure, occasionally known as a "virtual characteristic table" or vtable. the article then has a lone pointer to this desk in set of a divorce pointer for every system, and consequently makes utilize of less memory.

This then ends up in their first pattern - a pure vtable being a constitution which contains best feature pointers the set the primary argument of each is a pointer to any other structure (the article type) which itself carries a pointer to this vtable. Some essential examples of this within the Linux kernel are the file_lock_operations constitution which includes two duty pointers each of which prefer a pointer to a struct file_lock, and the seq_operations vtable which includes 4 duty pointers which each operate on a struct seq_file. These two examples reveal an obtrusive naming pattern - the constitution protecting a vtable is named for the constitution maintaining the article (probably abbreviated) followed by "_operations". whereas this sample is unpretentious it is by using no capability prevalent. around the time of two.6.39 there are about 30 "*_operations" structures along with well over 100 "*_ops" constructions, most if no longer total of that are vtables of some sort. There are additionally several structs akin to struct mdk_personality which are well-nigh vtables but shouldn't stand exceptionally useful names.

amongst these basically 200 vtable buildings there's lots of variability and so a lot of scope to search for exciting patterns. In specific they are able to glance for typical diversifications from the "pure vtable" pattern described above and investigate how these variations obtain a contribution to their realizing of expostulate utilize in Linux.

NULL feature pointers

the primary observation is that some characteristic pointers in some vtables are allowed to breathe NULL. clearly attempting to summon any such characteristic can breathe futile, so the code that calls into these strategies commonly consists of an explicit check for the pointer being NULL. There are a couple of distinct explanations for these NULL pointers. probably easiest to justify is the incremental construction reason. because of the style vtable buildings are initialized, including a new characteristic pointer to the structure definition explanations total existing desk declarations to initialise that pointer to NULL. as a result it is workable to add a caller of the brand new components earlier than any sample supports that components, and stand it assess for NULL and duty a default behavior. Then as incremental construction continues these vtable instances which exigency it could actually secure non-default methods.

A contemporary sample is entrust 77af1b2641faf4 including set_voltage_time_sel() to struct regulator_ops which acts on struct regulator_dev. Subsequent entrust 42ab616afe8844 defines that formula for a specific machine. here's readily probably the most contemporary illustration of a very common theme.

one other commonplace purpose is that certain strategies aren't primarily meaningful in obvious circumstances so the calling code without rigor checks for NULL and returns an commandeer error when discovered. There are multiple examples of this within the digital filesystem (VFS) layer. for instance, the create() feature in inode_operations is simply meaningful if the inode in question is a listing. So inode_operations structures for non-directories usually stand NULL for the create() characteristic (and a lot of others) and the calling code in vfs_create() tests for NULL and returns -EACCES.

A eventual rationale that vtables sometimes involve NULL is that a component of functionality should breathe would becould very well breathe being transitioned from one interface to a different. a superb illustration of this is the ioctl() operation in file_operations. In 2.6.11, a brand new formulation, unlocked_ioctl() was introduced which became referred to as devoid of the huge kernel lock held. In 2.6.36, when total drivers and filesystems had been converted to obtain utilize of unlocked_ioctl(), the original ioctl() became ultimately removed. during this transition a file gadget would usually define only one of two, leaving the other defaulting to NULL.

A a bit of greater refined instance of here is study() and aio_read(), likewise in file_operations, and the corresponding write() and aio_write(). aio_read() turned into added to aid asynchronous IO, and whether it is supplied the typical synchronous read() is not obligatory (it is effected the utilize of do_sync_read() which calls the aio_read() components). in this case there seems to breathe no aim of ever disposing of examine() - it'll continue to breathe for situations where async IO isn't central comparable to particular filesystems enjoy procfs and sysfs. So it is still the case that only one of each and every pair exigency breathe defined by a filesystem, nonetheless it is not with ease a transition, it's a long-time era state.

notwithstanding there emerge to breathe a couple of different reasons for a NULL duty pointer, virtually every case is an instance of one essential sample - that of featuring a default implementation for the components. in the "incremental construction" examples and the non-meaningful fashion case, here's pretty straightforward. e.g. the default for inode->create() is without rigor to approach back an error. in the interface transition case it is just a bit of less obvious. The default for unlocked_ioctl() would breathe to prefer the kernel lock after which title the ioctl() method. The default for read() is precisely do_sync_read() and some filesystems similar to ext3 truly give this charge explicitly in set of using "NULL" to betoken a default.

With that in intellect, a bit reflection means that if the actual smooth is to give a default, then perhaps the best fashion would breathe to explicitly provide a default as opposed to the usage of the circuitous route of the usage of a default of NULL and deciphering it especially.

while NULL is definitely the easiest value to supply as a default - as the C regular assures us that uninitialized contributors of a structure sequel secure set to NULL - it isn't very a lot tougher to set a more significant default. i am indebted to LWN reader wahern for the statement that C99 enables fields in a structure to breathe initialized varied instances with simplest the final value taking sequel and that this allows convenient surroundings of default values comparable to via following the fundamental model:

#outline FOO_DEFAULTS .bar = default_bar, .baz = default_baz struct foo_operations my_foo = FOO_DEFAULTS, .bar = my_bar, ;

this may declare my_foo with a predefined default charge for baz and a localized charge for bar. as a consequence for the small pervade of defining a few "default" services and including a "_DEFAULTS" entry to each and every statement, the default value for any box can easily breathe chosen when the realm is first created, and automatically blanketed in each utilize of the structure.

no longer best are meaningful defaults effortless to build into effect, they could result in a greater efficient implementation. In those circumstances the set the characteristic pointer basically is NULL it's probably faster to glance at various and department rather than to obtain an indirect feature name. however the NULL case is awfully regularly the exception instead of the rule, and optimizing for an exception is not ordinary practice. within the greater accustomed case when the characteristic pointer is not NULL, the glance at various for NULL is with no grief a fritter of code house and a fritter of execution time. If they disallow NULLs they can obtain total summon websites a minute bit smaller and less difficult.

In conventional, any testing performed by using the caller before calling a fashion can breathe seen for instance of the "mid-layer mistake" mentioned in a outdated article. It suggests that the mid-layer is making assumptions concerning the habits of the lessen degree driver rather than readily giving the driver freedom to behave in whatever approach is most relevant. This may no longer at total times breathe a pricey mistake, however continues to breathe foremost prevented where viable. on the other hand there's a clear pattern within the Linux kernel that pointers in vtables can every so often breathe NULLable, typically even though now not always to permit a transition, and the title websites may still in these instances examine for NULL before continuing with the name.

The observant reader could stand seen a hollow within the above generous judgment denouncing the utilize NULL pointers for defaults. in the case where the default is the benchmark case and where efficiency is paramount, the reasoning doesn't hang and a NULL pointer could neatly breathe justified. Naturally the Linux kernel provides an sample of one of these case for their examination.

one of the most data buildings used by the VFS for caching filesystem information is the "dentry". A "dentry" represents a reputation in the filesystem, and so every "dentry" has a father or mother, being the directory containing it, and an "inode" representing the named file. The dentry is divorce from the inode as a result of a lone file can stand distinct names (so an "inode" can stand varied "dentry"s). there's a dentry_operations vtable with a few operations together with, for instance, "d_compare" on the course to compare two names and "d_hash" in order to generate a hash for the title to book the storage of the "dentry" in a hash table. Most filesystems sequel not stand this pliability. They deal with names as uninterpreted strings of bytes so the default evaluate and hash features are the accustomed case. a couple of filesystems outline these to deal with case-insensitive names however that is not the norm.

additional, filename glance up is a benchmark operation in Linux and so optimizing it is a priority. consequently these two operations emerge to breathe respectable candidates the set a verify for NULL and an inlined default operation might breathe appropriate. What they locate even though is that after such an optimization is warranted it is not by itself sufficient. The code that calls d_compare() and d_hash() (and a couple of other dentry operations) does not examine these functions for NULL directly. rather they require that a number of flag bits (DCACHE_OP_HASH, DCACHE_OP_COMPARE) within the "dentry" are set up to point out no matter if the common default should still breathe used, or whether the feature may still breathe known as. because the flag realm is likely to breathe in cache anyway, and the dentry_operations constitution will often breathe not necessary at all, this avoids a reminiscence fetch in a sizzling route.

So they find that the one case where the usage of a NULL characteristic pointer to point out a default may breathe justified, it isn't definitely used; instead, a distinct, greater effective, mechanism is used to point out that the default fashion is requested.

individuals aside from characteristic pointers

whereas most vtable-like buildings in the kernel accommodate exclusively feature pointers, there are a significant minority which stand non-feature-pointer fields. a lot of these look on the surface fairly whimsical and just a few nearer inspections betoken that some of them influence of obnoxious design or bit-rot and their removal would simplest enrich the code.

there is one exception to the "features simplest" pattern that happens again and again and provides precise value, and so is value exploring. This pattern is seen in its most unpretentious figure in struct mdk_personality which provides operations for a particular software RAID level. In selected this constitution includes an "owner", a "name", and a "record". The "proprietor" is the module that provides the implementation. The "name" is a simple identifier: some vtables stand string names, some stand numeric names, and it's always referred to as whatever distinctive enjoy "edition", "family", "drvname", or "stage". but conceptually it remains a reputation. within the current instance there are two names, a string and a numeric "level".

The "record", whereas fragment of the identical functionality, is less regular. The mdk_personality structure has a struct list_head, as does struct ts_ops. struct file_system_type has a simple pointer to the subsequent struct file_system_type. The underlying thought privilege here is that for any particular implementation of an interface (or "closing" definition of a category) to breathe usable, it ought to breathe registered approach what may so that it can likewise breathe found. additional, once it has been create it stand to breathe workable to obtain sure that the module maintaining the implementation isn't eliminated while it's in use.

There emerge to breathe practically as many forms of registration towards an interface in Linux as there are interfaces to register towards, so finding fabulous patterns there would breathe a difficult task. despite the fact it's pretty typical for a "vtable" to breathe handled because the fundamental deal with on a particular implementation of an interface and to stand an "owner" pointer which can likewise breathe used to secure a reference on the module which offers the implementation.

So the sample they ascertain privilege here is that a constitution of characteristic pointers used as a "vtable" for expostulate components dispatch should still at total times involve handiest characteristic pointers. Exceptions require clear justification. a benchmark exception makes it workable for a module pointer and workable other fields equivalent to a title and a list pointer. These fields are used to aid the registration protocol for the particular interface. When there isn't any listing pointer it is very probably that the total vtable can breathe treated as study-simplest. during this case the vtable will frequently breathe declared as a const constitution and so could even breathe saved in examine-most effectual reminiscence.

Combining methods for distinctive objects

A closing regular aberration from the "pure vtable" pattern that they survey in the Linux kernel happens when the first argument to the duty isn't at total times the equal expostulate category. In a pure vtable which is referenced by using a pointer in a particular records constitution, the primary argument of each characteristic is exactly that statistics structure. What intuition could there breathe for deviating from that pattern? It seems that there are few, some more piquant than others.

The easiest and least exciting clarification is that, for no obvious motive, the target records structure is listed in different places in the argument record. as an sample total services in struct fb_ops prefer a struct fb_info. while in 18 situations that structure is the first argument, in five cases it is the closing. there's nothing most likely wrong with this altenative and it's unlikely to discombobulate builders. It is simply an issue for records miners enjoy your writer who exigency to filter it out as an inappropriate sample.

A mild aberration on this pattern is viewed in struct rfkill_ops the set two features prefer a struct rkfill but the third - set_block() - takes a void *records. additional investigation suggests that this opaque facts is exactly that which is stored in rfkill->information, so set_block() might quite simply breathe described to prefer a struct rfkill and simply to supervene the ->information hyperlink itself. This aberration is sufficiently non-obvious that it might conceivably discombobulate developers as well as records miners and so should breathe averted.

The next aberration in seen for sample in platform_suspend_ops, oprofile_operations, security_operations and a number of others. These prefer an peculiar assortment of arguments with no glaring sample. although these are actually very different types of vtable structures in that the expostulate they belong to are singletons. There is just one lively platform, just one profiler, only one safety coverage. consequently the "object" on which these operations act is a component of the international state and so doesn't deserve to breathe protected in the arguments of any functions.

Having filtered these two patterns out as now not being very wonderful we're left with two that sequel serve to inform us anything about expostulate utilize in the kernel.

quota_format_ops and export_operations are two diverse operations constructions that duty on a lot of diverse statistics structures. In each case the obvious fundamental expostulate (e.g. a struct super_block or a struct dentry) already has a vtable constitution dedicated to it (equivalent to super_operations or dentry_operations) and these new structures add new operations. In each and every case the brand new operations benevolent a cohesive unit presenting a related set of functionality - no matter if aiding disk quotas or NFS export. They don't total act on the identical expostulate with ease since the performance in question is subject upon a variety of objects.

The top-quality term from the language of object-oriented programming for this is likely the "mixin". although the proper can likewise not breathe ultimate - reckoning on what your accurate figuring out of mixin is - the theory of bringing in a group of functionality devoid of the utilize of strict hierarchical inheritance is terribly near the purpose of quota_format_ops and export_operations.

once they comprehend to breathe searching for mixins enjoy these they are able to ascertain rather a couple of extra examples. The pattern to breathe alert for is not the one that led us privilege here - an operations structure that operates on plenty of distinctive objects - however reasonably the one they discovered the set the services in an "operations" structure operate on objects that stand already got their personal "operations" structure. When an expostulate has a huge number of operations which are central and these operations naturally community into subsets, it makes a lot of sense to divide them into divorce vtable-like structures. There are a few examples of this in the networking code the set for instance both tcp_congestion_ops and inet_connection_sock_af_ops operate (primarily) on a struct sock, which itself has already received a small set of committed operations.

So the pattern of a "mixin" - at the least as defined as a set of operations which celebrate to at least one or more objects with out being the fundamental operations for these objects - is a sample it's frequently create in the kernel and looks to breathe rather valuable in enabling improved modularization of code.

The remaining sample which explains non-uniform feature targets is likely the most interesting, in particular in its distinction to the evident utility of object-oriented programming style. Examples of this sample abound with ata_port_operations, tty_operations, nfs_rpc_ops and atmdev_ops total performing as helpful examples. although they will focus primarily on some examples from the filesystem layer, peculiarly super_operations and inode_operations.

there is a powerful hierarchy of objects in the implementation of a filesystem where the filesystem - represented by using a "super_block" - has a few data (struct inode) which might likewise stand a few names or links (struct dentry). further every file may hold statistics in the page cache (struct address_space) which comprises a couple of particular person pages (struct page). there is a course in which total of those distinct objects belong to the filesystem as a whole. If a page has to breathe loaded with information from a file, the filesystem is cognizant of the course to sequel that, and it's probably the equal mechanism for every web page in each file. the set it is rarely total the time the equal, the filesystem is cognizant of that too. So they could conceivably save every operation on every one of these objects in the struct super_block, as it represents the filesystem and could recognize what to sequel in each case.

In rehearse that extreme isn't a generous option. it is quite probably that while there are similarities between the storage of an everyday file and a listing, there are additionally significant alterations and being capable of encode those changes in divorce vtables may likewise breathe effective. from time to time small symbolic hyperlinks are stored directly within the inode while better hyperlinks are kept just enjoy the contents of a regular file. Having different readlink() operations for both instances can obtain the code much more readable.

while the fierce of every operation attached to the one significant constitution is not gold standard, it is equally proper that the contrary strict is not example either. The struct web page in Linux does not stand a vtable pointer at total - partially as a result of they are looking to hold the structure as small as workable since it is so populous. rather the address_space_operations structure includes the operations that act on a web page. in a similar course the super_operations structure consists of some operations that rehearse to inodes, and inode_operations carries some operations that apply to dentries.

it's evidently viable to stand operations constructions attached to a guardian of the goal expostulate - presenting the target holds a reference to the guardian, which it perpetually does - notwithstanding it is not fairly so clear that it is at total times really useful. within the case of struct web page which avoids having a vtable pointer altogether the profit is obvious. within the case of struct inode which has its own vtable pointer, the improvement of getting some operations (similar to destroy_inode() or write_inode()) attached to the super_block is less clear.

As there are a few vtable buildings where any given feature pointer can breathe kept, the precise alternative is in many circumstances minute more than historical accident. certainly the proliferation of struct dentry operations in inode_operations looks to breathe largely because of the incontrovertible fact that a few of them used to act at once on the inode, however adjustments in the VFS finally required this to alternate. as an sample in 2.1.seventy eight-pre1, each and every of link(), readlink(), followlink() (and a few others which at the minute are defunct) were changed from taking a struct inode to prefer a struct dentry instead. This set the scene for "dentry" operations to breathe in inode_operations, so when setattr and getattr had been introduced for two.3.48, it doubtless appeared completely herbal to encompass them in inode_operations however that they acted essentially on a dentry.

might breathe they might simplify issues through doing away with dentry_operations altogether. Some operations that act on dentries are already in inode_operations and super_operations - why not flux them total there? whereas dentries are not as populous as struct web page there are nonetheless lots of them and casting off the "d_op" realm might save 5% of the reminiscence used by means of that structure (on x86-64).

With two exceptions, each lively filesystem only has a lone dentry operations constitution in effect. Some filesystem implementations enjoy "vfat" define two - e.g. one with case-sensitive matching and one with case-insensitive matching - but there is only one energetic per tremendous-block. So it might look to breathe that the operations in dentry_operations could breathe moved to super_operations, or at the least accessed via "s_d_op". both exceptions are ceph and procfs. These filesystems utilize distinct d_revalidate() operations in diverse parts of the filesystem and - in the case of procfs - distinctive d_release() operations. The necessary distinctions may quite simply breathe made in per-superblock versions of those operations. sequel these cases justify the 5% house charge? Arguably no longer.

directly embedded characteristic pointers

finally it's acceptable to contemplate the alternate sample outlined at the beginning, where duty pointers are kept without slow within the expostulate in set of in a divorce vtable structure. This pattern may likewise breathe seen in struct request_queue which has nine characteristic pointers, struct efi which has ten feature pointers, and struct sock which has six characteristic pointers.

The can pervade of embedded pointers is absolutely house. When vtables are used, there is only one reproduction of the vtable and multiple copies of an expostulate (in most situations) so if more than one characteristic pointer is needed, a vtable would hold area. The can pervade of a vtable is a further recollection reference, though cache may cleave back much of this pervade in some situations. A vtable additionally has a value of flexibility. When each expostulate wants the exact selfsame set of operations a vtable is decent, but when there's a exigency to personally tailor one of the operations for each object, then embedded characteristic pointer can supply that flexibility. here is illustrated quite properly with the aid of the remark with "zoom_video" in struct pcmcia_socket

/* Zoom video behaviour is so chip certain its not value adding this to _ops */

So the set objects aren't very populous, the set the list of duty pointers is small, and the set dissimilar mixins are needed, embedded duty pointers are used instead of a divorce vtable.

formulation Dispatch abstract

If they coalesce total of the sample elements that we've create in Linux they ascertain that:

system pointers that duty on a particular type of expostulate are at total times accumulated in a vtable associated at once with that object, even though they could additionally seem:

  • In a mixin vtable that collects linked performance which could breathe selectable independently of the foundation type of the object.
  • within the vtable for a "dad or mum" expostulate when doing so avoids the exigency for a vtable pointer in a populous object
  • directly in the expostulate when there are few formulation pointers, or they deserve to breathe for my fragment tailored to the particular object.
  • These vtables infrequently accommodate the relaxation apart from feature pointers, although fields mandatory to register the particular type can breathe appropriate. allowing these feature pointers to breathe NULL is a common but not always choicest fashion for handling defaults.

    So in exploring the Linux Kernel code they stand discovered that notwithstanding it isn't written in an object-oriented language, it definitely carries objects, courses (represented as vtables), and even mixins. It additionally incorporates ideas no longer perpetually create in object-oriented languages comparable to delegating expostulate the privilege course to a "dad or mum" object.

    hopefully understanding these different patterns and the factors for making a altenative on between them can result in extra uniform application of the patterns throughout the kernel, and therefore obtain it simpler for a newcomer to prefer into account which sample is being followed. within the second a fragment of their examination of expostulate oriented patterns they are able to ascertain the a lot of ways in which data inheritance is done in the Linux kernel and focus on the strengths and weaknesses of every fashion with a purpose to survey where each is most acceptable.

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